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机场是怎么赚钱的 – 译学馆
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机场是怎么赚钱的

How Airports Make Money

This video was made possible by Squarespace.
本节目由Squarespace赞助播出
After this, watch the video I made for their channel.
本段视频后不要离开
More about it after the video.
请观看我为赞助商制作的视频
Airports are incredibly complex and challenging businesses
经营机场是相当复杂又有挑战性的生意
but in many cases, they’re businesses that make money.
但是多数情况下 机场很赚钱
Many airports are owned by governments
许多机场是政府所有
but still then, they’re often operated as businesses
然而它们通常由企业经营
just businesses that are publicly owned.
只不过企业是国有企业
The majority of airports make their money
大多数机场的利润
through what they earn from passenger carrying commercial flights using their facilities.
来源于使用其设施的民用商业客机
Some airports are cargo focused and
有些机场专注于货运
fund their operations through cargo flights
由来自货机的收入支撑运营
but the ones that you’ve most heard of,
但是你最熟悉的机场
such as London’s Heathrow Airport,
比如伦敦的希斯罗机场
rely almost entirely on passenger flights.
几乎完全依靠客运航班支撑运营
While the amount of cargo going through Heathrow is significant
希思罗机场的货运吞吐量相当可观
thanks to passenger aircraft transporting cargo in their holds,
很大原因是由于客机搭载了货物
the number of dedicated cargo flights is low in proportion
机场每天650架次航班中
to the airports 650 daily flights.
专用货运飞机比例很低
They make their money off of the 78 million passengers flying through each year.
机场的收入来源于每年7800万出行的旅客
Heathrow is the busiest airport in the world
希思罗是世界上最繁忙的机场
that is fully privately owned
并且完全是私有的
the UK government owns no stake in it
英国政府不持有任何股份
and so it is perhaps the best example of an airport built to turn a profit.
所以它或许可以作为商业机场的绝佳案例
It costs $1,485,650,000 per year to run Heathrow airport.
希思罗机场每年运营花销14亿8565万美元
This includes costs like the $ 494 million
其中包括支付给6500名员工的
Heathrow pays in salaries to its 6,500 employees.
4亿9千4百万美金工资
Now, 76,000 people actually work at Heathrow
目前有76000人在希思罗机场工作
but only those 6,500 actually work for Heathrow.
但只有6500人是机场雇员
The company that runs Heathrow, Heathrow Airport Holdings,
机场运营商“希思罗机场控股公司”
is only really responsible for the oversight and administration of the airport.
仅负责监督管理机场
Within Heathrow’s walls, though, there are hundreds of other companies operating.
在机场内还有几百家公司
Those 70,000 other people work for the airlines,
其他7万人为航空公司
the baggage handling companies, the air traffic control company,
行李管理公司 空管公司
the restaurants, the rental car companies, the bus companies,
餐厅 租车行 公交公司
and all the other different employers at the airport.
和机场其他雇主工作
There are, of course, plenty of other costs involved in running the airport
运营机场当然还有很多其他花费
from the $ 232 million per year in maintenance
从每年2亿3千2百万美金维修费
to the $113 million yearly utility bill
到每年1亿1千3百万的
for water, electricity, internet, gas and more,
水电账单 网费 油费和其他费用
but overall, that number,
但是如果计算账目总额
$ 1.5 billion, is what it costs to run the
作为世界上第六繁忙的机场
sixth busiest airport in the world.
它的运营成本是15亿美金
That’s more than it costs to run the 1.3 million person country of Swaziland.
这比人口130万的斯威士兰政府支出还多
So how do they pay for that?
那运营商如何负担开销?
On a per passenger basis,
希思罗机场的运营成本
it costs $ 19 to run Heathrow Airport.
摊在每名旅客身上是19美元
Essentially, that means Heathrow needs to make $ 19
这意味着希思罗机场需要在每名
from each passenger that passes through its doors in order to break even.
通行的旅客身上赚到19美金 收支才能平衡
Of course, some passengers are more profitable than others.
当然 从有些旅客那能赚到更多的钱
Arriving passengers generally just get off the plane,
到达的旅客通常下了飞机
go through customs, and leave immediately
通过海关就直接离开了
without buying anything
不买什么东西
while connecting and departing passengers generally
而转机和出发的旅客
have more time to shop at the airport.
通常有更多时间在机场购物
Retail is incredibly important to the profitability of any airport.
机场越快办理完登机手续和安检
This is part of the reason why its in the airports best interest
它得到的收益就越多
to make the check-in and security process as quick as possible
部分原因是 零售是每家机场的主要营利
—so passengers have more time to shop.
所以旅客迅速通过安检 才有时间购物
Heathrow makes money through retail by receiving a cut of every sale made.
希思罗机场通过对每笔零售抽成赚钱
On average, restaurants earn the airport 95 cents per passenger,
餐馆平均在每位旅客身上为机场赚9毛5
retail stores earn them $ 5.15 per passenger,
零售店为机场赚 5.15美元每人
the parking lots add on another $ 2.03,
停车场赚2.03美元
then all the other smaller sources of retail revenue
加上其他零售业更少的收入
such as rental car companies and VIP lounges account for another $3.04.
比如租车行和贵宾休息区 赚到3.04美元
Rather uniquely, Heathrow also operates the express train
希思罗机场特别的地方是
from the airport to Paddington Station in London
它也运营机场往返帕丁顿车站的快速铁路
which makes them another $2.15 per passenger.
铁路能给它带来每位旅客2.15美元的收入
All in all, the airport makes $ 13.32 from passengers
加起来 除了机票本身的盈利
through purchases on top of their actual airplane ticket
机场在每位旅客身上赚到13.32美元
and, its worth pointing out,
值得指出的是
this doesn’t mean that passengers spend $13.32
这不意味着旅客花费了13.32美元
this means that Heathrow makes
13.32美元是希斯罗机场
$13.32 per passenger.
在每位旅客处赚得的净利润
This is their cut—actual spending
这只是机场赚取的分成
at the airport per passenger is much higher.
每位旅客在机场的实际消费要更高
Now, you may think that this amount
现在你也许会认为
of retail revenue per passenger is high
零售业从旅客身上赚了不少
and you’d be right, it is.
你是对的 确实是
In fact, it’s one of the highest retail revenues per passenger
实际上 希斯罗机场是全世界在零售业上
of any airport worldwide.
从每位旅客身上赚钱最多的机场
In comparison, Washington Dulles Airport
用华盛顿杜勒斯机场作比较
makes $ 5.68 per passenger,
它在每位旅客身上获利5.68美元
Auckland Airport makes $ 7.71,
奥克兰机场赚7.71美元
and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport makes $ 10.92 per passenger through retail.
巴黎查尔斯戴高乐机场在每位旅客上赚10.92美元
Heathrow is an expert in making passengers spend.
希斯罗机场在刺激旅客消费方面是专家
They use all sorts of tricks and tactics to increase passenger spending.
它使用各种伎俩和策略增加顾客消费
For example, in Terminal 3,
比如说 在T3航站楼
to get from security and to the gates,
通过安检到达登机口时
all passengers have to walk through duty free
所有旅客都要从免税店经过
which increases sales enormously.
这极大增加了销售额
Heathrow also doesn’t display the gate
希斯罗在起飞前45到90分钟
for flights until around 45-90 minutes before departure.
不会开放登机口
This is common in European airports, but uncommon elsewhere.
这在欧洲机场很常见 但是其他地方并不常见
Because of this,
因为这样一来
passengers wait in the central area where shops and restaurants are until
停留在中央区商店和餐馆的旅客
just before their flight which leads to more time with passengers exposed to the retail environment.
在起飞前有更多消费时间
Being one of the very few airports
作为六个有人居住的大洲中
with non-stop service to all six inhabited continents,
极少数没有中转服务的机场
Heathrow also has the advantage of being an airport focused on long-haul service.
希斯罗机场还从大量长距离航班得到利润
These flights tend to carry the wealthiest passengers and,
这些航班里一般坐着最富有的旅客
while worldwide passengers arrive an
其他机场的旅客平均在
average of 2 hours and 17 minutes before their flight,
起飞前2小时17分钟左右到达机场
Heathrow passengers arrive 2 hours and 51 minutes before
希斯罗机场的旅客平均提前2小时51分到达
which means they have more time to shop at the airport.
这意味他们在机场有更多购物时间
As mentioned, though,
如前述
the airport needs to make $ 19 per passenger
机场需要在每位旅客身上赚到19美元才能收支平衡
and retail only earns them just over $13.
而零售只能赚到13美元多一点
The rest of it comes from flights.
剩下的收入来源于航班
Each plane that lands at Heathrow pays the airport an
每架降落在希斯罗机场的飞机
average of $ 9,500.
平均支付9500美元
Of course it varies hugely by aircraft
当然不同飞机型号缴费不同
—a 76 seat FlyBe Dash 8 isn’t paying the same
弗莱比公司76座“冲八”飞机的缴费
as a 345 seat British Airways 747—
和英航345座波音747的缴费一定不同
but $ 9,500 is the average per visit to Heathrow.
但平均每架飞机缴费9500美元
That goes to pay for things like gate space, a check in area,
这些钱用来支付登机口设施 安检设施
and the runway time itself.
以及跑道的维护
The airport charges a fixed amount per aircraft landing,
机场对着陆飞机收取定额费用
for the small Bombardier Dash 8 it would be $ 999
小型“冲八”飞机需缴费999美元
while for the large 747 it would be $ 11,600.
大型波音747则需缴费11600美元
On departure,
对于离港的飞机
airlines are then charged again this time per passenger.
机场根据旅客人数向航空公司再次收费
For each passenger flying to a destination outside of Europe
对于飞往欧洲以外的乘客
the airline is charged a base of $ 58
机场收费基础是每人58美元
but this charge is reduced if a passenger connects
但如果旅客只是在机场中转
through Heathrow rather than originating
或者飞机停在远机位而非登机口
or if the aircraft is parked at a remote stand rather than a gate.
这个费用会相应减少
All in all,
总而言之
a fully loaded 76 seat FlyBe Dash 8
用满载的76座“冲八”飞机举例
flying a domestic route to Edinburgh, for example
如果它执飞前往爱丁堡的国内航程
would be charged about $ 2,400
将被收取2400美元
for its whole visit, arrival and departure,
这是它从入港到出港的全部费用
while that British Airways 747 flying a long-haul route to New York,
而英航执飞到纽约长途航程的波音747
for example, would be charged$31,700
将被收取31700美元
It’s worth noting that these are the published prices—
要注意的是 这些只是标价
in reality, many airlines with significant numbers of flights at Heathrow
事实上 航班较多的航空公司
have agreements with the airport that reduce their costs.
会和希斯罗机场签订折扣协议
Breaking it down, what those numbers mean is
归根结底 这些数字意味着
that Heathrow gets, on average, $ 29 of cost of every passenger’ ticket.
希斯罗机场平均从每张机票获利29美元
As you can see that means that Heathrow makes
所以看得出 希斯罗机场的获利
a fair bit more than it costs to run the airport.
比它花费在维护上的钱要多
The company mostly uses this operating profit to pay off debt
公司将这些运营利润用于
from prior projects and to pay taxes,
偿还建设贷款和缴税上
so in the end, they’re only truly making about $ 8.20 off of each of their passengers,
所以机场最终在每位旅客那赚了8.2美元
but what these numbers also mean is that,
但这些数字还意味着其他
by design, Heathrow is incentivized to attract long-haul flights.
最初设计时 希斯罗机场是为了吸引长途航班的
The airport is currently at capacity.
机场目前已达到它的满载容量
Their maximum number of flights per day is 657
机场每天最多容纳657架飞机
and they currently have 650.
而现在每天已达到650架
They really have no more capacity which means one
它已经没有多余的载量了
of the only ways for them to grow financially
也就是说 机场接下来想增加收入
is to bring in larger planes.
只能允许更大型的飞机停靠了
The 76 seat FlyBe Dash 8 takes up the same time
76座的“冲八”飞机占用了原本提供给
on the runway that could be used by another 345 seat British Airways 747
英航345座波音747飞机的跑道
while the airport would make vastly more money by having that 747 land.
然而机场可以从后者身上赚到更多的钱
This is no doubt part of the reason
这无疑解释了
why Heathrow is so poorly connected
为什么希斯罗机场在它所在地
to the country that it’s in—the UK.
英国国内的航班那么少
The airports only has flights to eight destinations in the UK
这个机场飞往国内的航班只有8个
which means the airport has exactly the same number of destinations
就是说从希斯罗机场飞往本国的航班
in the UK as it has in China.
和飞往中国的一样多
Meanwhile, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol,in the Netherlands,
而荷兰阿姆斯特丹的史基浦机场
has flights to 25 destinations in the UK.
飞往英国的航班有25个
That means that for the vast majority of UK residents living outside of London,
就是说 大部分生活在伦敦以外的英国居民
it’s easier to connect to wherever they’re going
通过阿姆斯特丹机场前往目的地
through Amsterdam than the airport in their capital city.
比通过希斯罗机场前往更方便
The reality is that Heathrow is a commercial company.
事实是 希斯罗机场是一个商业公司
While most UK residents would likely
尽管大部分英国居民希望
want to see domestic flights to their largest airport
本国最大的机场有更多国内航线
it just doesn’t make commercial sense
但对希斯罗机场来说
to operate short and cheap flights to Heathrow
放弃高盈利的长途航班
in the place of highly lucrative long-haul flights.
而选择便宜的短途航班不符合商业利益
It’s not only less lucrative for the airport,
这不仅意味着机场盈利变少了
it’s also more costly for the passenger
相比于前往其他小机场搭乘航班
than flying to other smaller airports.
旅客从希斯罗机场出发反而更贵
Of course, not every airport is like Heathrow.
当然 不是每家机场都像希斯罗机场一样
Not every airport is a commercial company.
不是每家机场都是商业公司
That’s just because, in many cases,
只不过在大多数情况下
running an airport the way the public wants it
如大众期望的方式去运营机场
to be run is bad business.
是赚不到钱的
About two thirds of all airports worldwide lose money.
世界上大概三分之二的机场都是亏损的
In many cases that’s because
许多情况下
they’re government run and just not that focused on making money.
是因为它们由政府运营 并不追求盈利
The US is a country that has not yet gotten
美国目前还没有如英国一样
around to airport privatization like the UK.
实现机场的私有化
There is only one single privately owned and operated
美国目前只有一家私有化
airport in the US with commercial passenger flights
且有商业客机的机场
—that’s Branson Airport in Southern Missouri.
就是南密西西里的布兰森机场
Unlike Heathrow, which turns a considerable profit,
不同于希斯罗机场的可观利润
Branson airport is loosing money and
布兰森机场是亏损的
has struggled to keep airlines flying there for more than a few years.
已经很多年都挣扎在保持航线运营上
It’s not like Branson was the only attempt at running a private airport in the US
美国也不是只有布兰森机场试图运营私营机场
—National Express, a UK based transport company,
总部在英国的交通公司 英国国家快运公司
took over Newburgh airport 60 miles north of New York City in 2000,
在2000年收购了纽约北边60公里的纽伯格机场
but it too failed and sold the airport back to the government.
但是亏损太多 只得将机场卖回给政府
The difference between airport privatization in the US and the UK
美国和英国私有化机场的区别在于
is that in the US, the smallest airports went private
在美国最小的机场才私有化
while in the UK, the largest airports did.
而英国最大的机场被私有化
In the UK, ten of the fifteen busiest airports are privately owned and operated.
在英国 15家最忙碌的机场中有10家是私营的
Meanwhile, only four of the fifteen least busy airports in the country are privately owned.
而15家最冷清的机场中只有4家是私营的
That’s because small airports, in most cases, just don’t make money.
这是因为多数情况下 小机场不赚钱
Smaller airports being government run and unprofitable in the US
在美国 不赚钱的小机场由政府运营
allow for a sort of indirect subsidy for airlines to operate there.
所以政府会给飞往那的航空公司间接补助
In these cases, airports are willingly charging airlines less than it costs to run the airport
这样 机场也愿意在稍微赔钱的情况下
to operate there in order to attract them to fly there.
吸引航空公司飞往本机场
City, county or state governments are willing to do this
城市 县或是州政府都愿意提供补贴
because they view air service as a stimulant to economic development.
因为它们将航空业看做刺激经济发展的因素
The merits of private versus public airport ownership can be debated,
机场应该私营还是国营存在争议
but proponents of publicly owned airports will argue
公有化机场的支持者们认为
that they’re essential pieces of infrastructure
机场是关键的基础设施
while those for airport privatization will argue
而私有化机场的支持者则认为
that commercial ownership leads to lower costs and better service.
商业私有化可以让费用更低 服务更优
Even in the UK
即使在英国
public opinion is split on whether airports are better off public or private.
公众对机场应该国营还是私营也存在分歧
What’s sure, though,
可以确定的是
is that running an airport, whether public or private, is not easy and
无论是国营还是私营 运营机场都不容易
the fact that a few hundred aircraft taking off per day is all it takes
事实上 机场数十亿美元生意的基础
to fund the multi billion dollar business
是那里每天数百架离港的航班
of Heathrow is almost as impressive as the planes themselves.
希斯罗机场的生意和那些飞机一样让人印象深刻
Now that you’ve finished this video,
现在你看完这个视频了
there’s another one I made for you to watch.
请观看接下来的视频
Squarespace asked me to make a video
Squarespace要求我做一个视频
explaining why,“ design is not a luxury. ”
解释为什么‘‘设计不是奢侈品’’
That phrase might not make sense now
这句话也许现在看起来没有逻辑
but the whole point of the video I made is to explain it
但是视频中做出了解释
so make sure to watch it.
所以一定要去看一看
You can either click the annotation on-screen now
你可以点击屏幕上的标注
or it’s linked at the top of the description.
或点击视频详情最上方的链接
Oh, and fair warning, I go on camera in it.
温馨提示 我有出镜噢
Thanks for watching and
感谢收看
we’ll see you again in two weeks for another Wendover Productions video.
两周后的《文多弗出品》再见

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视频概述

以希斯罗机场为例,解释了机场是如何盈利,并对比了美国和英国机场私营化的区别。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdU1WTBJMl0

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