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旧环形铁路如何改变城市新面孔 – 译学馆
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旧环形铁路如何改变城市新面孔

How an old loop of railroads is changing the face of a city | Ryan Gravel

这张照片
This picture
是我地铁卡上的证件照
is from my metro card
是九十年代中期我在巴黎 大学游学一年时办的
when I spent a year abroad in Paris in college in the mid-’90s.
我的朋友说我看起来 像一名法国无政府主义者
My friend says I look like a French anarchist —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
但是当我清晨照镜子的时候
But this is still what I see
我眼中的自己依旧是这样的
when I look in the mirror in the morning.
在巴黎生活了一个月 我就瘦了15磅
Within a month of living in Paris, I’d lost 15 pounds
那是迄今为止我最好的身材
and I was in the best shape of my life
因为我吃的是新鲜食物
because I was eating fresh food
无论去哪里都步行
and I was walking wherever I went.
我在亚特兰大的郊区长大
Having grown up in suburban Atlanta,
那是一个布满了高速公路 和汽车的地区
a region built largely by highways and automobiles
是当年城市扩张时期的示范区域
and with a reputation as a poster child for sprawl,
巴黎彻底改变了我对于周围世界
Paris fundamentally changed the way I understood
构建的认知
the construction of the world around me,
我从此迷恋上了 基础设施的所扮演的角色
and I got obsessed with the role of infrastructure —
它不仅仅是把人们 从一处送到另一处
that it’s not just the way to move people from point A to point B,
也不是只运输纯净水 污水和能源
it’s not just the way to convey water or sewage or energy,
而是我们经济的基石
but it’s the foundation for our economy.
它是我们社会生活和文化的基础
It’s the foundation for our social life and for our culture,
与我们的生活方式息息相关
and it really matters to the way that we live.
当我开车回家 被堵在绕城公路路口时
When I came home, I was instantly frustrated,
我感到十分沮丧
stuck in traffic as I crossed the top end of our perimeter highway.
不仅是因为我只能一动不动
Not only was I not moving a muscle,
还因为当成千上万的
I had no social interaction
人们在身旁匆匆而过时 与我没有任何交集
with the hundreds of thousands of people that were hurtling past me,
他们都像我一样目视前方 耳边充斥着聒噪的音乐
like me, with their eyes faced forward and their music blaring.
我就想这是否是不可避免的结局
I wondered if this was an inevitable outcome,
或者我们能对此做些什么
or could we do something about it.
有没有可能把亚特兰大变成
Was it possible to transform this condition in Atlanta
我想生活的那种地方呢?
into the kind of place that I wanted to live in?
我回到了研究生学院 学习建筑和城市规划
I went back to grad school in architecture and city planning,
逐渐对于基础设施产生了兴趣
developed this interest in infrastructure,
在1999年为我的论文项目
and in 1999 came up with an idea
想出了一个主意:
for my thesis project:
改建原来城市中心的废旧环形铁路
the adaptation of an obsolete loop of old railroad circling downtown
作为城市复苏的新型基础建设
as a new infrastructure for urban revitalization.
当时那只是一个设想
It was just an idea.
我从来没有想过真的会实现
I never thought we would actually build it.
但在我去一家建筑公司上班后
But I went to work at an architecture firm,
还是把这个想法讲给了同事们听
and eventually talked to my coworkers about it,
他们喜欢这个想法
and they loved the idea.
当我们开始和更多人分享这个想法时
And as we started talking to more people about it,
越来越多的人开始关注这件事
more people wanted to hear about it.
在2001年夏天
In the summer of 2001,
我们在凯西・伍拉德成为
we connected with Cathy Woolard,
市议会主席的前夕 与她取得了联系
who was soon elected city council president.
我们就此想法建立了一个城市级景观:
And we built a citywide vision around this idea:
亚特兰大环线项目 一个22英里长的
the Atlanta BeltLine, a 22-mile loop
运输、通行和转换环形道路
of transit and trails and transformation.
在长达两年半的时间里 我每周都要开两三次会
I was doing two and three meetings a week for two and a half years,
凯西和她的员工 还有许多志愿者都是如此
and so was Cathy and her staff and a handful of volunteers.
通过共同努力 我们发起了这个无与伦比的人与理念的运动
Together, we built this amazing movement of people and ideas.
参与者包括社区中那些总是发起抵制运动的人们
It included community advocates who were used to fighting against things,
为亚特兰大环线项目而奔走
but found the Atlanta BeltLine as something that they could fight for;
那些在项目中发现了
developers who saw the opportunity
城市增长新契机的开发商们
to take advantage of a lot of new growth in the city;
还有数十家非营利性合作伙伴 他们在其中
and dozens of nonprofit partners who saw their mission
发现了自身的使命 至少是部分共同的愿景
at least partly accomplished by the shared vision.
通常情况下 这些人无法共事
Now, usually these groups of people aren’t at the same table
期待的结果也不尽相同
wanting the same outcome.
虽然感觉有些古怪
But there we were, and it was kind of weird,
但是我们真的凝聚起来了
but it was really, really powerful.
亚特兰大的人们爱上了那种愿景
The people of Atlanta fell in love with a vision
他们渴望在公路上行驶时看到车外更好的风景
that was better than what they saw through their car windshields,
是亚特兰大的人们让这一切变为了现实
and the people of Atlanta made it happen,
我敢说 没有他们 我们根本做不到这些
and I guarantee you we would not be building it otherwise.
从一开始 我们的合作就是多样化的
From the beginning, our coalition was diverse.
来自不同领域的人们都加入了其中
People of all stripes were part of our story.
生活在贫困线附近的人们 同样喜欢这个设计
People on the lower end of the economic spectrum loved it, too.
他们只是害怕到了建成的时候
They were just afraid they weren’t going to be able to be there
自己却无法享受便利 会被高昂的地价拒之门外
when it got built, that they’d be priced out.
我们都听说过那样的故事 不是吗?
And we’ve all heard that kind of story before, right?
但是我们承诺 亚特兰大环线会有所不同
But we promised that the Atlanta BeltLine would be different,
还有那些想法的提出者们
and people took ownership of the idea,
他们在一开始就让这一切成为了超出想象的
and they made it better than anything we ever imagined
好作品
in the beginning,
包括丰厚的住房补贴、
including significant subsidies for housing,
新公园、艺术性建筑、植物园 更多基础建设还在规划中
new parks, art, an arboretum — a list that continues to grow.
我们得到了能让
And we put in place
这些设想成为实现的相关组织和机构的支持
the organizations and agencies that were required to make it happen.
重点是 必须做到这一点
And importantly, it is.
我们现在正处于工程的早期阶段 效果还不错
Now we’re in the early stages of implementation, and it’s working.
第一部分主线是于2012年开放使用的
The first mainline section of trail was opened in 2012,
至今已经产生超过三十亿美元的
and it’s already generated over three billion dollars
私营部门投资额
of private-sector investment.
但是 这不仅仅是改变了城市的外观
But it’s not only changing the physical form of the city,
也改变了我们对于那座城市的认识
it’s changing the way we think about the city,
改变了我们对于在那里生活的预期
and what our expectations are for living there.
大约一个月前
About a month ago,
我需要带孩子们去杂货店
I had to take my kids with me to the grocery store
他们对此很不满
and they were complaining about it,
因为他们不想坐我的车去
because they didn’t want to get in the car.
他们说 “爸爸 要是我们必须去
They were saying, “Dad, if we have to go,
那我们只骑车可以吗?”
can we at least ride our bikes?”
然后我回答 “当然可以 ”
And I said, “Of course we can.
亚特兰大的人们都这么做
That’s what people in Atlanta do.
我们骑车去杂货店”
We ride our bikes to the grocery store.”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
[掌声]
[Applause]
谢谢 大概就是这样
Thank you, yeah.
孩子们并不知道 这个想法有多不切实际
Now, they don’t know how ridiculous that is,
但是我心里有数
but I do.
我同时也知道他们对于亚特兰大的期待
And I also understand that their expectations for Atlanta
是一股强大的推动力
are really powerful.
这样的转变和上世纪的城市扩张运动
This kind of transformation is exactly like sprawl
如出一辙
in the last century,
在这项运动中我们投资建设的高速公路和汽车
the movement where our investment in highways and automobiles
彻底改变了美国人的生活
fundamentally changed American life.
那并非是什么大阴谋
That wasn’t some grand conspiracy.
当然 的确也包含部分小阴谋
There were conspiracies within it, of course.
不过那是一种文化导向
But it was a cultural momentum.
在很长的一段时间里 无数的人
It was millions of people making millions of decisions
做出的众多决定
over an extended period of time,
彻底的改变了我们城市的建造格局
that fundamentally changed not only the way that we build cities,
和我们对于生活
but it changed our expectations
做出的众多决定
for our lives.
这些变化是城市扩张的基础
These changes were the foundations for urban sprawl.
在当时 我们并不把它称为城市扩张
We didn’t call it sprawl at that time.
我们把它叫做未来
We called it the future.
事实也的确如此
And it was.
我们得到了梦寐以求的高速公路 大型购物商场 和幽静巷尾
And we got all the highways and strip malls and cul-de-sacs we wanted.
那真是翻天覆地的变化
It was a radical transformation,
但是是由文化导向所带来的
but it was built by a cultural momentum.
所以说 居住场所的硬件设施
So it’s important to not separate
与其他同时期发生的事情
the physical construction of the places we live
是密不可分的
from other things that are happening at that time.
在那时
At that time,
上世纪后半叶
in the second half of the last century,
科学正在治愈疾病
science was curing disease
把人类带往月球
and lifting us to the moon,
性别运动突破了阻碍
and the sexual revolution was breaking down barriers,
民权运动也开始向实现
and the Civil Rights Movement began its march
国家承诺的方向迈进
toward the fulfillment of our nation’s promise.
电视、娱乐、食物、旅游、商务——一切都在变化着
Television, entertainment, food, travel, business — everything was changing,
公共和私营部门共同谋划着
and both the public and private sectors were colluding
给予了我们所向往的生活
to give us the lives we wanted.
以美国联邦公路总署为例
The Federal Highway Administration,
在高速公路出现前是不存在的
for example, didn’t exist before there were highways.
想想看吧
Think about it.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
当然 今天能够理解并认识到
Of course, today it’s important to understand and acknowledge
那些效益最終都归集于某些群体
that those benefits accrued to some groups of people
而不是其他人 是很重要的
and not to others.
那并不是一个平等的文化导向
It was not an equitable cultural momentum.
但今天 也许在我们用惊讶和厌恶的目光
But when we look today in wonder and disgust, maybe,
看待面前的都市扩张时
at the metropolis sprawl before us,
就会思考我们是否陷入了僵局
we wonder if we’re stuck.
我们是否陷入了那种历史的不平等格局中呢?
Are we stuck with the legacy of that inequity?
我们是否陷入了反乌托邦的炼狱之途呢?
Are we stuck with this dystopian traffic hellscape?
是否陷入了猖獗的城市推移
Are we stuck with rampant urban displacement
和环境破坏中了呢?
with environmental degradation?
是否陷入了社会孤立
Are we stuck with social isolation
或是政治极化当中了呢?
or political polarization?
这些是否是不可避免的 永恒的结局呢?
Are these the inevitable and permanent outcomes?
或者说 这些就是我们共同为自身
Or are they the result of our collective cultural decisions
做出的文化抉择吗?
that we’ve made for ourselves?
如果是的话
And if they are,
我们能改变现状吗?
can’t we change them?
我在亚特兰大的经历
What I have learned from our experience in Atlanta
并非是特例
is not an anomaly.
相似的故事在各地发生着
Similar stories are playing out everywhere,
人们重新利用的除了废旧的铁路
where people are reclaiming not only old railroads,
还有退化的城市供水系统 废弃的公路
but also degraded urban waterways and obsolete roadways,
来重新设计他们生活中的
reinventing all of the infrastructure
各种基础设施
in their lives.
无论是在纽约这里
Whether here in New York
或是休斯顿
or in Houston
或是迈阿密、
or Miami,
底特律、费城、
Detroit, Philadelphia,
首尔、香港、新加坡、
Seoul, Hong Kong, Singapore,
多伦多还有巴黎
Toronto and Paris,
世界各地大大小小的城市 都在回收并重新设计
cities big and small all over the world are reclaiming and reinventing
他们自己的基础设施
this infrastructure for themselves,
包括基础设施建设的首例
including the mother of all catalyst infrastructure projects,
洛杉矶河
the Los Angeles River,
复兴运动也以相似的方式开始了
the revitalization effort for which similarly started
开始时是草根运动
as a grassroots movement,
并逐步发展为了文化导向
has developed into a cultural momentum,
现在我们正处于改造
and is now in the early stages of being transformed
基础设施的初期阶段
into some kind of life-affirming infrastructure again,
这种积极基础设施包括了小径、公园、垂钓、划船
this one with trails and parks and fishing and boating
还有社区的复兴
and community revitalization,
当然也包括了水质和食品监管
and of course, water quality and flood control.
它正在提高人们的生活水平
It’s already improving the lives of people.
它改变了我们其余的人 对于洛杉矶的认知
It’s already changing the way the rest of us think about Los Angeles.
这些不仅仅是基础设施
This is more than just infrastructure.
我们是在为自身建立新生活
We’re building new lives for ourselves.
这项运动包括了地方食品、城市农业、
It’s a movement that includes local food, urban agriculture,
精酿啤酒、制造商运动、
craft beer, the maker movement,
科技与设计——所有的这些都表明了我们在建设城市过程中
tech and design — all of these things, early indicators of a really radical shift
彻底性的改变
in the way we build cities.
我们正在把这样的地方
We’re taking places like this
变为这样的地方
and transforming them into this.
很快就会变成这样
And soon this.
这听起来令人激动 的确很不错
And this is all exciting and good.
我们正在让世界变得更好
We’re changing the world for the better.
这对我们来说是件好事
Good for us!
这真的太棒了——我真心这么认为
And it is awesome — I mean that.
但是我们城市扩张的历史
But our history of sprawl,
还有现存的一些示范性项目当中
and from what we can already see with these catalyst projects today,
我们能看到 并且必须记得
we know and must remember
并非每个人都能从像这样的大变革中获益
that big changes like this don’t usually benefit everyone.
通过这种文化导向而释放的市场活力
The market forces unleashed by this cultural momentum
经常会包括那些看似难以阻挡的
often include the seemingly unstoppable
不可避免的税务、物价和房租的上涨
and inevitable cycle of rising taxes, prices and rents.
这是很紧迫的问题
This is urgent.
如果我们关心这个问题 我们就必须挺身而出
If we care, we have to stand up
说出我们的想法
and speak out.
这应该是一种行动的号召
This should be a call to action,
因为答案不可能是不去改进社区
because the answer can’t be to not improve communities.
答案不可能是不去修建公园、运输线和杂货店
The answer can’t be to not build parks and transit and grocery stores.
答案不可能是为了让物价保持低水平
The answer can’t be to hold communities down
而让社区没落下去
just to keep them affordable.
但是我们也必须跟进 强调我们正面临着的
But we do have to follow through and address the financial realities
经济现状
that we’re facing.
这很困难 它不会自己好转
This is hard, and it won’t happen on its own.
我们可以解决这个问题的 我在亚特兰大一直致力于此
We can do it, and I’m committed to this goal in Atlanta,
为了那些使这一切成为可能的人们而坚持
to sticking up again for people who made it possible in the first place.
没有他们 这个项目就算不上成功
We can’t call it a success without them.
我当然不能这么做
I certainly can’t,
因为这么多年来 我为那些人坚守承诺
because the people I made commitments to all those years
他们不仅仅只是抽象的人群
weren’t abstract populations.
他们是我的朋友 我的邻居
They’re my friends and neighbors.
他们是我所爱的人
They’re people that I love.
即使一开始 它只是作为我研究生论文主题
So even though it started as my graduate thesis
我与成千上万的人们一起合作 努力了16年
and I’m working hard for 16 years with thousands of people
为了让这一切成为现实
to help make this thing come to life,
我知道并坚信 这个项目的受益人群
I know and believe that who the BeltLine is being built for
和建设环带项目本身是同等重要的
is just as important as whether it’s built at all.
不仅仅是在亚特兰大
Not just in Atlanta,
而是在局部范围上 世界范围中
but locally and globally,
我们必须明白我们对于
we have to understand
那些生活正在经历改变的人们的责任
this accountability to the people whose lives we are changing,
因为他们就是我们
because this is us.
我们的生活就是我们正在讨论的
We are the lives we’re talking about.
这样的环境并非不可避免
These places aren’t inevitable.
我们生活的环境并非不可改变
The places we live aren’t inevitable,
如果我们希望生活有所不同 我们需要大声说出来
and if we want something different, we just need to speak up.
我们必须确保是按照我们的要求改变的
We have to ensure that change comes on our terms.
为了做到那一点
And to do that,
我们就必须主动加入到塑造改变的进程当中
we have to participate actively in the process of shaping change.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

城市规划师瑞安・格雷夫的家乡是乔治亚州亚特兰大市,他和我们分享了亚特兰大市如何万众一心构建了一个大规模的城市公园,将废旧环形铁路改造成长达22英里的公共绿色空间,称之为亚特兰大环线。他说,我们生活的环境并不是一成不变的——如果想让生活变得不同,我们必须大声发言。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaf-jNLjedo

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