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铝是怎么回收的

How Are Aluminium Cans Recycled? | How Do They Do It?

《探索解码》 铝的回收
是如何实现的?
Novelis is the world’s largest recycler of used beverage cans.
诺贝丽斯是世界上最大的旧饮料罐回收商
They arrive at its factory in Warrington, England
旧饮料罐从世界各地
from all over the world.
被运到它位于英国沃灵顿的工厂
Compressed into bales,
它们被压缩成一捆一捆的
each weighing up to 1,000 kilograms and containing as many as
每捆重达1000千克
65,000 aluminium cans.
并内含多达65000只铝罐
Every year we save enough energy recycling aluminium cans, cars,
每年我们通过回收利用铝罐 工具 汽车
tools, even planes,
甚至飞机
to run the whole of India.
省下的能源足以让整个印度地区运转
The bales of compressed cans are loaded
这些捆起来的压缩罐被放在
onto a conveyor and fed into a 340 horsepower shredder.
传送带上 然后送进340马力的粉碎机
Aluminium is tricky to sort because unlike some metals,
铝处理起来很费事 因为不像其他金属
it can’t be separated out with a magnet.
铝不能用磁铁分离
So next, the shredded scrap passes through an optical sorter
所以接下来 废料碎片会以每秒3米的速度
at a rate of three meters per second.
通过光学分选机
The machine uses infrared sensors to sort out what’s metal and what isn’t.
这台机器用红外传感器来区分哪些是金属
Then blasts away any plastic or glass with jets of air.
再用气流吹走里面的塑料或玻璃
A powerful magnet sucks up any scraps of steel, leaving just aluminium.
然后用一个强力磁铁吸走所有的钢铁碎片 只留下铝
We Brits say aluminium.
我们英国人把铝拼成aluminium [ˌæljəˈmɪniəm]
And the Americans say aluminum.
而美国人把铝拼成aluminum [əˈlumənəm]
But who’s right? Well,
究竟孰是孰非呢?
Sir Humphrey Davey,
Humphrey Davey先生
the British guy who discovered it in 1807, he wrote down the
这个在1807年发现了铝元素的英国人 他把铝元素写成alumium
name as alumium, which no one calls it.
没人这样称呼过
Then he changed it to aluminum, and he changed it again to aluminium. So,
之后他改成了aluminum 后又再次修改成aluminium
either he didn’t know what to
所以他要么不知道该如何称呼铝
call it or he just couldn’t spell.
要么只是不知道该如何拼写
It’s aluminium.
它就是aluminium
Aluminum.
不 是aluminum
The next problem is, aluminium doesn’t melt until 660 degrees.
还有一个问题 铝要到660度才会熔化
The paint and laquer aren’t so lucky.
涂料和漆就没那么幸运了
They’re instantly vaporised.
它们会立刻蒸发
The clean aluminium chips are ready for the next stage, melting.
干净的铝片准备进入下一阶段 熔化
Two furnaces hit a blistering 730 degrees.
两个熔炉击起730度的水泡
And handle up to 100 tons of aluminium each.
每个熔炉处理100吨铝
The trouble is, when the aluminium melts,
麻烦的是 当铝熔解了
it reacts with air forming a layer of aluminium
它与空气反应形成一层氧化铝
oxide that floats on top.
浮在表面
This unwanted oxide is known as dross.
这种多余的氧化物被称为熔渣
A brave furnace operator skims it off with a giant, steel spatula.
勇敢的熔炉操作员用一个大钢铲把它刮下来
And the alloy is ready for the casting area.
现在合金已经可以用于铸造区域了
The only problem is getting there.
只有一个问题摆在这儿
A river of molten metal flows downhill to
熔化的金属像河流一样往下流到
a holding furnace that’s the size of a double decker bus.
一座双层巴士大小的保温炉里
Somehow, they need to pour the liquid metal into a mold. Remarkably,
他们需要设法把液态金属倒进模子里
the solution is to tip the entire furnace.
值得注意的是 解决办法是让整个炉体倾斜
And a fountain of deadly metal pours into one
这些致命的金属接着被喷入
of three molds set ten meters into the ground.
在地下十米深的三个模具之一
Inside, they will be cast into three towering blocks of aluminium.
它们将被铸造成三块极大的铝块
After two and a half hours they have three giant aluminium monoliths,
两个半小时之后 三块巨大的铝块就铸成了
called ingots.
它们被称为锭
Each one is ten meters long,
每个都有十米长
weighs 27 tons and is made up of 1.5 million recycled cans. Aluminium,
重27吨 由150万个回收罐制成
or aluminum, is not expensive because it’s rare.
铝并不是因为它稀有而贵
In fact, it’s the most common metal in the Earth’s crust.
事实上 它是地壳中最常见的金属
It’s expensive because it’s so hard to extract from the rock around it.
它贵是因为它很难从它周围的岩石中被提取出来
150 years ago, it was more expensive than gold. Today,
150年前 它比黄金还要昂贵
demand for aluminium is so high the ingots don’t lie around.
今天 人们对铝的需求很高 所以锭并不无所事事
Their transformation back into cans starts
它们要被加工回易拉罐
with a 900 kilometre journey to a rolling mill in Germany.
需要经过900公里 被运到一家德国的轧钢厂
Here, they’re heated in another furnace to 525 degrees.
在这里 它们在炉子中被加热到525度
This relaxes the bonds between the aluminium atoms,
这使铝原子之间的键变弱
releasing any stresses within the ingot.
释放锭内的压力
Then it’s passed back and forth through a series of rollers.
然后 它在一连串的滚轮上被来回压
It’s a bit like rolling pastry.
这有一点像卷蛋糕
Each set of rollers thins out the metal
每组滚筒都会把铝压得更薄
until it’s a quarter of a millimeter thick
直到它变成四分之一毫米厚
and 10,000 meters long.
和一万米长
That’s 1,000 times its original length.
即它原来长度的1000倍
Massive reels of the aluminium arrive back in the UK
巨大的铝卷筒被运回英国的
at Ball Packaging to undergo reconversion
鲍尔包装公司 被重新制成易拉罐
into cans and possibly something a little more out of this world.
和一些世界上更奇妙的东西
We’ve got three basic product categories, beverage packaging, household metal packaging,
我们有三个基本的产品类别 饮料包装 家用金属包装
and we also have an aerospace division. So,
还有航天分部
the interesting thing of course is manufacturing beverage cans is rocket science.
有趣的是 制造饮料罐是一种火箭科学
The aluminium alloys for rockets are very similar to the ones used for cans.
火箭用的铝合金与罐用铝合金非常相似
So theoretically, your old can could be on its way to space. Meanwhile,
所以从理论上讲 你的旧易拉罐可能正在前往太空
on planet Earth,
与此同时 在地球上
they feed the sheets of aluminium into a rapid fire cupping press.
他们把铝片装入一个快速连续冲拔机
This heavyweight knocks out thousands of shallow cups.
这个重量级选手击倒了数以千计的浅杯
The secret of turning them into cans is a tight squeeze.
把它们转换成罐头的秘诀就是紧密地挤压
Every cup is rammed through a series of rings,
每个杯子都被捅入一系列的环
each narrower than the last.
每个环比上一个更窄
Forcing the aluminium through the rings squeezes it
迫使铝穿过圆环 将其挤压成一个圆筒
into a cylinder and a new can is born.
一个新的饮料罐就此诞生
The very first time anyone put a beverage in an aluminum can
第一次被注入铝罐的饮料是啤酒
it was beer, it was in the US, and it was 1959.
在1959年的美国
And even back then, they still recycled,
即使在那个时代 他们也回收易拉罐
you got a cent for every can you brought back.
你每带回一个饮料罐 就会得到一分钱
They produce around 6 and a half million cans here every day,
他们每天在这儿生产大约650万个罐子
and send them all over the world.
把他们送往世界各地
That’s a whole lot of aluminium.
那要用到大量的铝
Luckily, there’s plenty more where these came from.
幸运的是 铝的供应很充足

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视频概述

视频介绍了废弃的铝制品的回收和重铸过程

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Csy

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmMP67eC2tg

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