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怎么(以及为什么)找寻你生命的意义

How (and Why) to Find Your Life's Purpose

Here’s a question I’m sure you’ve never thought about before:
我敢肯定你从未想过下面这个问题
What is the meaning of life?
生命的意义是什么?
And even more specifically, what is the meaning of your life?
更具体一点 你生命的意义是什么?
That might sound like an empty platitude — the stuff
这开头听起来可能有点老生常谈
of fortune cookies and bad self-help books.
像极了不靠谱的占卜饼和鸡汤文集
But research has found that having a purpose is incredibly important
但研究人员发现 找到目的
for almost every aspect of someone’s life.
对生活的方方面面都颇为重要
So if you feel like you know what your purpose is, awesome.
因此 已经找到了是最好的
And if not, well, not all hope is lost:
如果还没有 也不要灰心
Researchers have also figured out ways to find one.
研究人员已经找到了方法帮你
Welcome to SciShow Psych.
欢迎收看本期心理科学秀
We’re going deep today. First, a disclaimer:
这次讲点干货 不过先声明一下
There are a lot of ways to think about purpose,
对于“目的”没有统一的定义
and many of them are rooted in religious or philosophical beliefs.
多数定义都源于宗教或哲学信仰
If you have questions about that kind of stuff,
如果对于这些定义有疑问
this episode can’t answer them for you.
本期视频并无法为你解答
What we can tell you, though, is how psychologists think about purpose.
我们能做的 是告诉你心理学家的观点
When they use that word,
他们说“目的”
they’re referring to the feeling that your life has meaning
其实是指那种没有虚度的感觉
and direction and that you’re living up to your potential —
充分利用自己的潜力
or at least, you feel that it’s possible to reach your potential.
或至少心中相信可以发挥出自己的潜能
They study this in a few ways, but the one we’re going to focus on is
他们的研究角度很多 但我们主要关注
the eudaimonic view, since that’s probably what most people think of
完善论的观点 毕竟在谈到目的时
when they consider purpose.
多数人可能都是这种想法
This is actually an idea from philosophy,
这种观点其实源于哲学
and it says that true well-being
其认为真正的幸福
is found not when you’re only seeking out pleasure,
不只在于追寻快乐本身
but when you’re doing what’s worth doing.
也在于做有意义的事
You can probably relate to this
如果你曾攻读学位或者抚养孩子
if you’ve ever finished a degree or raised a child.
你可以回想一下这些经历
Those things aren’t always pleasant —
他们的过程不会一帆风顺
and they’re sometimes downright stressful —
有时会带来非常大的压力
but there’s a deep satisfaction in knowing that your efforts are
但你仍会深感满足 因为知道付出的一切
going toward something greater than the task at hand.
会带来比手头事情更崇高成就
And pursuing those things isn’t just
而且 追求这些事情
a motivator to get you up in the morning.
并不仅在于每天早上激励你起床
Studies have found that eudaimonic well-being is linked
研究发现完善论的幸福感
to good mental and physical health, too.
同时可以改善你的身心健康
Several studies have found that elderly people with the strongest
多个研究发现 目标感越强的老人
feelings of purpose in life had the lowest risk of death.
死亡的风险越低
That is, people who felt their life had purpose were less likely
也就是说 感觉自己生命有目标的人
to die during the study period from any cause.
在研究期间死亡的几率更低
People with a greater sense of purpose have also been shown to get better sleep,
另外 目标感越强的人睡眠会更好
have lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol in their saliva,
唾液中压力激素皮质醇的含量也会更低
and have more HDL, or so-called “good” cholesterol.
高密度脂蛋白即好的胆固醇也会更多
A 2013 study of more than 1500 people
2013年 一项超过1500名冠心病患者
with coronary heart disease
参与的研究表明
even found that those with a greater purpose
拥有更远大的目的的人
in life were less likely
在两年的实验期内
to have a heart attack during the two-year study period.
冠心病更不易发作
That being said, scientists aren’t totally clear
然而 研究者们仍不确定
on which direction this goes.
它们的因果顺序
In other words, it’s not clear
也就是说
if meaning in life gives you good health,
是找到了意义让你更健康
or if good health makes you feel like life has meaning. Alternatively,
还是身体健康让你找到了生命的意义
the relationship between these things could just be correlational
它们之间的关系也可能是相互影响
— meaning that one doesn’t cause the other. Still,
也就是二者并非因果关系
it does seem like when you feel your life has worth,
可能是在感觉到自己生命的价值后
you might be more likely to take care of yourself.
就更愿意照顾自己了
And even when your health isn’t so great,
另外 即便健康状况并不好
meaning does appear to be useful.
意义本身仍很有价值
For example, a 2015 study from the Journal of Clinical Oncology
比如2015年发在临床肿瘤学杂志上的研究
examined group therapy for more than 250 cancer patients.
在调查了250多名接受过集体心理治疗的
It found a greater boost
癌症患者后发现
in well-being when that therapy focused on
相比直接提供情感帮助的治疗
developing a sense of meaning than when it simply offered emotional support.
培养意义感会更显著地提升患者的幸福感
Purpose also has other benefits, though.
当然有目标也会带来其他好处
Take a study published in 2014, where researchers had
以2014年发表的一项研究为例
338 ninth-graders complete
研究者让338名9年级学生
a roughly 30-minute computer lesson.
上了30分钟的线上课
For the control group, that lesson was about how high school
对照组学生的课讲的是
and middle school are different.
高中与初中的区别
But for the experimental group, the lesson helped them reflect
而实验组学生的课则在帮助他们
on their purpose and meaning in education. Like,
审视接受教育的目的和意义
one question introduced the idea
并通过问题引出了观点
that many students want to do well in school
即 许多学生想通过学好知识
so they can make the world a better place. Then,
来让世界变得更好
the prompt asked students to explain their own academic motivation.
接着鼓励学生去解释自己做学术的动机
Over the next few months, the students in that group significantly
几个月后 实验组的学生在数学和科学
boosted their GPAs in math and science
这两门一般认为比较枯燥的
— two typically tedious subjects. So,
课上的成绩显著提高
all that to say, purpose does seem to mean something.
这些都预示着目标似乎意味着什么
And when it comes to actually finding your purpose in life,
但真到了寻找自己生活中的目的时
that’s easier said than done.
就会发现说着容易做来难了
Thankfully, researchers haven’t left us hanging.
还好研究者们没有让我们失望
They’ve looked into this, too,
他们研究了相关问题
and they’ve found some reliable ways to make it happen. First,
并且找到了切实可行的方法
they suggest shifting your mindset.
首先 他们建议我们改变心态
A 2013 study found that
2013年的研究指出
a greater sense of meaning was associated
强烈的意义感其实源于
with thinking about the future or the past, but not the present.
思考未来或回忆过去 而不是关注现在
The idea is that thinking about the past makes you realize
解释起来就是 回忆过去会让你意识到
where your life has led you,
经历过的一切
and that when you think about the future,
而在思考未来时
you consider where it’s going.
你会考虑未来的发展
Both of those things seem to add more meaning to the present.
这些都在为当下添加更多意义
Studies also suggest
研究还指出
that reading can help you forge a sense of meaning,
阅读能够锤炼意义感
and that’s especially true of poetry and fiction.
特别是诗歌和小说
Reading about others finding meaning may help you find it in yourself. Now,
读读别人是如何寻找意义的也会帮到自己
it is worth noting
这里必须要说明一下
that “ meaning ” isn’t exactly the same as “ purpose ”,
“意义”并不完全等同于“目的”
but it is a part of it.
而是“目的”的一部分
So finding more meaning in life is a good first step
因此找出生命的种种意义是
toward figuring out purpose, too. Finally,
寻找目的的良好开端
a tried-and-true path to help you with all of this is
最后讲一个行之有效的终极办法
helping others and expressing gratitude.
那就是帮助别人以及表达感谢
In a study published in 2015, researchers found that people
在2015年的另一项研究中指出
who reported engaging in more altruistic behaviors like volunteering
当志愿者或者做慈善等助人的行为越多
and giving to charity also reported greater meaning in their lives.
越容易找到生命里更伟大的意义
In another experiment, they had 84 people write notes —
另一项实验中 84名受试被要求写记录
and those who wrote notes expressing gratitude reported
而在记录中表达感谢的样本组
a significantly greater sense of meaning than the other groups. So,
相对于其他组具有更强的意义感
if you’re like most of us and are still searching
也许你和我们多数人一样还在寻找
for your life’s purpose,
生活的目的
you could try reading a book,
你可以试试读本书
volunteering for something you believe in,
自愿为相信的东西做些事
or starting a gratitude journal.
或者开始一场感谢之旅
You’ll hopefully start to see a little
顺利的话你会开始在
more meaning in the world around you
生活中找到更多意义
— and your sense of purpose might not be far behind.
而这时距离找到目的感也就不远了
This episode of SciShow Psych is brought to you by our patrons on Patreon!
本期心理科学秀由Patreon上的赞助人们赞助播出
Thanks to all of you who support SciShow!
感谢你们对科学秀的支持
We hope that helping bring free educational content to the Internet
希望我们在网上提供的免费教育内容
gives your life at least a little purpose.
给你的生命带去了一点目的
If you want to help us keep exploring topics like this,
如果你希望帮助我们探索类似话题
your support would mean a lot to us.
你的资助对我们非常重要
You can learn more over at patreon.com/scishow.
你可以访问patreon.com/scishow学习更多内容

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视频概述

阅读,感谢以及帮助他人……生命的目的是什么,如何找到自己生命的意义,它们的区别与各自的作用又分别是什么呢?欢迎收看本期心理科学秀,一起来寻找上面问题的答案吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Aimik

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJi2IfnEd5c

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