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Airbnb是如何建立信任的? – 译学馆
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Airbnb是如何建立信任的?

How Airbnb designs for trust | Joe Gebbia

我想和你们分享一个故事
I want to tell you the story
一个关于我差点被绑架到一辆红色马自达
about the time I almost got kidnapped
后备箱里的故事
in the trunk of a red Mazda Miata.
那是从设计学校毕业后的第二天
It’s the day after graduating from design school
我在后院里弄了个旧货拍卖
and I’m having a yard sale.
一个家伙开着红色马自达过来了
And this guy pulls up in this red Mazda
他停了车并开始打量我的东西
and he starts looking through my stuff.
最后 他买了一件我的艺术作品
And he buys a piece of art that I made.
我得知他今晚在这个镇上是孤身一人
And it turns out he’s alone in town for the night,
他正在进行一个加入美国维和部队之前的
driving cross-country on a road trip
穿越美国的汽车旅行
before he goes into the Peace Corps.
于是我请他出去喝了一杯
So I invite him out for a beer
他跟我聊到关于
and he tells me all about his passion
他想要改变世界的所有宏图大略
for making a difference in the world.
时间有点晚了
Now it’s starting to get late,
我也感到累了
and I’m getting pretty tired.
当我示意服务员结账时
As I motion for the tab,
我犯了个错误 就是问了他一句话
I make the mistake of asking him,
“那你今晚住哪儿?”
“So where are you staying tonight?”
他说了一句话 情况就变得更糟了
And he makes it worse by saying,
“实际上 我没地方住”
“Actually, I don’t have a place.”
这时候我心想 “哦 天呐!”
And I’m thinking, “Oh, man!”
你该怎么办呢?
What do you do?
我们都遇到过这种情况 对吧?
We’ve all been there, right?
我应该让他住我这里吗?
Do I offer to host this guy?
我才刚认识他啊——我是说
But, I just met him — I mean,
他说他是要去美国维和部队
he says he’s going to the Peace Corps,
但我哪知道他到底是不是真的要去啊?
but I don’t really know if he’s going to the Peace Corps
我才不想被绑在那个马自达的后备箱里 就那么玩完了
and I don’t want to end up kidnapped in the trunk of a Miata.
这后备箱也太小了!
That’s a small trunk!
之后我听到自己说
So then I hear myself saying,
“嗨 我还有个气垫床 你可以睡在我客厅里”
“Hey, I have an airbed you can stay on in my living room.”
而我自己脑海中的声音是
And the voice in my head goes,
“等等 你在干嘛啊?”
“Wait, what?”
那一晚 我躺在床上
That night, I’m laying in bed,
盯着天花板开始想
I’m staring at the ceiling and thinking,
“我的天 我到底做了什么?”
“Oh my god, what have I done?
我怎么会让一个完全陌生的人 睡在我的客厅里?
There’s a complete stranger sleeping in my living room.
他要是有精神病该怎么办?”
What if he’s psychotic?”
我越来越不安
My anxiety grows so much,
于是从床上坐了起来
I leap out of bed,
踮起脚尖偷偷溜到门前
I sneak on my tiptoes to the door,
锁上了卧室的门
and I lock the bedroom door.
当然 最后证明 他没有精神病
It turns out he was not psychotic.
那以后我们还常常保持联系
We’ve kept in touch ever since.
他把从我这里买的那个艺术品
And the piece of art he bought at the yard sale
一直挂在他的教室里 他现在是个老师
is hanging in his classroom; he’s a teacher now.
这就是我第一次留人住宿的经历
This was my first hosting experience,
并且这件事彻底改变了我的看法
and it completely changed my perspective.
也许 在我童年时期 被定义为陌生人的那些人
Maybe the people that my childhood taught me to label as strangers
其实是等待被发现的朋友
were actually friends waiting to be discovered.
用气垫床留宿别人的想法 渐渐变得很自然
The idea of hosting people on airbeds gradually became natural to me
当我搬去旧金山的时候
and when I moved to San Francisco,
我带上了我的气垫床
I brought the airbed with me.
两年之后
So now it’s two years later.
我失业了 几乎身无分文
I’m unemployed, I’m almost broke,
我的室友搬走了 要支付的租金也变多了
my roommate moves out, and then the rent goes up.
之后我听说 镇上要开一个设计研讨会
And then I learn there’s a design conference coming to town,
但是所有的宾馆都被订满了
and all the hotels are sold out.
我一直坚信 把恐惧变成乐趣
And I’ve always believed that turning fear into fun
是创造力给予我们的礼物
is the gift of creativity.
所以我马上开始拉拢我最好的朋友 也是我的新室友Brian Chesky:
So here’s what I pitch my best friend and my new roommate Brian Chesky:
“Brian 我想到了个 挣零花钱的法子
“Brian, thought of a way to make a few bucks —
把我们的住所改造成 “设计者之家”这么个地方
turning our place into ‘designers bed and breakfast,’
为匆忙来镇上开会的年轻设计师提供
offering young designers who come to town a place to crash,
一个有无线网、小桌子、
complete with wireless Internet, a small desk space,
睡垫和每日早餐的地方
sleeping mat, and breakfast each morning.
嘿!”
Ha!”
我们建了一个很简易的网页 “气垫床与早餐”就这样诞生了
We built a basic website and Airbed and Breakfast was born.
三个幸运的客人得以靠
Three lucky guests got to stay
硬木地板上的廉价气垫床过夜
on a 20-dollar airbed on the hardwood floor.
不过他们很满意 我们也是
But they loved it, and so did we.
我发誓 我们为客人 准备的瑞士奶酪蛋卷
I swear, the ham and Swiss cheese omelets we made
味道绝对与众不同 因为是专门为客人准备的
tasted totally different because we made them for our guests.
我们还带他们在城里兜风
We took them on adventures around the city,
当我们向最后一个客人道别、
and when we said goodbye to the last guest,
锁好门之后
the door latch clicked,
Brian和我对视了一下 彼此心照不宣
Brian and I just stared at each other.
我们是不是发现了一个既能交朋友
Did we just discover it was possible to make friends
又能收租金的好生意?
while also making rent?
命运之轮开始转动
The wheels had started to turn.
我的旧室友 Nate Blecharcyzk
My old roommate, Nate Blecharczyk,
加入了我们 成为工程方面的 共同创始人
joined as engineering co-founder.
之后我们开始努力工作
And we buckled down to see
看看是否能以此成就大业
if we could turn this into a business.
这是我们向投资者传达的讯息:
Here’s what we pitched investors:
“我们想建立一个这样的网站
“We want to build a website
让人们可以把他们最私密空间的照片
where people publicly post pictures of their most intimate spaces,
比如卧室和卫生间—— 这种别人来访时
their bedrooms, the bathrooms —
不方便进入的空间 发布到网站上
the kinds of rooms you usually keep closed when people come over.
然后 通过网络
And then, over the Internet,
他们还可以邀请陌生人 在家里暂住
they’re going to invite complete strangers to come sleep in their homes.
这将会是个巨大的市场!
It’s going to be huge!”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
于是我们开始像等火箭升空一样 坐等我们的事业蓬勃发展
We sat back, and we waited for the rocket ship to blast off.
但是 天不遂人愿
It did not.
没有人认为让陌生人住在自己家里
No one in their right minds would invest in a service
会是个靠谱的主意 我们也没有获得任何投资
that allows strangers to sleep in people’s homes.
为什么?
Why?
因为我们从小就被教导 陌生人 = 危险
Because we’ve all been taught as kids, strangers equal danger.
当你遇到问题时 往往会 回想你所了解的东西
Now, when you’re faced with a problem, you fall back on what you know,
而我们所了解的 就只有设计
and all we really knew was design.
在艺术学校里 你会学到 设计不仅仅关乎外表和感觉
In art school, you learn that design is much more
而是整体的体验
than the look and feel of something — it’s the whole experience.
我们在学校学的是物品设计
We learned to do that for objects,
但是在这里 我们的目标是 要让素未谋面的人们
but here, we were aiming to build Olympic trust
彼此产生奥林匹克式的信任
between people who had never met.
设计能做到这一点吗?
Could design make that happen?
设计可能会带来“信任”吗?
Is it possible to design for trust?
我想带你们体验一下
I want to give you a sense of the flavor of trust
我们所要实现的“信任”的感觉
that we were aiming to achieve.
我会进行一个三十秒的实验
I’ve got a 30-second experiment
会把你们推出孰悉的舒适区
that will push you past your comfort zone.
如果你准备好了 请竖起你的大拇指!
If you’re up for it, give me a thumbs-up.
好 我需要各位拿出你们的手机
OK, I need you to take out your phones.
手机都拿出来了吧
Now that you have your phone out,
现在请把手机解锁
I’d like you to unlock your phone.
现在请把你解锁后的手机 递给你左手边的人
Now hand your unlocked phone to the person on your left.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
现在你们正感觉到的小小的不安
That tiny sense of panic you’re feeling right now —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
就是那些提供住宿的人 第一次敞开家门的感觉
is exactly how hosts feel the first time they open their home.
因为能比你的手机更私密的
Because the only thing more personal than your phone
就是你家了
is your home.
人们不仅会看到你的短信
People don’t just see your messages,
还会看到你的卧室
they see your bedroom,
你的厨房 你的卫生间
your kitchen, your toilet.
现在 拿着别人解锁的手机感觉如何?
Now, how does it feel holding someone’s unlocked phone?
我们大多数人都会 本能地生出一丝责任感
Most of us feel really responsible.
这就是大部分房客在住宿时的感觉
That’s how most guests feel when they stay in a home.
这也是为什么我们的公司 到现在仍然存在的原因
And it’s because of this that our company can even exist.
顺便问一句 你们谁拿到了 Al Gore(前美国副总统)的手机?
By the way, who’s holding Al Gore’s phone?
[笑声]
[Laughter]
你能在推特上发一下 他准备要参选总统了吗?
Would you tell Twitter he’s running for President?
[笑声]
[Laughter]
[掌声]
[Applause]
好了 现在你们可以换回手机了
OK, you can hand your phones back now.
那么各位已经体验了 我们曾经面对过的
So now that you’ve experienced the kind of trust challenge
信任方面的挑战
we were facing,
我十分愿意通过这种方式 来分享我们的发现
I’d love to share a few discoveries we’ve made along the way.
如果我们对这次实验的设计
What if we changed one small thing
进行一个小改动呢?
about the design of that experiment?
如果这次实验是你的邻居 首先介绍他们自己 他们的名字
What if your neighbor had introduced themselves first, with their name,
从哪儿来 他们的孩子 或者小狗的名字呢?
where they’re from, the name of their kids or their dog?
想象一下 随后有150个人 评价了他们
Imagine that they had 150 reviews of people saying,
“他们很擅长拿着解锁的手机!”
“They’re great at holding unlocked phones!”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
现在你们觉得把手机 交出去感觉怎么样?
Now how would you feel about handing your phone over?
事实证明
It turns out,
一个精心设计的信誉体系 是建立信任的关键
a well-designed reputation system is key for building trust.
我们也并不是初次就成功了
And we didn’t actually get it right the first time.
要让人们留下负面的评论 其实挺难的
It’s hard for people to leave bad reviews.
最终 我们学到了 在展示所有的信息之前
Eventually, we learned to wait until both guests and hosts
需要先等待房东与房客 都留下评论
left the review before we reveal them.
我们上周才发现一件事
Now, here’s a discovery we made just last week.
我们与斯坦福大学合作进行合作
We did a joint study with Stanford,
以年龄、居住地 和地理环境相似度为基础
where we looked at people’s willingness to trust someone
调查了人们对其他人的信任程度
based on how similar they are in age, location and geography.
研究得出了一个意料之中的结果
The research showed, not surprisingly,
我们更喜欢与我们相似的人
we prefer people who are like us.
与我们差异越大的人
The more different somebody is,
我们越是不信任他们
the less we trust them.
这是一种与生俱来的社会偏见
Now, that’s a natural social bias.
不过有趣的是 当你把信誉
But what’s interesting is what happens
放在一起考虑的时候会发生什么
when you add reputation into the mix,
在这里也就是评价
in this case, with reviews.
如果你得到的评价少于三条
Now, if you’ve got less than three reviews,
什么都不会改变
nothing changes.
但是如果你得到超过10条评价
But if you’ve got more than 10,
所有事情就会发生变化
everything changes.
这时候 高的信誉评价就会比高相似度更可信
High reputation beats high similarity.
正确的设计可以帮助我们克服
The right design can actually help us overcome
扎根心底的认知偏差
one of our most deeply rooted biases.
我们也发现要想得到 多少信任 就得
Now we also learned that building the right amount of trust
公开多少我们自己的信息
takes the right amount of disclosure.
接下来就是房客第一次 发信息给房东时的情况
This is what happens when a guest first messages a host.
如果你自我介绍得太少 比如 “呦”
If you share too little, like, “Yo,”
那么你的接受率就会下降
acceptance rates go down.
如果你说太多 比如
And if you share too much, like,
“我跟我妈闹翻了”
“I’m having issues with my mother,”
[笑声]
[Laughter]
接受率也会走低
acceptance rates also go down.
不过也是有适当的表达
But there’s a zone that’s just right,
比如 “喜欢你房间的艺术品 打算和家人一起去度假”
like, “Love the artwork in your place. Coming for vacation with my family.”
那么 要如何确定 怎样才是适当的表达呢?
So how do we design for just the right amount of disclosure?
我们通过消息盒子的大小 来建议房客合适的字数
We use the size of the box to suggest the right length,
而且我们还适度地引导 并鼓励他们分享
and we guide them with prompts to encourage sharing.
我们通过好的设计
We bet our whole company
把整个公司
on the hope that,
都押在这样一个希望上
with the right design,
人们愿意克服 畏惧陌生人的偏见
people would be willing to overcome the stranger-danger bias.
但是我们并没有意识到
What we didn’t realize
到底有多少人
is just how many people
已经准备好去克服这种偏见了
were ready and waiting to put the bias aside.
这是我们订单接受率的图表
This is a graph that shows our rate of adoption.
这张图表说明了三件事
There’s three things happening here.
第一 运气好得难以置信
The first, an unbelievable amount of luck.
第二 这是我们团队努力的成果
The second is the efforts of our team.
第三 我们之前所做的 还并不完全令人满意
And third is the existence of a previously unsatisfied need.
现在 事情正在越变越好
Now, things have been going pretty well.
但很明显 我们也出过一些问题
Obviously, there are times when things don’t work out.
比如客人不经主人同意举办派对
Guests have thrown unauthorized parties
并且把家里弄得一团糟
and trashed homes.
还有 房客滞留在雨中无法入住 房东却坐视不管
Hosts have left guests stranded in the rain.
在事业早期 我也承担过客服工作
In the early days, I was customer service,
这些电话一个接一个 打到我的手机
and those calls came right to my cell phone.
我处在信任破裂的最前线
I was at the front lines of trust breaking.
实在是没什么要比这些电话更糟了
And there’s nothing worse than those calls,
任何时候想起来都会觉得心痛
it hurts to even think about them.
电话那头的声音透露出的失望
And the disappointment in the sound of someone’s voice
说实话 始终都是
was and, I would say, still is
我们不停改进的最大动力
our single greatest motivator to keep improving.
感谢上帝 在我们为 1.23亿个客户安排了住宿之后
Thankfully, out of the 123 million nights we’ve ever hosted,
解决不了的问题越来越少了
less than a fraction of a percent have been problematic.
这也说明人们调整了 他们关于信任的态度
Turns out, people are justified in their trust.
而信任一旦上了正确的轨道
And when trust works out right,
不可思议的事情就会发生
it can be absolutely magical.
我们曾经有一个房客 在乌拉圭住宿的时候
We had a guest stay with a host in Uruguay,
遭遇了突发的心脏病
and he suffered a heart attack.
房东把他送到医院急救
The host rushed him to the hospital.
还为他的手术献了血
They donated their own blood for his operation.
让我向各位读一读他的评价:
Let me read you his review.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
“这是一间对需要久坐 容易心肌梗塞的
“Excellent house for sedentary travelers
旅行者来说极好的房子
prone to myocardial infarctions.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
这个区域环境优美 而且有一条直通最好的医院的道路
The area is beautiful and has direct access to the best hospitals.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
Javier和Alejandra是那种就算不认识你
Javier and Alejandra instantly become guardian angels
也会立刻去救你命的守护天使
who will save your life without even knowing you.
当你快要不行了的时候 他们会急忙开车带你去医院急救
They will rush you to the hospital in their own car while you’re dying
在你做搭桥手术的时候 他们也会在等候室等着你
and stay in the waiting room while the doctors give you a bypass.
他们不想让你感到孤独 还会带书来给你读
They don’t want you to feel lonely, they bring you books to read.
并且之后他们还会多留你几晚并且不收一分钱
And they let you stay at their house extra nights without charging you.
高度推荐!”
Highly recommended!”
[掌声]
[Applause]
当然 并不是所有人住宿时 都会发生这样的事情
Of course, not every stay is like that.
但是 这种超越交易的联系
But this connection beyond the transaction
就是“分享经济”要达到的目标
is exactly what the sharing economy is aiming for.
当我听到这个词的时候
Now, when I heard that term,
我得承认 我的思路真的有点跟不上
I have to admit, it tripped me up.
如何把分享和交易绑到一起?
How do sharing and transactions go together?
所以让我们来理清这件事 这与商业有关
So let’s be clear; it is about commerce.
不过 如果你只是把这叫做“房租经济”
But if you just called it the rental economy,
还不算是很完整的定义
it would be incomplete.
“分享经济”是出于对人们相互联系的承诺的一种商业行为
The sharing economy is commerce with the promise of human connection.
人们把自己的一部分分享出来
People share a part of themselves,
之后一切就改变了
and that changes everything.
大家知道 现在的旅行就像
You know how most travel today is, like,
我想 它就像快餐一样
I think of it like fast food —
高效而且大同小异
it’s efficient and consistent,
但却牺牲了当地的风土人情
at the cost of local and authentic.
如果旅行更像是当地风味的
What if travel were like a magnificent buffet
豪华自助餐呢?
of local experiences?
如果每一处你游览的地方
What if anywhere you visited,
都能在当地中心集市里
there was a central marketplace of locals
有一个你陌生的社区酒吧
offering to get you thoroughly drunk
让你喝到酩酊大醉
on a pub crawl in neighborhoods you didn’t even know existed.
或者是从一个五星级酒店的 大厨那里学习做菜呢?
Or learning to cook from the chef of a five-star restaurant?
现如今 房子的设计理念都 以隐私和分隔为主
Today, homes are designed around the idea of privacy and separation.
要是房子的设计从一开始 就融入了分享的概念会怎么样呢?
What if homes were designed to be shared from the ground up?
看起来会如何呢?
What would that look like?
如果城市拥抱了分享的文化呢?
What if cities embraced a culture of sharing?
我可以预见到 未来这些分享的城市 会为我们带来更多的共同点和联系
I see a future of shared cities that bring us community and connection
而不是孤独与分离
instead of isolation and separation.
在韩国 首尔这个城市
In South Korea, in the city of Seoul,
人们已经着手开始行动了
they’ve actually even started this.
他们把数以百计的政府停车位
They’ve repurposed hundreds of government parking spots
改造之后分享给市民们使用
to be shared by residents.
他们将需要住宿的学生
They’re connecting students who need a place to live
与有空房间的房东联系起来
with empty-nesters who have extra rooms.
他们还设立了孵化器项目 为下一代“分享经济”的
And they’ve started an incubator to help fund the next generation
初创公司提供资金支持
of sharing economy start-ups.
今晚 仅仅通过我们的服务平台
Tonight, just on our service,
就有来自191个国家
785,000 people
78.5万的人
in 191 countries
要么会留宿在陌生人家里
will either stay in a stranger’s home
要么是在准备欢迎陌生人来家里住
or welcome one into theirs.
很明显 事实并没有我们小时候被教育得那么夸张
Clearly, it’s not as crazy as we were taught.
我们其实并没有发明什么新的东西
We didn’t invent anything new.
热情好客也是传统美德
Hospitality has been around forever.
甚至也有很多和我们差不多的网站
There’s been many other websites like ours.
但是为什么我们最后会越做越大?
So, why did ours eventually take off?
抛开运气与时机的原因
Luck and timing aside,
我想我们在这里学到的 很重要的一点就是信任
I’ve learned that you can take the components of trust,
并且通过设计来实现它
and you can design for that.
设计可以帮我们克服
Design can overcome our most deeply rooted
根植于内心的 陌生等于危险的偏见
stranger-danger bias.
这一点让我很受鼓舞
And that’s amazing to me.
也让我觉得耳目一新
It blows my mind.
每次看到红色马自达驶过 我都会想起这些
I think about this every time I see a red Miata go by.
现在 我们知道设计不能解决世界上所有的问题
Now, we know design won’t solve all the world’s problems.
但是如果它能帮我们解决这件事
But if it can help out with this one,
能让这件事取得初步的进展
if it can make a dent in this,
这不禁让我想到 接下来 我们还能设计些什么呢?
it makes me wonder, what else can we design for next?
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

乔·杰比亚,Airbnb的共同创立者,把整个公司都押在一个信念上,就是人们可以足够互相信任,愿意把自己的家分享给对方。他是如何克服"陌生人就是危险"的这个传统偏见呢?通过好的设计。如今,经历了为1.23亿客户安排住宿之后(还在持续增加中),乔·杰比亚打造了一个梦想,就是通过设计来培养一种建立社群意识与联系,而不是孤独与分离的文化。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16cM-RFid9U

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