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麻醉剂是怎么影响人的大脑和身体的 – 译学馆
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麻醉剂是怎么影响人的大脑和身体的

How Anesthesia Affects Your Brain And Body

如果我在你入睡的时候掐你
When you go to sleep, if I pinched you,
你会惊醒
you’d be up.
如果我晃你 你也会醒来 对吗?
If I shook you, you’d be up, right?
但如果你是在麻醉状态下 我掐你
But under anesthesia I’m gonna pinch you
甚至是给你做完了一整场手术你都不会醒来
and do a full operation and you’re not up.
所以意识丧失的影响是真的大啊 解说:
So it’s really further on thespectrum of unconsciousness.
解说:当你从全身麻醉中醒来
Narrator: When you wake up after being put
你几乎感觉不到
under with general anesthesia you barely feel
时间已经过去
like any time has passed.
你可能沉睡了一个小时或者一天
You could have been outfor an hour or a day
但你完全意识不到时间流逝了
and you wouldn’t know the difference.
平常你睡觉的时候 如果有人叫你
When you go to a naturalsleep, people call your name,
或者你的闹钟响了 你就会醒来 对吗?
your alarm goes off, you wake up, right?
但这种情况在你全身麻醉时不会发生
This is not what is gonna happenduring general anesthesia.
你会人事不知
You’re gonna be unconscious.
解说:这种状态与其说沉睡
Narrator: You’re closer to being
不如说是昏迷了
in a coma than being asleep.
麻醉于1846年首次应用于手术
Anesthesia was first usedduring surgery in 1846.
那个时候麻醉使用的药物是乙醚
The drug provided at that time was ether.
现在的麻醉师主要使用
Now anesthesiologists morecommonly use a combination
异丙酚 芬太尼之类的化合物进行麻醉
of drugs like propofol and fentanyl
这些药物会阻断神经通路 使你在手术过程中感觉
which interrupt neuralpathways so you don’t feel pain
不到疼痛 也不会留下手术的记忆
and you don’t remember the surgery.
方:全身麻醉需要三个条件:
Fong: Three things that youneed for general anesthetic
记忆缺失 这样就患者不会记住手术过程
are you need amnesia sothat they don’t remember,
痛觉缺失 这样可以缓解他们的疼痛
analgesia so they have pain relief
然后是外科医生所需的工作条件
and then operatingconditions for the surgeon.
在某些外科手术中 你需要让患者非常放松
Some surgeries you need thepatient to be very relaxed
这时你就要用到肌肉松弛剂
so you would use a muscle relaxant.
另外的一些手术只需患者入睡即可
Other surgeries the patientjust needs to be asleep
需要麻醉但是不需要完全放松
and anesthetized but theydon’t need relaxation
至于如何做出哪种手术 就取决于
so how they do thatvaries upon the different
你在使用的药物
medications that you’re using.
一些药物对兴奋神经有抑制作用
Some will depress excitatory neurons
一些会对抑制神经有增强作用
and some will enhance inhibitory neurons. Narrator:
比如说 兴奋性神经元
Excitatory neurons, for example,
被激活后就会将信号传送到其他神经元产生兴奋
get excited and send signalsto other neurons to fire.
抑制它们意味着更少的信号来告诉大脑你很疼
Depressing them means less signals telling your brain you’re in pain.
而对于抑制性神经元来说则正好相反
Inhibitory neurons do the opposite.
它们会使神经细胞更难产生
They make it harderfor neurons to generate
这些电信号
these electrical signals.
在任意一个情形中 这意味着总体上更少的活跃神经细胞
In either case this meansfewer active neurons overall
这很重要 因为当你的躯体被刺或者戳
which is important becausewhen your body is being
神经细胞将产生典型性兴奋
poked and prodded, neuronswould typically fire
以告诉大脑你在疼痛之中
to tell your brain you’re in pain.
如果这些神经细胞没有产生兴奋 大脑无法获知
If those neurons aren’tfiring, your brain doesn’t
你的躯体被剖开的事实
know that your body is,well, being cut open.
就是它阻断了
Basically it interrupts the pathways
神经网络间的通路及联系
and the communicationbetween your neural networks.
我们通过监控他们的生命体征
We’re aiming for them to be not in pain
心率 血压等 来确保他们
by looking at their vitalsigns, their heart rate,
是无意识状态的
their blood pressure.
这样他们就不会感到疼痛
Then we want to make surethat they’re unconscious. Narrator:
没有麻醉的话 许多大型手术
Without anesthesiamany important surgeries
都无法完成 因为其手术过程中会造成大的创口
wouldn’t be possible becausethey’d be way too traumatic.
如果麻醉技术不得到突破的话
Surgery didn’t move forward, really,
外科手术技术也是不会得到提升的
until anesthesia moved forward.
你知道 在那些老电影里面
You know, you watch those old movies.
他们会让你喝大量的酒
They give you a swig of alcohol,
给你戴上止血带 然后把你的腿砍下来
they put a tourniquet and they hack your leg off.
请不要这样做 好吗?
People don’t do well with that, right?
如果你心脏不好 这样做会要了你的命的
If you had a bad heart, that would be the end of that.
解说:手术完成后
Narrator: After the procedure is complete
医生停止供药
the doctors stop administering the meds
药的主要影响会渐渐消失
and the most powerfuleffects of the drugs wear off
但你即使恢复意识了 你可能还是会
but even though you’re conscious again you might continue to experience
受到一些药的副作用
some of the drugs side effects.
这是我的下唇
This is my bottom lip.
画外音:那是你的下巴
Off-camera: This is your chin.
感觉像蹦床
It feels like a trampoline.
画外音:像蹦床吗?
Off-camera: It feels like a trampoline?
嗯嗯
Uh huh.

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麻醉怎么影响人的大脑和身体

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