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恐龙是怎么灭绝的? – 译学馆
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恐龙是怎么灭绝的?

How and When Did the Dinosaurs Die? | VOLCANO OR ASTEROID?

For 165 million years, dinosaurs dominated land, sea, and sky.
恐龙统治陆地 海洋和天空达1.65亿年之久
Long-necked Brachiosaurus stood four stories tall,
长颈腕龙有四层楼高
mosasaurus stretched 55 feet from snout to tail,
沧龙从鼻子到尾巴伸展开有55英尺长
and Tyrannosaurus rex tore through prey with 50 to 60 banana-sized teeth.
霸王龙用50到60颗香蕉大小的牙齿撕咬猎物
Back then, dinosaurs thrived in the warm temperatures
那时 恐龙在我们称之为中生代的
and mild weather of what we call the Mesozoic Era.
温暖的温度和温和的气候中繁衍生息
But 66 million years ago,
但在6600万年前
the world’s climate drastically changed.
世界气候发生了巨大的变化
Earth became like a Zach Snyder film— much colder and darker.
地球变得像扎克·斯奈德的电影——更冷更暗
Plants died, food became scarce,
植物死亡 食物匮乏
and three-quarters of the creatures on Earth—
地球上四分之三的生物——
including most of the dinosaurs—went extinct.
包括大部分的恐龙——都灭绝了
We still debate what
我们仍在争论
caused this relatively sudden change in climate.
是什么导致了这种相对突然的气候变化
Two popular theories are an asteroid strike
两种流行的理论是小行星撞击
and the eruption of a giant volcano.
和巨型火山喷发
Both theories involve a rare metal called iridium.
这两种理论都涉及到一种叫铱的稀有金属
Iridium is extremely hard to find on Earth’s surface,
在地球表面很难找到铱
but does exist in the planet’s liquid core
但它确实存在于地球的液体内核
and in space rocks like asteroids.
和小行星之类的太空岩石中
Underneath the Earth’s oceans and continents,
在地球的海洋和大陆下面
there’s a thin iridium layer in
在地质学家所称的K-T边界内
what geologists call the K-T Boundary.
有一层薄薄的铱层
That’s the point in the geologic record
这就是他们在地质记录中
where they see evidence of the dinosaurs’ mass extinction.
发现恐龙大规模灭绝证据的地方
Discovering the K-T Boundary in the 1980s
20世纪80年代发现的K-T边界
led scientists to speculate that
使科学家们推测
a six-mile-wide meteor hit Earth
大约6600万年前
around 66 million years ago.
一颗6英里宽的流星撞击了地球
The impact had the force of 10 billion nuclear bombs
其威力相当于100亿颗核弹
and would have thrown massive clouds of dust—
并会抛出大量的尘埃云——
iridium dust, to be precise—
准确地说 是铱尘埃——
and other debris into the air,
和其他碎屑进入空气中
blocking out sunlight for years.
常年阻挡阳光
But where were the signs of such a collision?
但是 这种碰撞的迹象在哪里呢?
In the late 1970s,
20世纪70年代末
a pair of geophysicists found a 93-mile wide,
两位地球物理学家发现了一条93英里宽的裂缝
12-mile deep crater on the edge of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula.
位于墨西哥尤卡坦半岛边缘的12英里深的火山口
It took about 20 more years to suggest that the hole,
又过了大约20多年
named after the town of Chicxulub —was an impact crater—
这个以希克苏鲁伯镇命名的陨石坑
and one roughly the right size and age.
它的大小和年龄才得以确定
Rocks in this area may have been
在那个时候 这个地区的岩石可能
unusually rich in carbon dioxide and sulfur back then.
含有异常丰富的二氧化碳和硫
An asteroid’s impact could have released those compounds into the air
小行星的撞击可能会将这些化合物释放到空气中
and contributed to the rapid shift in the climate.
并导致了气候的迅速变化
Other clues found in the layers of the Chicxulub crater include
在希克苏鲁伯陨石坑层中发现的其他线索包括
quartz with a shocked crystalline structure from the impact,
受冲击的晶体结构的石英
soot that suggests widespread wildfires,
表明野火蔓延的烟尘
and tektites (or rocks ejected from impact sites that turn into glass.)
以及玻璃陨石(从撞击处喷出的岩石 这些岩石会变成玻璃)
While this evidence leads many people think
虽然这些证据让很多人认为
a giant fireball signaled the end for the dinosaurs,
一个巨大的火球预示着恐龙的末日
not everyone is convinced.
但并不是所有人都信服
The iridium layer and the strange rock clues, they argue,
他们认为 铱层和奇怪的岩石线索
could also point to volcanic activity instead.
也可能指向火山活动
Volcanoes went wild
在恐龙统治的最后四千万年间
during the last 40 million years of the dinosaurs’ reign.
火山爆发了
In what is now western India,
在现在的印度西部
giant cones belched lava drawn up from the Earth’s mantle—
巨大的锥形熔岩从地幔中喷出
spewing dust and ash, too.
也喷出灰尘和灰烬
After millions of years of eruptions,
经过数百万年的喷发
there could have been enough debris in the air to block out the sun
即使没有巨型流星的帮助
even without the help of a giant meteor.
空气中也有足够多的碎屑遮挡住太阳
The volcanoes also could have drawn iridium from deep within the Earth
火山也可能从地球深处吸收了铱
to form the thin layer we see in the crust today.
形成了我们今天在地壳中看到的铱薄层
In rebuttal, some researchers argue that
一些研究者反驳说
the volcanoes would not have changed the climate
火山爆发不必改变气候
drastically enough to kill all the dinosaurs.
就足以杀死所有的恐龙
Another theory posits that the dinosaurs were killed off
另一种理论认为 恐龙是
by a combination of both an asteroid and volcanic eruptions.
由于小行星撞击地球和火山喷发而灭绝的
The impact of the space rock could even have made the eruptions worse,
太空岩石的冲击甚至可能使火山喷发更加严重
hitting the dinosaurs with a geologic one-two punch.
以地质的组合拳打击恐龙
Or it’s possible that the dinosaurs were already withering away,
也有可能恐龙早已经灭绝了
and that a catastrophic event finished them off.
一个灾难性的事件结束了它们的生命

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视频概述

恐龙灭绝,是指约6500万年前的白垩纪所发生的多中生代末白垩纪生物大灭绝事件。灭绝假说有陨星撞击说、造山运动说等。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

可可爱爱兴贝壳

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt9R_0HMmTk

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