ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

模拟火山爆发 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

模拟火山爆发

How a Volcano Simulator Helps Scientists Prepare For The Real Thing | Maddie About Science | NPR

Volcanoes are amazing natural wonders.
火山是雄伟的自然奇观
But there’s still so much about them that we don’t know.
但我们对火山仍然了解甚少
And that’s partially because volcanoes can be dangerous,
部分原因是火山具有一定的危险性
especially for the scientists trying to study them up close.
尤其是对试图近距离研究火山的科学家来说
So, that’s why we’re here
因此我们来到
at the University at Buffalo’s Geohazards Field Station.
布法罗大学地质灾害野外测站
So, do you guys blow stuff up all the time? That’s your job?
你们就整天研究炸东西? 这就是你们的工作?
Yes, we do.
是的
Are you going to let me press the buttons?
一会儿能让我按按钮吗?
Yes.
可以
More than 40 scientists have come from all over the world
全球40多位科学家来到这里
to safely study simulated volcanic eruptions.
安全地进行模拟火山爆发的研究
In this case, rapid-fire explosions.
今天研究的是快速连续爆发
We think about volcanic eruptions as huge infrequent events.
人们认为火山喷发是不频繁发生的大事
But there are about 20 active volcanoes
但是不管是在什么时候
of all sizes erupting on earth at any given time.
地球上约有20座不同规模的活火山在爆发
In fact, the rapid-fire eruptions we’re going to study today are
事实上 我们今天要研究的快速连续火山爆发
are far more common than the giant eruptions you see in the news.
比大家在新闻中看到的巨型爆发要普遍得多
The things the scientists learn here
当面对真正的火山时
will help them when they’re at the site of a real volcano.
科学家在这儿学到的知识会派上用场
The technique is you stick the pipe in the hole
这项技术就是你把管子插入这个洞里
and then you shake it.
然后摇晃它
And stuff will come out of it because it’s a vacuum.
物质就会从管子里出来 因为它就像个真空吸尘器
I’m sorry, I don’t know how to…
对不起 我不知道如何……
Did you just explain to me how a vacuum worked?
你刚刚是解释了真空吸尘器的原理吗?
That’s Dr. Alison Graettigner.
这位是Alison Graettigner博士
She’s traveled the world studying volcanoes,
她研究火山的脚步遍布世界各地
and she’ll be our guide to this “volcano summer camp”.
她将是我们本次“火山夏令营”的向导
So, you basically can be out here digging and playing and not grow up,
所以你基本上就是在这儿挖土玩耍 像个长不大的孩子
but also you’re like a PhD scientist, and your mom’s proud.
而同时又是一名博士科学家 妈妈眼里的骄傲
Yeah. My mom’s got a good story.
是的 我妈妈有个搞笑的笑话
Somebody keeps asking, “How do you raise a volcanologist?”
有人一直问 “你是怎么培养出火山学家的?”
She goes, “You don’t, you just get out of their way.”
她回答 “不必培养 别挡着他们就行了”
What are we looking at right now?
我们现在看的是什么?
This whole field station
这整个野外测站
is being set up for a series of experiments.
是为一系列的实验建立的
Pink is always 90 degrees, yes. So this is pink.
粉色一直是90度 对 这是粉色
That will be orange.
那边是橘黄色
We’ve got lots of different teams.
我们有许多不同的团队
So, we have team acoustics.
我们有声学团队
So they’re interested in infrasound, so that’s just below human hearing.
他们研究略低于人类听觉的次声
And then related to team infrasound,
与次声团队相关的
we’ve got seismic.
我们还有地震波团队
Well, we’re digging a trench with three different levels
我们正在把沟分为三级
to bury seismometers at three different depths.
用来把地震仪埋到三个不同的地下深度
So, when the blast occurs, we can study
当爆炸发生时 我们可以研究
the effects of how that blast wave, traveling through the air,
穿过空气的冲击波 如何传播到地下
propagates down into the ground.
产生何种影响
Awesome.
太棒了
When some of that wave hits the ground,
当一些冲击波击打地表时
it turns into seismic waves that Greg can measure.
就变成了Greg可以测量的地震波
His team can use those measurements to determine
他的团队可以用那些测量值来测定
how much energy was in the initial sound wave.
最初的声波中有多少能量
And that’s important.
这很重要
Because it lets them estimate the size of the eruption.
这使得他们估算出爆炸的规模
They can also predict how high the column of debris and gas
他们还能预测从火山喷发而出的
that flies from the volcano, called the ash plume,
由岩屑和气体组成 被称为火山灰柱的柱形物
will reach, and how far it could travel.
会喷到多高 能飘多远
When Kilauea erupted last year, the ash plume reached 30,000 feet.
去年基拉韦厄火山爆发时 火山灰柱高达3万英尺(约9.144千米)
Larger eruptions have produced ash plumes
更大型的喷发产生的火山灰柱
that reach hundreds of thousands of feet,
可以到达数十万英尺
all the way up into the stratosphere.
直至平流层
And then we have the team on the roof.
我们还有一个团队在房顶作业
And they’re very interested in capturing the explosions in high speed,
他们对爆炸的高速摄影很感兴趣
as well as we’re going to have thermal infrared,
同时我们还将获得热红外影像
and we’re going to have lots of 4k videos.
以及大量的4k影像资料
So, this is a 3D, 360 camera.
这是个三维360度相机
It can take videos all around.
它支持录制全景视频
And then there’s two from each side,
这个相机每一边都有两个镜头
instead of just one like most 360 cameras
而不是像大多数360度相机那样只有一个
And this is like your eyes.
这就像你的双眼
So, it allows you to get a perception of the third dimension.
它让你获得三维的感知
Oh, perception of the third dimension.
噢 三维的感知
What are you hoping in your experiments here,
在这个实验中你期待
what are you hoping to learn from this?
从中学到什么呢?
So, I mainly focus on the deposits,
我主要研究沉积物
which is all the debris that came out
沉积物是我们在将它引爆后
of the hole when we blew it up.
从洞里喷出来的碎片
It’s pretty important to know how far stuff’s gonna fly and where.
知道这些物质能飞多远以及飞落到哪 相当重要
Right. How much? How far?
是的 多少?多远?
Right.
是的
That’s the short story of what I want to know.
这正是我想了解的
So we need to spray paint our ballistics.
所以我们需要喷绘弹道
Mmm-hmm.
嗯哼
Which is really just our pingpong balls.
实际上就是我们的乒乓球
Hey, do you gotta have volcanologist hands
嘿 只有用火山学家的手
to get this thing off? Uhh.
才能打开这个盖子吗?呃
Pinchy, pinchy.
捏一捏
We color coded the pingpong balls
我们给乒乓球喷上颜色编码
and buried them at various depths before the explosion.
在爆炸前将它们埋入不同深度的地下
You’re gonna do a lot of science out there.
你要做很多科学实验了
P4G, second ball in the hole.
P4G 是洞里的第二个球
Nailed it.
搞定
The black and white high-speed camera
在快速连续爆炸时
allows them to track individual pingpong balls
这个黑白高速摄像机使他们
during the rapid-fire explosions.
能追踪到各个乒乓球
And that helps Alison figure out which blast
这帮助Alison找到是哪一个冲击波
kicked up the deepest dirt.
激起了最深的泥土
They can even tell how fast some of the pingpong balls
他们甚至能分辨其中一些乒乓球
are moving, and how far they might fly.
移动得多快 可能飞多远
Accurate predictions of how much debris a volcano will spew
准确地预测一座火山将喷涌多少岩屑
and how far the debris will travel is essential.
以及岩屑会传播多远 很有必要
It’s how we decide how close to volcanoes people can live,
我们据此来决定住房与火山的安全距离
and what areas should be evacuated in the case of an eruption.
以及火山喷发时需要疏散的区域
What motivates you to come out here and dig holes,
是什么促使你来到这儿挖洞
and bury pingpong balls and all this stuff?
埋乒乓球 还有所有这些事情?
What’s in it for you?
这对你意味着什么?
Any volcanologist’s motivation is
任何火山学家的动机基本上都是
ultimately to help us do better for future crisis.
帮助人们更好地应对将来的危机
Even if we’re like,”I’m worrying about this pongpong ball
即使我们会 比如 “担心这个乒乓球
for my experiment back here.”
会不会影响实验结果”
And so, some of these teams are gonna be deploying
其中一些团队将会在一座活火山那里
this same equipment at an active volcano.
部署相同的设备来做实验
And they’re gonna make sure their measurements
他们在这里做的准备
are the best they can be because of their time here.
能确保他们得出最准确的测量值
Nailed it.
钉好了
How do I look? 100% good?
我看起来怎么样?完美吗?
Now that all the instruments are in place,
现在所有仪器都就位了
it is time to blow stuff up.
是时候来炸些东西了
We’ve set up four different explosions, each consisting of six blasts.
我们设置了四种不同的爆发 每种包含六次爆炸
Are you going to let me press the buttons?
你打算让我按按钮吗?
Yes.
是的
You hit “A” and “D” at the same time.
同时按下A和D
When I say, “Fire in the hole,” that’s what you press.
当我说 “开火” 你就按
You go, “Fire in the hole,” and I go”A” and”D” same time.
你说“开火” 我就同时按下A和D
Yep.
是的
Five, four, three, two, one.
五 四 三 二 一
Fire in the hole.
开火
Here we go!
我们开始吧!
Let’s do it again!
再来一次!
Fire in the hole.
开火
Yeah.

That was a good one.
这是一次成功的实验
So, what did you guys learn from the, you know, preliminary stuff?
你们从初步阶段中学到了什么?
So, one of the first things I’m always curious about
我最好奇的一件事
is how far the farthest thing flew.
是碎片最远能飞多远
爆炸出的碎片
The farthest thing went in the direction we anticipated,
飞的最远的碎片与我们预计的方向一致
but there was more stuff that flew sideways than I expected.
但是飞偏了的碎片比我预估的还多
A little “Volcano Summer Camp” surprise.
一个“火山夏令营”小惊喜
It’s good. It’s a good sign.
这很好 是个好迹象
Yeah.
是的
Right? Cause if I anticipated everything,
对吧? 因为如果一切如我所料
why did I do the test? It’s boring.
那我还做这个实验干嘛?那很无聊
Sure.
的确
So, we’re testing things. We want to learn something.
我们做测试 我们想从中学到东西
And when we’re wrong sometimes, that’s the best way to learn.
偶尔犯错正是最好的学习方式
Hey! I found a pink ball!
嘿 我找到一个粉球
That one was the deepest.
那个是最深的
Alright, what’s our bingo code?
我们的宾果号码是什么?
Who has P4F?
P4F是谁的?
You do.
你的
P4F. It’s mine!
是我的!
Yeahhhhh.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

模拟火山爆发的过程及相关测试

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

教瑜伽的Diana

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VRiMrFkJ_b4

相关推荐