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新冠病毒–病毒是如何分类的? – 译学馆
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新冠病毒–病毒是如何分类的?

How are Viruses Classified?

Today I’m going to talk about viruses –
今天我要讲的是“病毒”
what they are and how they can be classified into a family tree of sorts.
什么是病毒以及它们在系谱图上如何分类
Obviously, one particular virus has been on people’s minds a lot these days
显然 最近有一种特殊的病毒一直让大家非常担心
and several people asked me to do a video on this topic
一些人要我用我的生命进化分类表
using my Evolution & Classification of Life chart.
做一期关于这个主题的视频
So that’s what I’m going to do.
这就是我接下来要做的
If you’ve seen my previous video on this particular chart
如果你看过我之前关于这个图表的视频
which I’ll link to in the description
(图表链接在视频描述中)
or if you own a copy of the chart yourself,
或者你自己有一份这样的图表
you’ll notice that the virus section is located in the bottom right-hand corner.
你会发现病毒部分就在这张图表的右下角
and that’s where we’re going to start.
我们就从这里开始
Intro
片头
So the first thing you’ll notice is that everything on this chart
首先你会发现这张图上的所有东西
– from single celled bacteria to human beings
从单细胞细菌到人类
is located on one big tree.
都在一棵大树上
Everything that is, except virus.
所有东西 除了病毒
They get their own tree, down here to the side.
它们有自己的树 就在这边
That’s because, generally-speaking, they are considered to be non-living.
那是因为 它们一般被认为是“非生命体”
Hence they are not part of the “tree of life”.
因此它们不属于“生命之树”的一部分
Now there’s actually some debate about this
关于病毒是如何进化的
about how exactly viruses evolved
以及它们与这棵大树之间的关系
and how exactly they relate to this big tree over here.
现在确实存在一些争论
Some scientists think that viruses perhaps came first
一些科学家认为病毒可能最先出现
and that life maybe have evolved from viruses.
而生命体可能是从病毒演化而来
More recently, however, others scientists have come to think
然而最近有其他科学家开始认为
that perhaps life actually evolved first
也许实际上是生命最先进化
and that viruses are perhaps some sort of strange spin-off that occurred at a later point
而病毒可能是后来才出现的某种奇怪的衍生物
Either way, we do know that this little tree
不管怎样 我们知道这棵小树
actually does somehow connect to this big tree.
确实跟这棵大树有所关联
We just don’t know exactly how.
只是我们不知道具体的联系
So for now, it’s best to just think of viruses as being something separate
所以现在最好只将病毒当作单独的个体
because they do differ from everything else
因为它们确实在几个非常重要的方面
in several very important ways.
有别于其他生命体
The most important difference is that life can replicate by itself.
最重要的区别是生命可以自我繁殖
So, let’s take bacteria.
以细菌为例
Bacteria, like viruses, can make us sick.
像病毒一样 细菌能让我们生病
If you put a few bacteria in a petri dish,
如果你将一些细菌放进培养皿
they will actually – given the right circumstance – multiply and form a colony
在合适的条件下 它们会繁殖并形成菌落
that will continue to grow larger and larger.
而且这个菌落会越来越大
Viruses cannot do this.
病毒做不到这点
Simply put, a virus cannot replicate or multiply on its own.
简单来说 病毒不能独立增殖或复制
So if two little viruses are sitting by themselves on a counter,
所以如果将两个小病毒单独放在一个桌子上
you’re never going to get a third one.
你永远也得不到第三个病毒
The two initial ones are going to just sit there until they die.
最初的两个会一直呆在那里直到死去
Or until a living thing comes along and allows them to hitch a ride.
或者直到有生命体出现 让它们搭个便车
You see, for a virus to multiply,
你看 病毒要繁殖
they need to attach themselves to something living – like a human.
就需要依附在某种生命体上——比如人类
Once a virus gets inside a human (or some other creature),
一旦病毒进入人体(或其他生物)
it then IS able to replicate and multiple.
它就能够复制和增殖
And this is why they are just as dangerous as bacteria.
这就是为什么它们和细菌一样危险
So now lets look at how they are classified.
现在我们来看看病毒是如何分类的
Most scientists use a system called the Baltimore classification,
大多数科学家使用的是巴尔的摩分类法系统
named after an American scientist and Nobel Prize winner
以美国科学家 诺贝尔奖得主
named David Baltimore.
戴维·巴尔的摩的名字命名
That system divides viruses into seven different categories using Roman numerals.
该系统使用罗马数字将病毒分为七类
This chart only shows some of the main viruses that impact humans
这张图表只显示了一些影响人类的主要病毒
and therefore only 4 of the 7 categories are represented.
因此7类病毒只展示了4类
So viruses don’t have kingdoms, phyla or classes, like living things.
所以病毒没有生命体的界 门或类
They just have this simple numbers.
它们只有这些简单的数字
But then after those numbers, we do get orders, families, genera, and species.
但是在这些数字之后 我们细分了目 科 属和物种
Okay, let’s start with Type I viruses.
我们从I型病毒开始
Type I viruses are made from double stranded DNA,
和生命体一样 I型病毒是由
just like living things are.
双链DNA组成的
A good example of a virus with double stranded DNA is the smallpox virus.
双链DNA病毒的一个很好的例子就是天花病毒
Smallpox is the virus that killed more humans throughout history than any other,
天花是有史以来杀死人类最多的病毒
including the majority of indigenous Americans after European contact.
包括与欧洲人接触后的大多数美洲原住民
But you’ll be happy to know that it no longer exists.
不过值得高兴的是天花已经不复存在
Because of vaccination efforts, it was completely eradicated in 1979.
由于接种疫苗的推行 它在1979年被彻底根除
A less serious group of Type I viruses is the Herpes order of viruses.
一组不那么严重的I型病毒是疱疹病毒
Included are the types of Herpes that are transmitted sexually
包括通过性行为传播的疱疹
but also chickenpox,
以及水痘
a virus that used to be a very common childhood illness.
一种曾经是儿童常见病的病毒
Type 4 and 5 viruses are the ones that are made up of standard single-stranded RNA.
Ⅳ型和Ⅴ型病毒由标准单链RNA组成
So, to recap what you probably already learned in school,
所以用你可能已经在学校学过的知识概括
DNA is often called the “building blocks of life”.
DNA通常被称作“生命的建造材料”
It has this now famous double helix structure.
它有现在著名的双螺旋结构
RNA, on the other hand, usually consists of just a single strand of genetic material.
另一方面 RNA通常只由单链的遗传物质组成
Now there are actually some exceptions.
现在有了一些例外情况
Type II viruses are actually made up of single stranded DNA
II型病毒实际上由单链DNA构成
and Type III viruses are actually made up of double stranded RNA
而III型病毒实际是由双链RNA所构成
but that subject is way beyond the scope of this video.
但这个话题远远超出了本视频的范围
For our purposes, you can just remember
在本视频中 你只需要记住
that DNA has a double strand and RNA has a single strand.
DNA有一条双链RNA有一条单链
But those singe strands can be categorized as either positive or negative
但是这些单链可以分为阳性和阴性
and that’s the difference between Type IV and Type V.
这就是IV型和V型的区别
Type IV viruses are positive
IV型病毒是阳性
and Type V are negative.
而V型是阴性
Now, by positive and negative, I don’t mean good or bad.
这里说的阴性和阳性 并没有好坏之分
It just has to do with how the virus attaches itself,
只与病毒如何附着有关
kind of like the positive and negative ends of a battery.
有那么点像电池的正极和负极
So Type IV includes an order called Picornavirales.
IV型病毒包括一种小核糖核酸病毒的目
Included in this order is the most common virus to infect humans – the rhinovirus.
这一目中最常见的传染人的病毒是鼻病毒
It’s the virus that causes the common cold.
该病毒会引发普通感冒
“Rhino” actually comes from the Greek word for “nose”
“Rhino”这个词实际上源于希腊词“鼻子”
which is also how the rhinoceros got its name.
这也是鼻病毒得名的原因
But the main thing I want to point out here
但这里我想主要说明的一点是
is that colds are not caused by the influenza virus,
感冒不是由流感病毒引起的
which we’ll get to in a second.
这个我们马上就会讲到
A lot of people, use the terms Cold and flu interchangeably
很多人会把感冒和流感这两个词混用
but they are actually two different types of illnesses
但这它们实际上是由两种不同类型的病毒
caused by two different types of viruses.
引起的两种不同类型的疾病
Colds are generally less serious
感冒一般没那么严重
and are usually limited to a runny nose, sore throat, and cough.
通常仅限于流鼻涕 喉咙痛和咳嗽
Flus, on the other hand, often involve additional symptoms
另一方面 流感通常会伴随其它症状
such as a fever and muscle pain all over your body.
如发烧和全身肌肉疼痛
One virus that is closely related to the rhinovirus, but far more serious,
有一种病毒与鼻病毒关系密切 但更加危险
is the polio virus.
那就是脊髓灰质炎病毒
The polio virus was a big problem in the 1950’s
脊髓灰质炎病毒在20世纪50年代是个大问题
but has since been almost eradicated, again, due to vaccination.
但后来由于接种疫苗 它几乎被根除了
Okay, now we’ve come to the one everyone is talking about.
好了 现在我们来谈谈大家都在谈论的那个
The corona virus.
冠状病毒
The current corona virus, also called Covid-19,
当前的冠状病毒 也被称作Covid-19
belongs to Order Nidovirales
属于套式病毒目
and is closely related to the viruses that caused the earlier SARS and MERS outbreaks.
与导致之前SARS和MERS疫情爆发的病毒密切相关
From what we know so far,
就目前所知
the Covid-19 coronavirus is far more serious than the influenza virus.
Covid-19冠状病毒比流感病毒危险得多
It seems to spread more easily
它似乎更容易传播
and seems to have a death rate of at least 10 times that of the seasonal flu virus.
死亡率至少是季节性流感病毒的10倍
More and more we can do
在当前的疫情期间
during the current outbreak in a moment.
我们可以做的事情越来越多
So some other previous viral outbreaks that you have probably heard of
你们可能听说过以前的一些病毒疫情
include H1N1 and H5N1.
比如H1N1和H5N1
Both of these are subtypes of the same virus that causes the seasonal flu,
这两种病毒都是导致季节性流感的同一种病毒的亚型
a common Type 5 virus, or negative RNA virus
是一种常见的Ⅴ型病毒
In more recent years, H1N1 has been referred to as swine flu
近些年来 H1N1被称为猪流感
but H1N1 it is actually the same type of virus
但H1N1实际上和1918年
that caused the major Spanish Flu pandemic back in 1918.
导致西班牙流感大流行的病毒是同一株型
And this is probably a good time to point out the fact
也许这个时候来说一个事实正好
that some viruses can in fact pass between animals and humans.
这个事实就是 某些病毒实际上能够在动物和人类之间进行传播
So far, it seems that Covid-19 cannot be transmitted via your dog or cat
到目前为止 Covid-19似乎不能通过猫狗传播
so don’t worry about that
所以不要太过担心
but do understand that viruses are not something that effect humans only.
但要明白 病毒并不只影响人类
Other typeⅤviruses
其他Ⅴ型病毒
include Ebola, which was a concern a few years back,
包括几年前令人忧虑的埃博拉病毒
as well as Measles and Mumps,
以及麻疹和腮腺炎
two diseases that people now get vaccinated for
这两种疾病 人们现在都有了接种的疫苗
and are hence less of a concern than they once were.
因此不再像以前那样令人担忧
This leaves us with Type Ⅵ and Ⅶ viruses,
还剩下Ⅵ型和Ⅶ型病毒
both of which are called “retroviruses”.
它们都被称为“逆转录病毒”
I’ve only listed one example here, the HIV virus,
我在这里只列举了一个例子 HIV病毒
which is a type VI, and of course causes the disease known as AIDS.
它是Ⅵ型病毒 会引发艾滋病
Now, we often associate the word “retro”
现在 我们常把“retro”一词
with things that are old-fashioned.
与过时的东西联系在一起
But “retro” simply means “backwards”
但是“逆转录”仅指“向后”
and type VI viruses are called retroviruses
而VI型病毒被称作逆转录病毒
because they replicate in some sort of a backwards manner.
是因为它们以某种反向的方式复制
Retroviruses are also special
逆转录病毒也很特别
because they can actually insert themselves into the DNA of living things.
因为它们可以将自己插进生物的DNA中
And when that DNA gets copied and passed on to the next generation,
当DNA被复制并传递给下一代时
the retroviruses are passed on too.
逆转录病毒也会被传递
It is estimated that about 5% of every human’s DNA is actually retroviruses,
据估人类约有5%DNA 实际上是逆转录病毒
most of which were inserted into our DNA millions of years ago.
其中大部分是数百万年前植入我们的DNA中的
These viruses no longer make us sick
这些病毒不再让我们生病
but serve as a record of our species’ genetic past.
而是作为我们物种遗传过去的记录
Interestingly, this actually ends up being one of lines of evidence
有趣的是 这最终成为了
that can be used to support the theory of evolution.
用来支持进化论的证据之一
For example, if you compare the DNA of a human
举个例子 假如你将人类的DNA
with the DNA of a chimpanzee,
和黑猩猩的DNA进行比较
you will find the same retroviruses in the same locations,
会发现在同样的位置有相同的逆转录病毒
indicating that we share a common ancestor somewhere in the distant past.
这表明我们在遥远的过去有一个共同的祖先
Okay, before we wind up, let me point out
在视频结束之前 我想说的是
that if there are any infectious diseases that we haven’t covered yet,
如果有任何我们没有介绍到的传染病
it’s probably because they are bacteria, not viruses.
那可能是因为其病源是细菌 而不是病毒
So, for example, the “bug” that caused the Bubonic Plague, a.k.a. the Black Death,
例如 导致黑死病的“病毒”
was not a virus.
并不是一种病毒
It was a bacteria – a single celled living organism,
而是一种细菌——一种单细胞生物
as is Salmonella, E.Coli, Cholera,
比如 沙门氏菌 大肠杆菌 霍乱
and a bunch of other so-called “bad bacteria” that frequently cause human disease.
和其他大量经常引发人类疾病的所谓“有害菌”
And, in fact, it’s not just viruses
实际上 不光病毒和
and bacteria that cause human infections.
细菌会导致人类感染
Malaria, for example, is a eukaryote cell,
例如 疟疾这种真核细胞
much larger than a bacterial cell,
比细菌细胞大得多
and things like yeast infections and athlete’s foot
像酵母菌感染和脚气
are caused by members of the fungus kingdom.
就是由真菌界的成员引起的
But the thing that all of these infectious agents have in common,
但是所有这些传染媒介都有一个共同点
is that they can be passed from human to human.
它们都可以在人与人之间传播
And how they are classified on this chart
它们在这张图表上的分类
is no indication of how serious they are.
并不能说明它们的严重性
What we do know is that the current “bug” that we are worried about – Covid19
我们所知道的是 当前担心的Covid19病毒
is unfortunately, very serious.
很不幸 非常严重
Not serious, as in, if you get it, you’re definitely going to die
严重不是说你感染了就一定会死
but serious in that it spreads easily
而是说它很容易传播
and therefore even if the death rate is low,
因此即使死亡率很低
if we let it spread to millions of other humans,
如果我们让它传染给几百万人
well, you do the math.
嗯 你算一下
So, before I go, let me show you a few important charts.
结束之前 我要给你们看几张重要的图表
First of all, from Google, here’s Do the Five.
第一张图来自谷歌 做这五个动作
The one we’ve been hearing a lot about is Hands. Wash them often.
一就是我们经常听到的手 勤洗手
Soap, literally kills the virus.
肥皂确实能杀死病毒
So turn the tap on. Wet your hands thoroughly with warm water.
所以打开水龙头 用温水把手彻底弄湿
Then turn the tap off and soap them up good.
然后把水龙头关掉 好好打肥皂
But here’s the important thing that most people forget
但有一件重要的事是大多数人都忘记了的——
you have to get the whole hand.
你必须洗整个手
This chart from an old nursing article
这张来自一篇过去的护理文章的图表
shows the parts that tend to get missed.
显示了容易被忽视的部位
So make sure you concentrate on them too
所以在最后冲洗掉所有的肥皂之前
before you finally rinse all that soap off.
一定要注意洗到这些地方
We then have Elbow. Cough into it.
然后是肘部 咳嗽时用胳膊肘捂嘴
Coughing is the number one way the virus is spread.
咳嗽是病毒传播的第一途径
When you cough without covering,
当你在没有遮掩的情况下咳嗽时
you’re spewing particles into the air
会向空气中喷出一些颗粒
that then land on surfaces or can be breathed in by other people.
这些颗粒会落在物体表面或被其他人吸入
Face. Don’t touch it.
不要碰脸
We touch lots of stuff all the time even without noticing.
我们总是接触很多东西
Therefore, we could have the virus on our hands.
因此 我们手上可能就有病毒
So until you can wash them, keep them away from your face
所以在你洗手之前 不要拿手碰脸
because it’s through your ears, nose, and mouth,
因为病毒会通过你的耳朵 鼻子和嘴巴
that the virus is going to enter you.
进入你的身体
Space. Keep a safe distance.
空间 保持安全距离
Seriously, if you don’t need to go out and come into contact with others,
说真的 如果你不需要出去和别人接触
simply don’t.
那就别出去
Watch YouTube instead.
在家看YouTube
And finally, FEEL sick? Stay home.
最后 感觉不舒服? 呆在家里
Which brings me to this last chart by Toby Morris.
这让我想到了最后一张图 作者是托比•莫里斯
Basically, what you’re looking for is a fever and cough combined with difficulty breathing.
基本上 你要找的是发烧 咳嗽和呼吸困难
With the flu, it’s going to be a fever and cough
流感的症状是发烧和咳嗽
combined more with body aches and tiredness instead.
更多的是身体疼痛和疲劳
And the cold’s totally different.
而感冒完全不同
If you just have a runny nose and sore throat with no fever,
如果你只是流鼻涕和喉咙痛 没有发烧
it’s probably not Covid-19
那可能就不是Covid-19
Okay, stay safe everyone.
大家保重
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看

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译制信息
视频概述

病毒是什么?它有哪些分类?病毒和细菌的区别在哪?现在流行的新冠病毒属于哪种类型的病毒?面对疫情,我们应该做些什么?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tQNuThIjGqg

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