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美国公立学校如何未能让孩子走出贫困

How America's public schools keep kids in poverty | Kandice Sumner

我想和你们谈谈我的孩子们
I want to talk to you about my kids.
我知道每个人都觉得自己的孩子是最棒的
Now, I know everyone thinks that their kid is the most fantastic,
是世界上最漂亮的
the most beautiful kid that ever lived.
但我的孩子们真是如此
But mine really are.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我有696个孩子
I have 696 kids,
他们是你见过的最聪明 最具创造力
and they are the most intelligent, inventive, innovative,
最有才华 最有能力的孩子
brilliant and powerful kids that you’ll ever meet.
任何我有幸教导过的学生 都是我的孩子
Any student I’ve had the honor of teaching in my classroom is my kid.
但是 因为他们的亲生父母并不富裕
However, because their “real” parents aren’t rich
而且他们大多数都是有色人种
and, I argue, because they are mostly of color,
所以他们很少看到我眼中的
they will seldom get to see in themselves
他们的闪光点
the awesomeness that I see in them.
因为我在他们身上 看见了自己的影子
Because what I see in them is myself —
或是说那个我本可能成为的自己
or what would have been myself.
我是两个勤奋的 有大学学历的
I am the daughter of two hardworking,
非裔美籍父母的女儿
college-educated, African-American parents
他们选择成为公务员
who chose careers as public servants:
我父亲是牧师 我母亲是教育工作者
my father, a minister; my mother, an educator.
财富从来都不是我们家庭的第一目标
Wealth was never the primary ambition in our house.
因为不算富裕
Because of this lack of wealth,
我们住在一个贫穷的社区
we lived in a neighborhood that lacked wealth,
因此附近的学校条件也不算很好
and henceforth a school system that lacked wealth.
幸运的是 当时我们中了教育大奖
Luckily, however, we struck the educational jackpot
他们启动了一个无偿废除种族歧视的项目
in a voluntary desegregation program
把城市内黑皮肤和棕皮肤的孩子
that buses inner-city kids — black and brown —
接送到城郊富裕的白人学校读书
out to suburban schools — rich and white.
五岁时 我要乘一个小时的巴士
At five years old, I had to take an hour-long bus ride
到很远的地方
to a faraway place
接受更好的教育
to get a better education.
五岁时 我以为每个人生活都是如此
At five years old, I thought everyone had a life just like mine.
我以为每个人都会去学校上学
I thought everyone went to school
但是就只有我一个人用棕色蜡笔
and were the only ones using the brown crayons
给家庭画像上色
to color in their family portraits,
而其他人都是用浅色蜡笔的
while everyone else was using the peach-colored ones.
五岁时 我以为每个人都跟我一样
At five years old, I thought everyone was just like me.
但当我长大 我开始意识到一些事情 比如:
But as I got older, I started noticing things, like:
为什么邻居家小伙伴不用
How come my neighborhood friend don’t have to wake up
在早上五点起床
at five o’clock in the morning,
去一小时车程外的学校?
and go to a school that’s an hour away?
为什么我能学习演奏小提琴
How come I’m learning to play the violin
而邻居家小伙伴连音乐课都没有?
while my neighborhood friends don’t even have a music class?
为什么邻居家小伙伴的学习和阅读材料
Why were my neighborhood friends learning and reading material
我在两三年前就学过了?
that I had done two to three years prior?
随着年龄的增长
See, as I got older,
我开始产生一些负罪感
I started to have this unlawful feeling in my belly,
像是我在做一些不该做的事
like I was doing something that I wasn’t supposed to be doing;
拿走一些不属于我的东西
taking something that wasn’t mine;
收到一份
receiving a gift,
写着别人名字的礼物
but with someone else’s name on it.
我能接触到的所有美好的事物
All these amazing things that I was being exposed to
我都觉得
and experiencing,
超越了我应有的权利
I felt I wasn’t really supposed to have.
我不应有权使用图书馆、装配齐全的健身设施
I wasn’t supposed to have a library, fully equipped athletic facilities,
甚至于在安全场地玩耍
or safe fields to play in.
我不应该奢望拥有
I wasn’t supposed to have theatre departments
定期戏剧、演唱会
with seasonal plays and concerts —
数字视觉表演艺术的戏剧学院
digital, visual, performing arts.
我本应无权使用资源丰富的生物、化学实验室
I wasn’t supposed to have fully resourced biology or chemistry labs,
无权上挨家挨户载学生的校车
school buses that brought me door-to-door,
不应享用新鲜的学校午餐
freshly prepared school lunches
甚至是空调
or even air conditioning.
这些都是我的孩子们没有的
These are things my kids don’t get.
长大后
You see, as I got older,
虽然我对这些难得的机会
while I was grateful for this amazing opportunity
充满感激
that I was being given,
但依然有一些无法消散之痛
there was this ever-present pang of:
其他人怎么办呢?
But what about everyone else?
有上千个和我一样的孩子
There are thousands of other kids just like me,
他们也应该得到这样的机会
who deserve this, too.
为什么不是所有人都有这个机会呢?
Why doesn’t everyone get this?
我好像心存一些幸存者的怜悯
Why is a high-quality education only exclusive to the rich?
我所有邻居家的小伙伴都在经历
It was like I had some sort of survivor’s remorse.
我所有邻居家的小伙伴都在经历
All of my neighborhood friends were experiencing
一场教育界的脱轨
an educational train wreck
而我却乘坐着巴士 幸存了下来
that I was saved from through a bus ride.
我就像是教育界的摩西 大声呼喊
I was like an educational Moses screaming,
“让我的人民
“Let my people go …
走向高质量教育!”
to high-quality schools!”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我亲眼见证过其他人是如何被对待 被教育的
I’d seen firsthand how the other half was being treated and educated.
我见过有高质量保证的教育环境
I’d seen the educational promised land,
我要纠正这种不公 不是为了我自己
and I could not for the life of me justify the disparity.
现在 我执教一所和当年自己接受教育庇护前类似的学校
I now teach in the very same school system from which I sought refuge.
我亲身知晓学生时代学到的东西
I know firsthand the tools that were given to me as a student,
但现在 作为一名老师 我却没有能力把相同的东西
and now as a teacher, I don’t have access to those same tools
教给我的学生
to give my students.
无数个夜晚 我在沮丧
There have been countless nights when I’ve cried in frustration,
愤怒
anger
和悲伤中哭泣
and sorrow,
因为我无法用我受教育的方式来教育他们
because I can’t teach my kids the way that I was taught,
因为我接触不到那些曾经在我受教育时用到的
because I don’t have access to the same resources or tools
资源和工具
that were used to teach me.
我的孩子们本应得到更好的教育
My kids deserve so much better.
我们不断为这个概念而苦恼:
We sit and we keep banging our heads against this term:
“成绩差距 成绩差距!”
“Achievement gap, achievement gap!”
理解一下为什么有些孩子表现良好
Is it really that hard to understand
而有些表现不好 真的很难吗?
why these kids perform well and these kids don’t?
真是这样吗?
I mean, really.
我觉得我们都搞错了
I think we’ve got it all wrong.
我认为我们
I think we,
正如格洛丽亚・兰德森・比林斯说的一样
as Gloria Ladson-Billings says,
应该颠覆我们的思维和表述方式 做到名如其实
should flip our paradigm and our language and call it what it really is.
这不是成绩差距
It’s not an achievement gap;
这是教育负债
it’s an education debt,
为所有我们之前从未投资在黑皮肤和
for all of the foregone schooling resources that were never invested
棕皮肤孩子身上的教育资源
in the education of the black and brown child over time.
美国历史上一个鲜为人知的秘密
A little-known secret in American history
唯一一个为有色人种创造的美国机构
is that the only American institution created specifically for people of color
就是美国奴隶交易市场
is the American slave trade —
有些人可能会说 还有监狱系统
and some would argue the prison system,
但那就是另外一个TED演讲的主题了
but that’s another topic for another TED Talk.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
这个国家的公立学校系统是使用
The public school system of this country was built, bought and paid for
奴隶交易和奴隶劳动的资源建立起来的
using commerce generated from the slave trade and slave labor.
当非裔美国人被奴役并被禁止上学
While African-Americans were enslaved and prohibited from schooling,
用他们的劳动建立起来的机构
their labor established the very institution
却把他们排除在外
from which they were excluded.
从那时起 每个法案、教育政策和改革
Ever since then, every court case, educational policy, reform,
都尝试改变这个设计
has been an attempt to retrofit the design,
而不是停下并思考:
rather than just stopping and acknowledging:
我们从一开始就是错的
we’ve had it all wrong from the beginning.
一个过于简化的美国教育史
An oversimplification of American educational history.
好的 听仔细了
All right, just bear with me.
黑人被排除在外 很显然 因为奴隶制的原因
Blacks were kept out — you know, the whole slavery thing.
通过白人慈善的帮助
With the help of philanthropic white people,
他们建造了自己的学校
they built their own schools.
分开的 平等的体系 还不赖
Separate but equal was OK.
但是我们知道 真实情况是 的确是分开的
But while we all know things were indeed separate,
但却是不平等的体系
they were in no ways equal.
1954年 棕色人种与堪萨斯州托皮卡教育协会冲突
Enter Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954;
种族区分变得不再合法了
legal separation of the races is now illegal.
但很少有人注意到后来一切
But very few people pay attention to all of the court cases since then,
并未实现那场斗争的意图
that have undone the educational promised land for every child
为每个孩子争取教育保证
that Brown v. Board intended.
有些人会说 我们今天学校的种族隔离
Some argue that today our schools are now more segregated
要比我们尝试废除种族隔离之前更严重
than they ever were before we tried to desegregate them in the first place.
教导孩子们废除种族隔离 小石城事件
Teaching my kids about desegregation, the Little Rock Nine,
民权运动
the Civil Rights Movement,
是我课堂里最尴尬的时刻
is a real awkward moment in my classroom,
因为我会听到一个孩子问:
when I have to hear the voice of a child ask,
“如果学校在1954年就废除了种族隔离
“If schools were desegregated in 1954,
为什么这里没有白人孩子呢?”
how come there are no white kids here?”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
孩子们可不傻
These kids aren’t dumb.
他们知道什么正在发生
They know exactly what’s happening,
什么没有
and what’s not.
他们知道谈到教育
They know that when it comes to schooling,
黑人的情况不重要
black lives don’t matter
而且他们从来都不重要
and they never have.
几年来 我竭尽全力教导我的孩子爱上阅读
For years, I tried desperately to cultivate in my kids a love of reading.
我用那些从二手书店 捐赠品商店
I’d amassed a modest classroom library
和阁楼收集到的书
of books I’d accumulated from secondhand shops,
建造了一个简易的教室图书馆
thrift stores, attics — you know.
但是当我说出这些可怕的文字
But whenever I said those dreadful words,
“拿出一本书去读”的时候
“Take out a book and read,”
你会觉得我好像宣布了战争
you’d think I’d just declared war.
这是折磨
It was torture.
一天
One day,
我听说一个网站 叫做捐赠者的选择
after I’d heard about this website called DonorsChoose,
老师能够创建一个愿望单
where classroom teachers create wish lists
列出他们需要放在教室里的东西
of items they need for their classroom
然后匿名捐赠者就会满足他们的愿望
and anonymous donors fulfill them,
我觉得我应该尝试一下 于是就列了一个
I figured I’d go out on a limb and just make a wish list
少年梦想图书馆的愿望单
of the teenager’s dream library.
超过200本新书一本本被送到了我的教室
Over 200 brand-new books were sent to my room piece by piece.
每天都有新包裹送来 孩子们就会高兴地欢呼:
Every day there were new deliveries and my kids would exclaim with glee,
“这就像过圣诞节!”
“This feels like Christmas!”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
然后他们会说
Then they’d say,
“萨姆纳老师 这些书是哪里来的?”
“Ms. Sumner, where did these books come from?”
然后我回答:
And then I’d reply,
“来自全国的陌生人 他们想让你们拥有这些书”
“Strangers from all over the country wanted you to have these.”
然后他们会很怀疑的说
And then they’d say, almost suspiciously,
“但是它们是崭新的”
“But they’re brand-new.”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
对此 我会回答
To which I’d reply,
“你们应该得到崭新的书籍”
“You deserve brand-new books.”
当我的一个姑娘这么说时 我深受触动
The whole experience hit home for me when one of my girls,
当她打开书本的包装时说
as she peeled open a crisp paperback said,
“萨姆纳老师 我知道是你买了这些书
“Ms. Sumner — you know, I figured you bought these books,
因为你们老师总是给我们买东西
’cause you teachers are always buying us stuff.
但是得知是一个我不认识的陌生人
But to know that a stranger, someone I don’t even know,
这么关心我
cares this much about me
其实挺酷的”
is pretty cool.”
知道会等到陌生人的照顾
Knowing that strangers will take care of you
是我的孩子们承受不起的特权
is a privilege my kids aren’t afforded.
自从那次捐赠以后
Ever since the donation,
孩子们陆续登记把书带回家
there has been a steady stream of kids signing out books to take home,
并激动的归还它们
and then returning them with the exclamation,
“这本真棒!”
“This one was good!”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
现在当我说 “拿本书去看”的时候
Now when I say, “Take out a book and read,”
孩子们会迫不及待冲到我的图书馆
kids rush to my library.
并不是他们不想读书
It wasn’t that they didn’t want to read,
相反 如果有资源 他们会很享受阅读
but instead, they’d gladly read if the resources were there.
正式点说
Institutionally speaking,
我们的公立学校系统未曾满足过 黑皮肤和棕皮肤孩子们的需求
our public school system has never done right by the black and brown child.
我们持续关注结果
We keep focusing on the end results
或者考试成绩
or test results,
然后失望
and getting frustrated.
我们陷入困境 然后思考
We get to a catastrophe and we wonder,
“为何会这么糟?我们是如何走到这一步的?”
“How did it get so bad? How did we get here?”
这真的有用吗?
Really?
如果你忽视一个孩子太久
If you neglect a child long enough,
你就没有权利为糟糕的结果
you no longer have the right to be surprised
感到惊讶
when things don’t turn out well.
不要再疑惑
Stop being perplexed
迷茫
or confused
困惑
or befuddled
因为成绩差距
by the achievement gap,
收入差距
the income gap,
犯罪几率
the incarceration rates,
或者任何社会经济学中表达不平等的术语
or whatever socioeconomic disparity is the new “it” term for the moment.
我们国家的问题
The problems we have as a country
正是我们自身创造的
are the problems we created as a country.
教育的质量是和
The quality of your education is directly proportionate
你的大学
to your access to college,
你的工作
your access to jobs,
还有你的未来直接挂钩
your access to the future.
直到我们能让每个孩子 无论他们住在哪里
Until we live in a world where every kid can get a high-quality education
无论肤色如何
no matter where they live,
都能够得到高质量教育
or the color of their skin,
放眼整个社会 我们还有很多任务要做
there are things we can do on a macro level.
学校的资金不应该由资产税
School funding should not be decided by property taxes
或一些时髦的经济公式决定
or some funky economic equation
让富人孩子持续受益于州政府经济扶持
where rich kids continue to benefit from state aid,
而穷人孩子的食物和资源
while poor kids are continuously having food and resources
却持续的被夺走
taken from their mouths.
州长 参议员 市长 市议员——
Governors, senators, mayors, city council members —
如果我们把公立教育叫做公立教育
if we’re going to call public education public education,
那它应该就是这样
then it should be just that.
要不然 它就该名如其实的被称作:
Otherwise, we should call it what it really is:
贫困保险
poverty insurance.
“公立教育的定义:
“Public education:
从1954年 让穷孩子持续贫困”
keeping poor kids poor since 1954.”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
如果 作为一个国家 我们真的相信教育是“伟大的平衡器”
If we really, as a country, believe that education is the “great equalizer,”
那教育就应该是公正平等的
then it should be just that: equal and equitable.
直到今天 我们的民主教育还并不民主
Until then, there’s no democracy in our democratic education.
客观来说
On a mezzo level:
从历史角度上 黑皮肤和棕皮肤孩子的教育
historically speaking, the education of the black and brown child
一直都建立在他人的慈善之上
has always depended on the philanthropy of others.
不幸的是 至今都没改变
And unfortunately, today it still does.
如果你们的儿子、女儿、侄子、侄女或者邻居
If your son or daughter or niece or nephew or neighbor
或者街尾的小蒂米
or little Timmy down the street
去了一个富裕的学校
goes to an affluent school,
挑战他们学校的委员会 让他们接收一个贫困的学校
challenge your school committee to adopt an impoverished school
或者一个简陋的教室
or an impoverished classroom.
利用这些意义重大的沟通和关系
Close the divide by engaging in communication
来结束分离
and relationships that matter.
当资源被共享
When resources are shared,
他们就不再被隔离
they’re not divided;
就等同资源的倍增
they’re multiplied.
具体来说:
And on a micro level:
如果你是一个人类
if you’re a human being,
去捐赠吧
donate.
时间、金钱、资源、机会——
Time, money, resources, opportunities —
在你心中的 无论是什么东西
whatever is in your heart.
有像“捐赠者的选择”这样的网站
There are websites like DonorsChoose
它们意识到了不平等
that recognize the disparity
并且真的想要为之做些什么
and actually want to do something about it.
木匠没有工具还是木匠吗?
What is a carpenter with no tools?
演员没有舞台还是演员吗?
What is an actress with no stage?
科学家没有实验室还算科学家吗?
What is a scientist with no laboratory?
医生没有设备能成为医生吗?
What is a doctor with no equipment?
让我告诉你们:
I’ll tell you:
他们是我的孩子
they’re my kids.
但他们不也是你们的孩子吗?
Shouldn’t they be your kids, too?
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

为什么一个好的教育会仅限于富人孩子?美国低收入社区的学校,特别是有色人种的社区学校,缺少富裕学校中那些标准的教育资源:乐器、新书、健康的学校午餐和足球场。这些都对学生的潜力产生了深刻的影响。坎德丝 萨姆纳在她波士顿的教室里每天都会看到不平等。在这个启迪人心的演讲里,她要求我们面对事实,并挑战事实。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7O7BMa9XGXE

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