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美国最炎热的城市正在试图降温

How America's hottest city is trying to cool down

I’m looking at a map of surface temperatures in the Phoenix metro area.
我现在看的是一张凤凰城城区地表温度图
So this is in Arizona, in the southwest US
凤凰城位于美国西南部的亚利桑那州
and it shows how hot the ground is in June.
这张图显示了该地六月份的地表温度
And this is a map of child poverty rates.
这一张是儿童贫穷率分布图
Darker blue means more poverty.
深蓝色表示贫穷率更高
So this is heat.
这是高温情况
And this is poverty.
这是贫穷情况
Heat.
高温
Poverty.
贫穷
Heat, Poverty.
高温 贫穷
The correlation is pretty obvious.
两者的关联显而易见
This is where it becomes clear that climate change and wealth inequality are not really
从这里可以清楚地看出 气候变化和贫富差距
separate issues.
是不可分割的两个问题
And you can probably find examples of that wherever you go in the world, but for this
全世界都能找到这样的例子
story, I went… there.
但在今天的故事里 我去了…这里
“An excessive heat warning is in effect.”
高温警告已启用
“Warmer is the new normal in Phoenix.”
变暖是凤凰城新的常态
“The city’s grappling with an increase in heat related deaths.”
全市正努力应对高温致死人数的增加
“Phoenix, last year, hitting 100 degrees or higher for more than 144 days.”
去年 凤凰城有超过144天温度达到或超过100华氏度
“Climate change is one factor causing rising temperature.
气候变化是温度升高的一个原因
“Urban development is the other.”
城市发展是另一个原因
The forecasted high that day was 112 degrees Fahrenheit.
那天预报的最高温度是112华氏度
That’s 44 degrees Celsius.
也就是44摄氏度
But in reality, some areas can feel warmer or cooler than that.
但实际上 一些地区的体感温度更高或者更低
So here I am in a neighborhood with some of the hottest surface temperatures, but when
现在我来到了一个局部地表温度达到最高的社区
I drove 8 miles north of there
但当我向北开了8英里后
I was in one of the coolest parts of Phoenix.
我又到了凤凰城最凉爽的地方
And it was in the hot neighborhood where I met up with Eva Olivas.
就在那个温度较高的社区 我遇到了Eva Olivas
She’s a local community advocate and Phoenix native.
她是当地的社区工作者 是凤凰城本地人
It’s nice to meet you.
你好
OLIVAS: It’s nice to meet you.
你好
Can you tell me a little bit about this neighborhood and who lives here?
能给我讲讲这个社区和住在这里的居民吗?
OLIVAS: So the community of Central City South is located just south of the downtown business district.
南城中心社区位于市中心商业区南部
OLIVAS: The average income level for a family of four is about $19,000.
四口之家的平均收入约19 000美元
OLIVAS: The vehicle ownership rate is between 23-28% of the population.
拥有机动车的人口数量占比23%-28%
Oh wow.

OLIVAS: Yes, very low.
是的 非常低
So they’re very dependent on public transportation.
因此他们很依赖公共交通
This zip code has the highest rate of heat-related illnesses in the city,
该地区的高温致病率是全市最高
what makes people here vulnerable to extreme heat?
是什么让当地人容易遭受到极端炎热天气的伤害?
Well, I think it’s a combination of things.
我觉得是很多因素共同导致的
We have the freeway.
我们有高速公路
OLIVAS: We have the railroad tracks on the north.
北边有铁路
OLIVAS: We have the airport on the east.
机场在东边
OLIVAS: So we’re like a little pocket.
因此我们就像一个小口袋围在中间
That’s a lot of pavement.
有很多条公路
OLIVAS: A lot of concrete, a lot of industry here.
还有很多建筑 很多工业
A lot of our streets, as you can see, don’t have sidewalks.
正如你看到的 我们的许多公路没有人行道
You’re having to walk in the street, like we are.
行人只能像我们这样 走在大道上
And there’s not a lot of shade.
没有多少树荫
If you can look around, you don’t see a lot of trees.
你四处看看会发现 没有多少树
This is the Sonoran Desert, so of course the summers are hot.
这里是索诺兰沙漠 夏天必然炎热
But it also seems like this entire city was almost designed to capture heat.
但这座城市就像是专为收集热量而建
The streets are so wide.
道路太宽了
This isn’t a highway, this is just the Phoenix grid.
这不是公路 这就是凤凰城内的街道而已
And the buildings are so flat and set back from the sidewalk, so they don’t create
建筑都是扁平的 且距离道路远
much shade at all.
因此根本无法形成遮挡
And then there’s the parking lots.
还有就是停车场
I read one estimate that there are more than 4 parking spots for every car in Phoenix.
我看过一个估算:在凤凰城 每辆车至少拥有4个停车位
The sun just beams into all that pavement.
阳光直射在道路上
And it doesn’t just roast anyone who happens to walk across it,
不仅 炙烤着正好路过的人们
it’s also transferring heat to the air, day and night.
而且 持续不断地把热量扩散到空气中
Wow I really … did that poorly.
哇 我停车技术真差劲
Also, I promise this is not a Chevy ad, I just borrowed my dad’s car.
我可不是给雪佛兰打广告 我只是借了我爸的车
So what do you do to try to mitigate heat in a city like this?
所以 在这样的城市 可以做些什么缓解炎热呢
Well, reflective roofs can help a bit.
反射屋顶有些用
The thermal image shows the surface temperature of the dark roof is hotter than the white ones.
热影像显示 黑色屋顶的表面温度比白色屋顶的高
And the city has also tried painting some roads with a more reflective coating.
市政府也试着把一些道路涂上反射力更强的涂层
But if you compare the hottest and coolest neighborhoods, it’s pretty clear that the
但如果对比最热和最凉爽的街区
big difference between them isn’t the black or white surfaces.
很明显 最大的不同并不是黑色或白色的表面
It’s the green ones.
而是两地绿色植物的数量有所不同
Plants are the variable that connects this map of heat to this map of poverty.
植物是联系热影像图和贫穷分布图的变量
And studies have confirmed that the cooling effect of cool roofs and cool pavements is
已有研究表明 隔热屋顶和防热路面的降温效果
smaller than the cooling effect of trees.
小于树木
“One of the best ways to beat the urban heat.”
树是抵抗城市炎热最好的方式
“The more trees you plant, the more benefits.”
树种得越多 好处越多
“It’s cleansing for the air.”
树木可以清洁空气
“Reduce carbon footprint.”
减少碳足迹
“Lower levels of stress.”
缓解压力
“Decrease energy costs.”
降低能源消耗
“Storm water management.”
有利于降水管理
“It’s a very important engine of cooling.”
是非常重要的降温手段
If you take an area that’s just parking lots and buildings, and cover at least a quarter
如果在一个只有停车场和建筑的区域 使树木覆盖率至少达到四分之一
of the space with trees, you can lower air temperatures there by around 8 degrees Fahrenheit
那么该区域可以降低空气温度约8华氏度
or 4.4 degrees Celsius.
也就是4.4摄氏度
That’s according to a study from Arizona State University.
该研究结论来自亚利桑那州立大学
For those who are used to humid summers, it can be hard to understand just how much relief
对于习惯了湿热夏季的人来说 他们很难理解
shade provides in a dry heat.
在干燥而暴晒的天气里 树荫有多么沁人心脾
You can easily see the temperature difference on my arms and on the concrete there.
你们可以明显看到我的手臂和地面的温度差异
So the city of Phoenix has committed funds to planting more trees.
因此凤凰城已经投入资金种植树木
They want all neighborhoods to reach a minimal level of canopy cover by 2030.
他们希望所有社区到2030年达到最低林冠覆盖水平
And I love the idea
我喜欢这个构想
of recruiting an army of trees to protect the vulnerable from extreme heat.
征召树木兵来守护遭受酷热攻击的人们
But there’s a problem.
但是有一个问题
Outside of parks and along major streets, the urban forest currently depends not on
当前 停车场外和主路两边的树木城市绿化无法依靠公共资源
public resources, but on private ones.
而是依靠归个人资源
What would it take for a street like this one to become one of those shady tree-lined
像这样的街道想成为市郊那样绿树成荫
streets that they have uptown.
需要怎样做呢?
OLIVAS: Well, any tree that’s planted in this neighborhood in front of someone’s home,
在这个社区 任何种在某户人家房前的树木
they would have to maintain.
都由这户人家负责养护
OLIVAS: The city does not maintain them in these residential areas.
政府不负责养护居民区的树木
I see, okay.
我明白了
So there are some utility companies here that will give you a couple of free trees if you
因此有一些公用事业公司会免费提供两棵树
agree to plant them on the west side or south side of your home, because eventually that
前提是你同意把这两棵树种在你房子的西面或南面
can end up saving something like 30% on your air conditioning bill.
理由是这能节省比如30%的空调费用
But it sounds like that doesn’t really solve the maintenance issue.
但这似乎不能真正解决树木的养护问题
OLIVAS: Correct.
的确是
OLIVAS: Because there’s that tradeoff between shade or increased water bill.
因为人们纠结的是 要乘凉则要多付水费
But it’s the cost of maintaining the trees that is challenging, obviously in a very low
尤其在我们这样的低收入社区
income neighborhood like ours.
养护树木的费用是一个挑战
And it’s not a priority for them in their family, in their home.
养护树木不是这些家庭的当务之急
Are there no programs that are actually going to take on the watering cost?
没有承包水费的方案吗?
OLIVAS: Zero.
没有
That is the responsibility of the homeowner and you have to remember, what did I say?
那是房主的责任 还记得我之前和你说过的吗
These are mostly renters.
这些大部分是房东
I walked with Eva along Buckeye Road where there’s a big triangular lot, it’s owned
我和Eva沿着七叶树路走 那里有一块很大的三角形空地
by the city, and has been left unplanted.
这块地归政府所有 至今没有种绿植
She said that would probably change with the city’s new tree equity plans.
她说 随着政府新的树木产权计划 情况可能会转变
But she also hoped for some more basic things: like sidewalks
但她也希望人行道 公交车站的树荫遮挡等
and shade shelters for all the bus stops.
这些更基本的问题得到解决
It was a reminder that wealth already affects access to infrastructure, even infrastructure
这提醒我们 资金问题已经影响到基础设施的建设
that doesn’t have to be watered and pruned.
即使是不需要灌溉和修剪的设施也是如此
And that’s what will have to change if cities like Phoenix want to make sure that
像凤凰城这样的城市想要确保
the heaviest burdens of climate warming don’t fall on those
气候变暖最沉重的负担不会落在最无力与之对抗的人身上
who are least prepared to withstand them.
那么就必须做出改变

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视频概述

美国最炎热的地区正面临哪些考验,以及如果应对这些考验,给城市降温。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

杨麦丝

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQ6fSHr5TJg

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