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美国是怎么成为超级大国的 – 译学馆
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美国是怎么成为超级大国的

How America became a superpower

现在的美国是人类历史上最强大的国家
The modern United States is the most powerful country in human history.
它拥有超过800个军事基地和37%的全球军事开支
With over 800 military bases and 37% of global military spending, the United States
美国已然成为了全球互联系统的领袖
has become the leader of a vast interconnected global system that has helped usher in an
开启空前繁盛及最低化冲突时代的庞大系统
era of unprecedented prosperity and low levels of conflict.
为了解美国在世界的地位及其为何美国在全球政治中扮演了我们众所周知的关键角色
To understand America’s position in the world, and why it’s so pivotal for world
我们不得不回到最初的美国
politics as we know it, you have to go back to the country’s founding — back to when
那时美国还没有成为世界强国
America wasn’t a global power in any sense of the word.
在建国最初的70年里 美国不断扩大它在北美的领土及影响
During the first 70 years of its existence, the United States expanded in both territory
最终扩展到太平洋
and influence in North America eventually reaching the Pacific Ocean in a wave of expansionism
这样的扩张主义洪流导致了大规模屠杀原本居住于这片土地的土著民
that resulted in the wholesale slaughter of the indigenous people who populated the continent.
但早期的美国人对国家是否应该扩展到
But early Americans were deeply divided as to whether the country should expand beyond
太平洋和大西洋 产生了严重的分歧
the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
这个分歧也成为了美国南北战争后的主要争论 一些领袖 如战后
This became a major debate after the civil war, when some leaders, like post-war
国务卿西沃德 他主张加强美国地位
Secretary of State Seward, argued that America should push to become a global power.
西沃德成功的推动了从俄罗斯购买阿拉斯加的计划 但是他想购买
Seward succeeded in pushing a plan to purchase Alaska from Russia, but his attempts to buy
格陵兰及冰岛 还有吞并加勒比的企图 都被国会阻止了
Greenland and Iceland, as well as annex territory in the Caribbean, were all blocked by Congress.
这是因为有些美国人 包括很多身处国会的人 都有强烈的反帝国主义倾向
That’s because some Americans, including many on Capitol Hill, had a strong anti-imperialist bent.
他们既担忧美国会更深的介入全球政治中
These people worried about America getting more involved in global politics, as well
又担心“劣等”种族的加入
as having to integrate populations from “inferior” races.
这样的反对党成了主张扩张的帝国主义者的重要阻碍
And this opposition applied major checks on the imperialist urge to expand.
但在1800年末期 美国发生了一件 可能会改变扩张主义争辩的事情
But something was happening in the late 1800s that would change the debate about American expansionism.
工业革命带来了巨大的经济增长 更强的经济实力
The industrial revolution produced explosive economic growth, and the bigger US economy
需要更集中的国家及政府权利来掌控经济的增长
required a more centralized state and bureaucracy to manage the growing economy.
联邦政府集中了权利 使得像威廉·麦金莱这样主张扩张主义的总统
Power became concentrated in the federal government, making it easier for expansionist presidents,
更容易的单方面推动美国对海外的影响
like William Mckinley, to unilaterally push United States influence abroad.
关键转折点发生在1898年 总统麦金莱将美国拖入了
The key turning point came in 1898, when President McKinley dragged the country into war with
与西班牙争夺古巴的战争中 尽管这场战争遭到强烈反对
Spain over the island of Cuba despite intense opposition.
崛起的美国轻易的击败了垂死的西班牙帝国 并在战乱中(1898)夺得了波多黎各 关岛
The rising US easily defeated the moribund Spanish empire, acquiring Puerto Rico, Guam,
和菲律宾
and the Philippines in the process (1898).
在接下来的两年里 美国吞并了夏威夷(1899)
Over the next two years, the US would annex the Kingdom of Hawaii (1898), Wake Island
和萨摩亚群岛(1900)
(1899), and American Samoa (1900).
几年后 美国控制了巴拿马运河(1903)并通过军事武力
A few years later the US took control of the Panama Canal Zone (1903) and sent troops to
占领了多米尼加共和国(1916) 美国同时收购了美属维京岛(1917)
occupy the Dominican Republic (1916), it also purchased the American Virgin Islands (1917).
这钟横跨各大领土的快速殖民使得美国成为了世界地图上
This period of rapid acquisition of far flung territories put the US on the map as a truly
真正的强国
global power.
与此同时 美国还利用其影响力来保护它的经济增长
During this time, America also began using its influence to protect its growing commercial
及海外军事利益 并在一些地方 比如尼加拉瓜 使用亲美政策
and military interests abroad, installing pro-American regimes in places like Nicaragua
同时在西方介入中国的国际外交中扮演重要一员
and playing a major role in international diplomacy regarding the Western presence in China.
一战就显示出了美国不断扩大的影响力
World War I showed just how much America’s influence had grown.
美国不仅参与了结束一战的重要决策
Not only was American intervention a decisive factor in the war’s end
同时总统威尔逊参加了结束战争
But President Wilson attended the Paris Peace Conference which ended the war and attempted
并签订和平条款的巴黎和会
to set the terms of the peace.
威尔逊带头提倡美国最具野心的国际政策 同时带领了
He spearheaded America’s most ambitious foreign policy initiative yet, an international
一个专门推动和平及全球合作的 名为国际联盟的组织
organization, called the League of Nations, designed to promote peace and cooperation globally.
展示了国际政策最大的努力的国际联盟很好的显示出美国对
The League, a wholesale effort to remake global politics, showed just how ambitious American
国际政策的远大抱负
foreign policy had become.
但是 孤立主义还是美国的一大主要力量
Yet isolationism was still a major force in the United State.
但是 孤立主义还是美国的一大主要力量
States.
国会封锁了美国加入国际联盟的意愿 注定了威尔逊
Congress blocked the United States from joining the League of Nations, dooming Wilson’s
计划的失败
project.
在经济大萧条和希特勒崛起的兼并下 美国更关注
During the Great Depression and the rise of Hitler, the US was was much more focused on
自己领土而不是欧洲的事务 但最终
its own region than on European affairs Ultimately, though, America’s ever-growing
美国在与海外的不断纠缠中 彻底失去了完全远离海外纠葛的可能性
entanglements abroad made it impossible for it to stay out of global affairs entirely.
在东亚 崛起的日本帝国直接威胁到了美国的力量
In East Asia, the growing Japanese empire posed a the direct threat to American possessions
日本军队的介入将美国和日本拉入更深的冲突
and troops bringing the United States and Japan into conflict.
珍珠港事件宣告了美国正式进入了二战
This culminated in the Pearl Harbor attack bringing the United States into World War II.
二战将永远的改变了美国在世界中的存在感
World War Two would transform America’s global presence forever.
美国是唯一在战争中避免救济毁灭的国家
The United States was the only major power to avoid economic ruin during the war, and
同时也是唯一拥有核武器的国家
it was the sole country equipped with atomic weapons.
因此 美国在修订和平条款中占有独特位置
As such, it was in unique position to set the terms of the peace — and, with the aim
利用其优势避免其他战争的发生
of preventing another war in mind, it took advantage.
最著名的例子就是联合国的成立
The most famous example of this is the creation of the United Nations.
联合国宪章构建了国际法律来防止武力战争
The UN charter set up a system of international law prohibiting wars of conquest, like the
比如纳粹和日本发起的战争
ones waged by the Nazis and the Japanese.
联合国同时也是一种座谈会 国际社会可以就各种纷争发表意见
It also served as a forum in which the international community could weigh in on disputes, and
同时解决纷争
help resolve them.
这样一来 美国人希望借以强大的力量 通过折中和法律来解决纠纷
This way, the Americans hoped, great powers could resolve their differences through compromise
而不是靠武力
and law rather than war.
虽然联合国是战后最著名的机构 但它并不是唯一的
But while the UN is the most famous of the post-war institutions, it isn’t the only one.
来自44个联盟国家的730位代表人相继来到位于
730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations came together in a small vacation haven in
新罕布什尔州的度假天堂 他们的目的是什么? 就是为了成立一个国际金融系统
New Hampshire. Their goal? To establish a global financial system that would prevent another Great Depression
来防止经济萧条和世界大战
and World War.
应运而生的布雷顿森林协定 最终成为了
The resulting agreement, called the Bretton Woods Agreement ultimately became backbone of the
全球金融系统的支柱
global financial system.
并孕育了世界银行和国际货币基金组织
Resulting in the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
通过建立这些机构 美国致力于深入的
By creating these institutions the United States committed itself to being deeply
参与到各种世界问题
involved in the world’s problems.
但问题是 世界第二强国 苏联
The issue, though, is that the world’s second-largest power — The Soviet Union — saw things
持有不同看法
differently.
二战促使民主的西方和共和的东方走到一起共同抵抗希特勒
World War II had made allies out of the democratic West and communist East in the fight against
但这样的局面并没有持续下去
Hitler, but that couldn’t last.
美国认为苏联在东欧及各地的扩张直接威胁到
The United States saw Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe and elsewhere as a direct threat
美国全球自由贸易的梦想
to its vision of a free-trading world.
“在相当大的程度上 以一种形式或另一种形式”
“To a substantial degree, in one form or another”
“社会主义将人类系统化的阴影不断扩大到”
Socialism has spread the shadow of human regimentation
“世界各大国家”
Over most of the nations of the earth
“同时… 这种阴影侵占到了我们的自由”
And… the shadow is encroaching on our own liberty.
由于惧怕苏联对西欧的意图 美国及其他欧洲国家
Fearful of Soviet intentions towards Western Europe, the US and other European nations
成立了北大西洋公约组织 一个阻止苏联
created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance meant to stop Russia from
侵占其他欧洲国家的军事联盟
invading other countries in Europe.
全局上 美国致力于“遏制政策”战略 这样叫是因为它
Globally, the US committed to a strategy called “containment” — so called because it
试图阻止共产主义传播到世界各个角落
was aimed at containing the spread of Communism everywhere on the globe.
这个崭新的全球斗争意味着美国不得不把它的影响延伸到所有地方
This new global struggle meant that the US had to exert influence everywhere, all the
持续不断
time.
二战产生的庞大的军事机器不仅没有停止
Instead of disbanding the massive military machine created for World War II, its wheels
还不停的运转着
mostly kept turning.
这就产生了两个结果 一 美国陷入与各不相同的国家
This had two main results: first, the US was pulled into unlikely alliances with countries
如沙特阿拉伯 以色列 南韩结为同盟 视这些国家为反国产主义
like Saudi Arabia, Israel, and South Korea, seeing each of them as bulwarks against communist
进入国家的堡垒
influence in their region.
二 美国开始秘密的干涉许多国家
Secondly, the US began intervening, often secretly, in dozens of countries to contain
以控制苏联的影响
Soviet influence.
有时 这意味着 同情独裁者 比如伊朗 其他时候
Sometimes this meant propping up sympathetic dictators like in Iran, other times
提供反叛者武器及金钱 比如 1979年给阿富汗和1985年给尼加拉瓜
supplying rebels with arms and money like in Afghanistan in 1979 and Nicaragua in 1985.
在冷战中 美国介入了世界中上百起的纷争中
Over the course of the Cold War, the US intervened in hundreds of disputes around the globe,
最终导致了一系列的复杂的联盟 紧迫局势 和各种关系
ending up with a complicated set of alliances, tensions, and relationships in basically every corner
这些几乎覆盖了世界上的各个角落
of the earth.
柏林墙倒塌后 美国本可以退出这个体系
After the Berlin wall fell, the US could have withdrawn from this system, severing ties
与同盟调和 并减小军事规模
with its allies and drawing down the size of its military.
虽然美国确实减小了军事花费 但是冷战中的军事施设
And while the US did decrease military spending, much of the military
和同盟还是被保留下来了
infrastructure and alliances from the Cold War war remained.
乔治华盛顿 布什和比尔克林顿这三位总统决定鉴于美国及世界对美国的共同利益
Presidents George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton decided that it was in both America and the
美国作为世界上唯一的超级大国
world’s interests for the United States, now the sole superpower on earth, to continue
应继续积极地参与管理世界事务
actively managing global affairs.
“我们应该是 也必须成为和平守护者”
” We should be and we must be Peacemakers”
北大西洋公约 仅做为对抗苏联的工具 应继续保持并扩大规模
NATO, created solely as a tool for countering the Soviets, stayed together and even expanded,
促使欧洲国家联合在一起 即使现在已没有苏联的威胁
a way of keeping European nations united in the absence of the Soviet threat.
华盛顿对以色列和日本等国家的支持一如往昔 表面上
Washington’s support for countries like Israel and Japan stayed intact, ostensibly
是为了避免这些国家发生战争
as a means of preventing war in those regions.
为保持冷战中的和平而创立的全球联盟系统和组织
The global system of alliances and institutions created to keep the peace during the Cold
成了永久的存在
War became permanent — as did the American military and political commitments needed to
美国的军事和政治和承诺的确需要他们的运转
keep them running .
这个系统运行至今 从冷战开始
This system remains in operation today, and no leading American politician since the Cold War has
就没有任何美国政治家提出解散他们——也许 除了川普
seriously called for dismantling them — except, perhaps for Donald Trump.
川普对这些承诺的言论互相矛盾
Trump has said contradictory things about these commitments.
但是他一向表明美国的这些同盟并没有因为美国对他们的保护而给美国同等的回复
But he’s consistently argued that American allies are not paying America enough for its
他也质疑自由贸易存在的价值
protection, and questioned the value of free trade.
这也使北大西洋公约 甚至世界贸易组织受到质疑
That calls NATO and even the World Trade Organization into question.
在某一点上 我们必须说 美国会更好 如果日本
At some point, we have to say, you know what, we’re better off if Japan
能够自己保护自己不受疯子式的朝鲜侵害
protects itself against this maniac in North Korea.
我们会更好 如果韩国也会自己保护自己
We’re better off frankly if South Korea is going to start to protect itself
沙特阿拉伯呢?
— and Saudi Arabia?–
沙特阿拉伯 当然
Saudi Arabia? Absolutely.
这对于从1945年就得到一直认同的美国外交政策 产生了强烈的分歧
This is a sharp divergence from the consensus that has dominated US foreign policy since
并使其面临孤立主义
1945, and something closer to the isolationism that came before it.
所以川普是否会贯彻一些候选的川普主意
So will President Trump act on some of candidate Trump’s ideas, and reverse decades
并扭转发挥余热数十年的组织和同盟吗
worth of institution building and alliances?
我们很快就会知道了
We’ll find out, soon enough.

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