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英式英语和美式英语究竟有何不同 – 译学馆
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英式英语和美式英语究竟有何不同

How Are British English and American English Different?

大家好
Hello everyone.
欢迎来到《语言聚焦》频道
Welcome to the Langfocus channel
我叫保罗
and my name is Paul.
今天我们将回答
Today we’ll be answering the question
“英式英语和美式英语有何不同”
“How are British English and American English Different?”
这是英语学习者最常提到的问题之一
One of the most commonly asked questions by learners of English.
也希望英语母语者也会从这个视频里学到一二
And hopefully native speakers of English will learn a thing or two from this video as well.
事实上 英式英语和美式英语都有很多变体
The truth is that both British and American English have numerous varieties,
换言之 即各种口音或方言
in other words various accents and dialects,
因此本视频的主要部分
so for the main part of this video
都将尽量聚焦最标准的
I will try to focus on the most standard,
最不带地域性的版本
non-regional variety of each one.
声明:我不是美国人
Disclaimer: I’m not American,
而是加拿大人
I’m actually Canadian.
但我相信
But I’m confident
因为“被入侵” 我们早晚会成为美国人
that we will someday be Americans after the invasion.
标准加拿大英语已经非常接近通用美式英语
Standard Canadian English is very very close to General American English,
所以 美式英语就以我为例
so I will say the American examples myself,
除非有区分美国和加拿大发音的特别需要
unless there’s some specific need to distinguish between American and Canadian pronunciations.
你可以从很多方面区分英式英语和美式英语:
There are several ways in which Britain Englishand the American English are different:
词汇 发音 拼写 以及语法
vocabulary, accent, spelling, and grammar.
词汇
Vocabulary
让我举些例子
Let me just throw a bunch of examples at you.
在美国 人们通常称垃圾为“garbage ”或 “trash”
In the US, people generally say “garbash” or “trash”,
然而在英国 无论是字面和比喻意义 都常说 “rubbish”
while in the UK they generally say “rubbish” both literally and figuratively.
“这游戏真是垃圾(rubbish)!”
“The game was rubbish!”
美国人称度假为“go on vacation”
Americans go on vacation,
而英国人说“go on holiday” 这在美式英语中也可以
while Britishes go on holiday, and this is also possible in American English.
在美国 人们租公寓 用“apartments”
In the US people “rent apartments”,
然而在英国人们说租公寓 用“flats”
while in the UK they “rent flats”.
在美国 如果你的住处在地面那一层
In the US, if your apartment is at street level,
那么你住在“first floor”
then you live on the first floor,
住在你楼上的是“second floor”
and the person above you lives on the second floor.
在英国 你住在“ground floor”
In the UK, you live on the ground floor,
住在你楼上是“first floor”
and the person above you lives on the first floor.
如果住在你楼上的人不能或懒得爬楼梯
If that person above you is unable or just too lazy to take the stairs,
在美国 他们坐电梯 用“elevater”
in the US, they’d take the “elevator”.
而在英国 他们坐电梯 用“lift”
In the UK, they’d take the “lift”.
当你在家无聊之际
When you’re bored at home,
在美国你可能会打开“TV”
in the US you might turn on the TV,
而在英国你可能打开“telly”
while in the UK you would turn on the “telly”.
当你走出房子散步时
When you step outside of your building to go for a walk,
在美国 你可能走在人行道 用“sidewalk”
in the US you might walk on the sidewalk,
而在英国 你走在人行道 用“pavement”
while in the UK you walk on the pavement.
如果你走累了
And if you’re tired of walking,
在美国 乘地铁说“subway”
in the US you might take the subway.
在英国 乘地铁说“underground”
In the UK, you take the underground.
在美国 当你乘坐地铁时 穿裤子(pants)没问题
In the US, it’s perfectly ok to wear pants when you’re riding the subway,
但在英国 你最好还穿上长裤(trousers)
but in the UK you’d better wear some trousers too
因为裤子(pants)意味着内裤(underpants)
because “pants” means “underpants”.
特别是 在英国女士内裤有时指灯笼裤(knickers)
And specifically women’s underpants are sometimes refer to as knickers in the UK.
当有人对某事反应过大时
So when someone overreacts to something
在美国 你可以说“Don’t get your panties in a bunch!”
in the US you might say “Don’t get your panties in a bunch!”
在英国 你可能说“Don’t get your knickers in a twist!”
In the UK you’d say “Don’t get your knickers in a twist! “
保罗 你怎么能如此粗鲁
Paul how dare you be so crude.
我没法把这个视频给6岁的学生看了!
Now I can’t show this video to my 6-year old students!
不用担心
Don’t even worry about that,
他们会在下课时 用手机看的
those are just watching it on their phones during recess.
让我们再回到“pants”这个单词
Going back to the word “pants” for a moment,
在英式英语中 它作为形容词
it can also be used in British English as an adjective,
是“蹩脚的”或“糟糕的”意思
meaning something is “crappy” or “it sucks”.
举个例子 这个唱片糟糕透了(is pants)
For example “That album is pants”.
在美式英语中 你可能会说那个唱片很“sucks”
In American English, you might say “That album sucks”.
口音
Accent
对美式英语 我们将重点关注“通用美国英语”
So for the US, I’ll try to focus on General American English.
而英式英语 我将关注“标准发音”
For the UK, I’d like to focus on Received Pronunciation.
这些是你在CNN或者BBC节目中分别能听到的口音
These are the accents you’re likely to hear on CNN and the BBC, respectively.
“R”的发音
R-sounds
在美式英语中 辅音前的“r”全部发出来
American English is rhotic,
这就是说 “r”音总会被清晰的发出来
meaning that “r” sounds are always clearly pronounced.
英式英语是非“r”发音的
British English is non-rhotic,
意味着“r”一般不发音
meaning that the “r” sound is not pronounced
除非它后面有元音
unless it is followed by a vowel sound.
注意听区别
Listen to the difference.
美式英语“My father’s in the car”
US: “My father’s in the car”.
英式英语“My father’s in the car”
UK: “My father’s in the car.”
现在让我们关注两个词
Let’s focus on two words.
美式/ˋfɑðɚ/ 英式/’fɑːðə/
US: father, UK: father
美式/kɑr/ 英式/kɑː/
US: car, UK: car
注意在英式英语中 最后的“r”是不发音的
Notice that the final r sound is not pronounced in British English.
“father”以简单的中性元音ə结尾
“Father” ends in a simple schwa vowel /ˈfɑː.ðə/.
“car”中的元音延长 代替“r”的发音 /kɑː/
And in “car” the vowel sound is lengthened in place of the “r” sound /kɑː/.
但是我发现英式发音中有个很奇怪的现象
Now, the thing about British non-rhotic accent that I find pretty wild
叫做赘音“r”
is something called the intrusive “r”.
就是人们有时会在没“r”的单词中
That means that people sometimes add an r-sound
加一个“r”的发音
to a word that doesn’t actually have one,
如果它后面的单词以元音开头的话
if it’s followed by a vowel in the next word.
例如 句子“l saw a film”
For example, in the sentence “I saw a film”.
在英式英语中 这句话听起来像“l sawr a film”
In British English it sometimes sounds like this: “I saw’r a film”.
你可以听到 在“saw”和“a”之间加了“r”音连读
So you can hear that there’s an “r” sound connecting “saw” and “a”.
我曾教过一个英国的在职培训生
I once had British on-the-job trainer,
我记得她说
and I remember she said
“你好 我是宝拉(Paula-r)今天将担任你们的培训师”
“Hello my name is Paula-r and I’ll be your trainer today”.
我记得 当时我在想保罗“Pauler”?
I remember thinking Pauler?
什么!你都不会讲自己的名字?
What, you can’t say your own name?
但不只是她这样
But, it wasn’t just her.
那是赘音“r”造成的
That was the “intrusive r”.
“T”的发音
T-sounds
我必须再次强调
In British English and again,
在英式英语中 我在讨论的发音是指标准发音
I must emphasize that I’m talking about the accent referred to as Received Pronunciation,
“T”的发音听起来像生硬的t’s发音
T sounds are pronounced as hard t’s,
换句话说 无声的/t/音
in other words voiceless /t/ sounds.
在美国 他们有时听起来像/ɾ/(齿龈闪音)
In the US, they sometimes sound like /ɾ/(an alveolar tap)
而不是/t/(齿龈塞音)
instead of /t/ (an alveolar stop).
这经常发生在非重读音节的两个元音之间
This normally occurs in an unstressed syllable, between 2 vowel sounds,
或一个元音与一个“r”音之间(类似“r”的发音)
or between a vowel and a rhotic sound (like an “r” sound).
所以 在美国人们读/ˈbʌɾɚ/
In the US people say butter [ˈbʌɾɚ].
而在英国他们读/ˈbʌ.tə/
And in the UK, they say butter /ˈbʌ.tə/.
在美国 读/stɑp ˈfʌɪɾɪŋ/
In the US: Stop fighting! /stɑp ˈfʌɪɾɪŋ/.
在英国 读/stɒp ˈfʌɪtɪŋ/
In the UK: Stop fighting! /stɒp ˈfʌɪtɪŋ/.
你可能也注意到单词“stop”中“o”的发音有点区别
You may have also noticed the “o” sound in the word “stop” was a little different,
这让我想起“O”的发音
which brings me to O sounds
在单词“stop”中 美语“o”听起来是非圆唇的元音/ɑ/
In the word “stop”, the American “o” sound is an unrounded vowel /ɑ/,
在英式英语中 “o”发圆唇/ɒ/音
while the British “o” sound is rounded /ɒ/.
另一个例子:/hɑt/和/hɒt/
Another example: /hɑt/ /hɒt/.
同样还有类似单词“know”中双元音“o”
There is also the “o” diphthong in the word “know”.
英式英语读/nəʊ/
In the UK: /nəʊ/.
就是中性元音接上/ʊ/(和“put”中“u”发音一样)
In the UK the sound is a schwa followed by /ʊ/ as in “put”.
美式:/ʃoʊ/英式:/ʃəʊ/
US: show /ʃoʊ/ UK: /ʃəʊ/
“A”的发音
A-sounds.
也就是字母“a”代表的发音
In other words, sounds represented by the letter “a”.
英式英语读音/ɑː/ 在美语中通常读做/æ/的音
/ɑː/ in UK English normally becomes an /æ/ sound in American English.
例如 在英国读/hɑːf/
For example, in the UK: half /hɑːf/.
在美国则读做/hæf/
And in the US: half /hæf/.
有/æ/音的词则在英式和美式英语中发音相似
Words with a /æ/ in British English remain pretty similar in American English.
比如英式读/kæt/
in the UK: cat /kæt/.
美式发音也读/kæt/
And in the US: /kæt/.
只有当“a”后面紧跟着“rr”的一小组单词例外
An exception is a small set of words in which the “a” is followed by “rr”,
这时候美国人将这个元音读作/e/
in which case the vowel is pronounced as /e/ in the US.
在英国读/ˈmæɹɪ/ 在美国则读/ˈmɛɹi/
In the UK: marry /ˈmæɹɪ/. In the US:marry /ˈmɛɹi/.
因为这个差异 在美国“marry”和“merry”发音相同
Because of the difference, in the US “marry” and “Merry” sound the same.
“carry”和“kerry”听起来像同一个单词
“Carry” and “Kerry” sound the same.
拼写
Spelling
美式和英式英语的拼写大致一样
American and British spellings are largely the same,
但也有不同可察
but there are a few notable differences.
这大部分因为诺亚·韦伯斯特
This is in large part because Noah Webster
(韦氏字典就是以他命名的)
whom the Webster dictionary is named after
在18世纪对英语拼写做了改革
made an effort to reform English spelling in the 1700s,
使得单词拼写更贴近发音
in order to make the words spelled the way they sounded.
这导致了美式英语中一些拼写的变化
This resulted in some spelling changes in American English.
英式英语多以“re”作为单词的结尾
Most but not all words that end in ~re in the UK
而美式英语多以“er”结尾
end in ~er in the US.
例如 centre/ center theatre/ theater metre/ meter sombre/ somber
For example: centre/center, theatre/theater,metre/meter, sombre/somber.
一些在英式英语中以“nce”结尾的单词
Some words that end in ~nce in the UK
通常在美式中以“nse”结尾
are spelled with ~nse in the US.
如:licence/ license defence/ defense offence/ offense
licence/license, defence/defense, offence/offense.
一些在英式英语中带有“ou”的单词 在美国拼写为“o”
Some words with “ou” in the UK are spelled with “o” in the US.
比如colour/ color favour /favor honour/ honor labour/ labor等
Colour/color, favour/favor, honour/honor, labour/labor, etc.
英式英语中以“ise”结尾的单词在美式中通常变为“ize”
The ending ~ise became ~ize in the US.
如organise/ organize apologise/ apologize
organise/organize, apologise/apologize.
有些“s”发/z/的音的单词也会有类似变化
A similar change also occurs in other contexts where the “s” is voiced in other words it makes a /z/ sound.
如analyse/ analyze cosy/ cozy
analyse/analyze, cosy/cozy.
有些以“l”结尾的动词
There are verbs ending with “l”
在英式英语加后缀时 通常双写“l”
that take a doubled “l” in British English when a suffix is added.
在美式英语中则从不双写“l”
In American English there is no double “l”.
如travelled/ traveled cancelled/ canceled marvellous/ marvelous
travelled/traveled, cancelled/canceled, marvellous/marvelous.
你会奇怪最后一个词是怎么混进来的
If you’re wondering how the last one fits in with the others,
请注意“marvel”是个动词
remember that “marvel” is a verb,
它只是加上了一个形容词后缀
and then an adjectival suffix is added to it.
语法
Grammar
英式英语和美式英语只有细微的语法差别
There are only very minor grammaric differences between British English and American English.
助动词
Auxiliary verbs.
英式英语比美语更多使用“shall”表示将来
British people use “shall” for the future much more than Americans,
以及建议或者观点
as well as to ask for advice or an opinion.
介词使用的不同
Some difference in preposition is:
在美国 人们说“在周末”用介词“on”
In the US, people say “on the weekend”,
但在英国 他们用介词“at”
but in the UK they say “at the weekend”.
在美国 人们表达“不同于”用介词“from”或者“than”
And in the US, people say “different from” or “different than”,
但在英国 他们用“from”或者“to”
but in the UK they say “different from” or “different to”.
有些单词的过去式也不一样
There are some different past tense forms.
例如 在美语中“learn”的过去式是“learned”
For example, in American English the past tense of the world “learn” is “learned”,
但在英国 更多情况下用“learnt”
while in British English it’s more common to say “learnt”.
实际两种形式在两个国家都通用
Actually both forms are used in either country,
只是对某个用法更加习惯
but there is more of tendency towards one form.
这也适用于其他单词
This is true for other words
如dreamed/ dreamt burned/ burnt leaned/ leant等
like dreamed vs. dreamt, burned vs. burnt, leaned vs. leant, and etc.
另一个例子 在美国“dive”的过去式通常写作“dove”
Another example, in the US, the past tense of dive is usually “dove”.
在英国 则是“dived”
In the UK it’s “dived”.
可能美式拼法的来历类似于“drive”与“drove”
Maybe the American form developed by analogywith “drive” and “drove”.
总之 这只是其中一部分差异
Anyways, differences like these are not consistent,
你还会注意到其他类型不同拼法的过去式
but you’ll notice some different past tense forms here and there.
过去分词
Past participles:
有时候过去分词的形式也不同
Sometimes past participles have a different form.
最让人熟知的例子是动词“get”
The most well-known example is for the verb “get”.
在美国 它的变化是get/ got/ gotten
In the US, there’s get/ got/ gotten.
但在英国 它则变化为get/ got/ got
But in the UK, it’s get /got /got/.
这两种形式在中世纪英语时期就已经存在
Both forms got and gotten have existed since the MiddleEnglish period,
但“gotten”在英国已经不使用了
but “gotten” has fallen out of use in the UK.
在美式英语中 “got”也可以用于“have got”
“Got” can be used in American English in the form “have got”,
但意思是“have” 不是“已得到”或“已成为”
but with the meaning of “have”, not “have received/ have become”.
美语:我还没有接到(gotten)强制迁出的通知
US: I haven’t gotten the eviction notice yet.
英式英语:用got代替gotten
UK: I haven’t got the eviction notice yet.
下面我们再来看几个句子
All right, let’s check a couple of more sentences.
看看我们能发现什么
and see what we encounter
在美国 用“l think we need a lawyer”来表示我们需要一个律师
In the US: I think we need a lawyer.
在英国 这句话写做“I reckon we need a solicitor”
In the UK: I reckon we need a solicitor.
你可能注意到有几个单词不一样
You’ll notice that a couple of words are different.
英国人常用“reckon””表示“think”或者“suppose”的意思
British people often use the word “reckon” which means “think” or “suppose”.
美国人虽然知道这个单词 但很少用它
Americans know this word, but rarely use it.
美国人通常把专业的法律顾问称为“lawyer”
And while Americans would typically refer to a professional legal consultant as a lawyer,
而在英国 这类律师叫做“solicitor”
in the UK they often say “solicitor” which is a type of lawyer that does consultation.
在英国 代表你出庭的律师通常叫“barrister”
The type of lawyer who represents you in court in the UK is usually a barrister,
而在美国 他们则被称为“attorneys”
while in the US they are usually referred to as attorneys.
其他的句子:在美国 我准备和朋友去喝啤酒(beer)
Another sentence. In the US: I’m going for a beer with my friends.
在英国则用“pint”表示
In the UK: I’m going for a pint with my mates.
可以注意到 英国人常用“pint”表示啤酒 而美国人则说“beer”
Notice that British people often say “pint”where Americans would say “beer”.
英国人也用“beer”作为可数名词 但“pint”更为常用
British also say beer as a countable noun like this, but pint is frequently used.
注意 英国人常用“mate”代表朋友
And notice that Britishes often say “mate”
而美国人习惯用“friend”
where Americans would say “friend”.
英式英语与美语之间的不同 可能让人惊奇或感到有趣
The differences between British English and American English might seem surprising or amusing,
但记住 在这个视频里 我放大并强调了它们的差异
but remember: in this video I’m zooming in on the differences and focusing on them.
在大多数情况下 他们实际上相同
For the most part they are actually the same.
他们只是在词汇 发音 语法和拼写上 有细微的差异
There are some minor differences in vocabulary, in pronunciation, in grammar, and in spelling,
任何以英语为母语的人 只要稍微熟悉下彼此
but any native speaker with a little bit of exposure to the other
就能快速适应这种差异
will quickly adapt to these differences
并能毫无障碍地理解其他变体
and be able to understand the other variety without any problem.
但有些差别可能就大了
The differences are sometimes greater
比如在英式和美式英语中的方言这一块
if we focus on regional dialects and sociolects of British English and American English.
当然 大多数美国人对英国标准发音的理解是毫无障碍的
While most Americans probably have no troubleunderstanding Received Pronunciation,
但遇到伦敦腔时可能会有些麻烦
they may have some trouble understanding Cockney English,
当然还有英国东北部的乔治口音 或其他口音
or the Georgie accent of Northeastern England, or other varieties.
但只要是标准的 非区域性的演讲
But as far as standard, non-regional speech goes,
这些差别几乎可以忽略不计
I’d say that the differences are minimal.
然而 专注于其中一两种变体的英语学习者
However learners of English who focus on one of the two varieties
很可能对理解另一种变体 产生困惑
will likely have a little bit of trouble understanding the other
除非大量的接触它们
until they gain significant exposure to it.
当日问题
The Question of The Day
你还注意到美语和英式英语有什么其他差异吗?
What other differences between American and British English are you aware of?
在这个视频里 我只能展示有限的例子
In this video I was only able to give a limited number of examples,
所以请把你意识到的差别写在评论区吧
so add yours in the comments!
记得在脸书 推特和ins上关注《语言聚焦》频道
Be sure to follow Langfocus on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.
再次感谢所有Patreon的支持者们
And once again, thank you to all of my wonderful Patreon supporters.
屏幕上的这些是patreon平台的最大支持者们
And these ones right here on the screen are my top tier Patreon supporters,
对他们表示特别感谢
so many extra special thanks to them.
各位观众 感谢欣赏 祝好心情
And to everyone out there, thank you for watching and have a nice day.
谢谢观赏 祝好心情
Thank you for watching and have a nice day.

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视频概述

单词为什么有不同发音?为什么有英式美式不同的拼写习惯?为什么相同的意思英美表达会产生差异?一起来看看外国人是怎么理解这些不同的吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

CT

审核员

审核员_GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdJQdt3xkFQ

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