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进化史的发展方向 – 译学馆
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进化史的发展方向

How Alien Life Might Evolve in Outer Space: Dinosaurs, Kiwis, New Zealand | Jonathan Losos

这里有个讨论 关于如果生命在其它行星上进化
So there’s a lot of discussion of what might life look like on other planets, if life has
生命会是什么样子
evolved there.
会不会像今天的世界一样多元化呢?
Will it diversify in a way like the world today?
关于这个问题有许多推测
And there’s a lot of speculation about that question.
但是我们不必去到其它星球上才提出这个问题
But we actually don’t need to go to other planets to ask that question.
因为地球上不同的地方有不同的
And that’s because there are different places on Earth that have had different evolutionary
进化史
histories.
因此我们可以寻求地球上不同地方的生命是不是在相似的环境下 进化历程是
And so we can ask on different places in the world, has life evolved in the same way under
相同的呢?
similar conditions?
事实上 大自然都给我们设定好了 因为孤立的岛屿
And it turns out that we’re very well set for that, because there are isolated islands
本来就是它们自己的进化空间 在这里的生命很长时间以来
that have been their own evolutionary theaters, if you will, that life has evolved very differently
特立独行地进化着
or very independently for a long time.
新西兰就是很好的例子
The best example of that I think is New Zealand.
8000万年前新西兰土地从澳洲土地上分离出去
Now New Zealand broke off from Australia about 80 million years ago.
这之前 大部分的哺乳动物已经变的多样化
And this was before most modern mammal groups had really diversified.
事实上 如今新西兰没有本土的哺乳动物
And, in fact, today there are no native land mammals on New Zealand.
海滩上有海豹 也有几种蝙蝠 但是
There are some seals that come ashore on the beach, there are a few species of bats, but
没有啮齿目动物 没有食肉动物等 除了
there are no rodents, there are no carnivores, and so on, except the ones that humans have
过去几百年中才来到的人
introduced in the last couple hundred years.
因此问题来了 新西兰缺少陆地动物 那它是怎么进化的呢?
So the question is how did New Zealand evolve in the absence of land mammals?
事实上 特别是鸟 它们利用了这一点
Well it turns out that birds in particular have taken advantage of that and they’ve
进化成可以做世界上其它地方的哺乳动物可以做的事情
evolved to do many of the things that mammals do elsewhere in the world.
因此有了食肉鸟 食草鸟 各种各样的鸟
And there are carnivores and herbivores and all kinds of birds.
如果现在你认为 进化起决定性作用 那么我们就能预期新西兰的物种与世界其他地方的相似
Now if we thought that evolution is deterministic then we would expect New Zealand, even though
尽管新西兰被鸟类所占据
it’s dominated by birds, to have species very similar to those elsewhere in the world.
但是不是这样的
But that’s not at all the case.
几维鸟是个很好的例子
The best example is the kiwi.
人们知道几维鸟是个这么大的鸟
Now people know the kiwi, it’s a bird this big.
没有翅膀
It turns out that it has no wings.
在地上跑
It runs around on the ground.
它有鸟类不常具备的灵敏嗅觉
It has an extremely good sense of smell, which is very unusual for birds.
长着与哺乳动物相似的短短的细须
It also has little whiskers, very similar to mammals.
基本上 刺猬 獾或者犰狳能做的事情 几维鸟
Basically a kiwi does the same thing that a hedgehog or maybe a badger or an armadillo
都可以做
does.
它到处转悠 翻树叶 寻找虫子和其他无脊椎动物
It goes around rooting through the leaf litter looking for worms and other invertebrates.
它的进化就很奇特
Yet it has adapted in a very different way.
事实上 新西兰整个生物的进化都奇特
And, in fact, the entire cast of characters in New Zealand is very different.
这里有食肉鹦鹉 同时还有完全不好战的鹦鹉
There are carnivorous parrots, there are parrots that are completely flightless and walk around
在地上找种子吃
on the ground looking for seeds.
这里还有10英尺高的恐鸟 不会飞 食草动物
There was a ten foot tall moa, a land bird that can’t fly, that is the dominant herbivore
看起来一点都不像鹿 野牛或者其它地方的食草动物
that looks nothing like a deer or a bison or its ecological equivalence elsewhere.
因此新西兰就是另一个世界
So New Zealand is an alternative world if you will.
在进化意义上讲 几乎就是另一个星球
Almost an alternative planet in evolutionary terms.
这里的进化跟世界上其它地方完全不一样
What has evolved there is completely different from the rest of the world.
其它地方也一样
And this is true of other places.
澳洲在一些方面也不同于其它
Australia in at least some respects is very different.
马达加斯加岛 或者回到恐龙时代
Madagascar – or go back to the age of the dinosaurs.
恐龙出现了 之后灭绝了
Well the dinosaurs came, they went extinct.
如果进化起决定性作用 那为什么我们如今没有霸王龙或者雷龙类型的
If evolution is so deterministic why don’t we have t-rex and brontosaurus-type dinosaurs
恐龙呢?
today?
那是因为进化朝着另一个完全不同的方向发展
It’s because evolution has gone in a very different direction.
因此我们不用去探索其他星球去研究进化是不是决定性因子
So we don’t need to go to other planets to see how deterministic evolution is.
我们只要研究地球上不同的地方就会发现 进化的结果通常是
We can just look in different places on Earth and we can see that the outcome often is very
不同的
different.

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视频概述

进化不是朝着相同的方向发展 会根据地域性和其他因素而改变

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gITAgWg7i00

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