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雷雨引发全城哮喘

How a Storm Triggered a City-Wide Asthma Attack

2016年11月的某个大热天 在澳大利亚墨尔本 一场暴风雨席卷了整个城镇
In November 2016, on a very hot day in Melbourne, Australia, a thunderstorm rolled into town.
突然间 成千上万的人发现自己难以呼吸
And suddenly, thousands of people found themselves struggling to breathe;
哮喘因风暴而起 突然爆发
a strange outbreak of asthma, sparked by a storm.
在短短五个小时里 救护人员被呼叫近2000次
In just five hours, paramedics were called nearly 2,000 times.
最后 九人遇难 8500人在医院接受治疗
By the end, nine people had died, and hospitals had treated 8,500 patients.
到底发生了什么?
So, what happened?
幸运的是 像这样的事件少之又少 但以前还是发生过
Well, thankfully, an event like this is rare, but it has happened before.
这被称为风暴哮喘
It’s known as thunderstorm asthma.
几个其他的风暴哮喘的事例已经被记录
Several other instances of thunderstorm asthma have been documented
分别在美国 加拿大 英国 意大利
in the US, Canada, England,and Italy.
然而 最近一次的是我们所知道的最罕见的一次
This latest event, though, was the most severe we know of.
之前 只有一个人因为风暴哮喘遇难
Previously, only one person had died from thunderstorm asthma,
而且最严重的一次也不过数百病人
and the largest attack affected just a few hundred patients.
科学家们不是很明白是什么导致风暴哮喘 但最可信的猜测
Scientists aren’t exactly sure what causes thunderstorm asthma, but the best guess
是风暴卷起了花粉和其他过敏性物质 然后把他们集中起来
is that a storm picks up pollen and other allergens, and then concentrates them
以至于人们在很短的时间内吸入大量的过敏性颗粒
so that people breathe in a lot of them in a short amount of time.
那些对这些颗粒过敏的人吸入花粉和霉菌会触发免疫反应
In people who are allergic to these things, inhaled pollen and mold can trigger an immune
然后导致呼吸系统瘫痪 进而引发哮喘
response that causes airways to close, kicking off an asthma attack.
但问题不仅是大量过敏性颗粒在空气中的悬浮
But the problem isn’t just that a bunch of allergens are blowing around.
正常情况下 大部分花粉由于太大了而不能进入你的肺
Normally, most pollens are too big to get into your lungs,
即使它们被吹到你的脸上
even if they’re blown right into your face.
然而 一场风暴往往会改变这种情况
A storm, though, can change that.
上升气流可以把花粉混合到云层里
Updrafts are thought to pull pollen up into clouds,
这里花粉会与水混合
where pollen grains come in contact with water.
当这种情况出现的时候 花粉散落到空气里
And when that happens, the pollen bursts open,
变成成百上千的小颗粒
with each grain releasing hundreds of tiny granules.
下沉气流却能将这些微小的颗粒重新带回地面
Windy downdrafts can deliver these microscopic bits of pollen back to the ground,
它们能被吸入体内 但这一次 它们深入到你的肺部
where they can be inhaled — and this time, they can go deep into your lungs
霉菌产生孢子的过程和这个过程相似
A similar process is thought to happen with the tiny spores produced by fungus,
前者能在风暴中进行
which can get kicked up in a storm.
即使如今它被称为风暴哮喘
Now, even though it’s called thunderstorm asthma,
却也不仅仅是指病情危急的哮喘患者
it’s not just asthmatics who are at risk.
对墨尔本受害者最近的一次调查中发现 40%的风暴哮喘病人
A recent survey of the Melbourne victims found that 40 percent of people
有相关症状 之前却并没有被诊断出哮喘
who experienced symptoms hadn’t been diagnosed with asthma before.
相反 这些事件中一个重要的因素似乎在于
Instead, an important factor in these events seems to be whether you’re allergic to
你是否对各种各样的被风暴卷起来的霉菌或者花粉过敏
whatever kind of mold or pollen that a storm is stirring up at the time.
这就意味着任何有花粉过敏或者对季节性花粉过敏的人
That means anyone with hayfever, or allergies to seasonal pollens,
可能会有更大的风险患风暴哮喘
might be at greater risk for thunderstorm asthma.
科学家认为导致墨尔本事件如此严重的一个原因是
One reason scientists think the Melbourne case may have been so severe
就是罪魁祸首黑麦草 而大部分人都对它过敏
is that the culprit pollen was ryegrass, which many people have an allergy to,
而黑麦草在那段时间最旺盛
and which was especially abundant at the time.
因为世界上20%的人都会对某些种类的草或者花粉敏感
Since about 20 percent of the world is sensitive to some sort of grass or tree pollen,
风暴哮喘的部分危害
part of the danger with thunderstorm asthma
就是大部分人会在同一时间需要帮助
is simply that a lot of people might need help at the same time.
和墨尔本的情形几乎一样
As was almost the case in Melbourne,
可能没有足够的救护车能第一时间救助每个人
there might not be enough ambulances to get to everyone fast enough.
令事情更复杂的是 这次突袭会让许多人尤其是非风暴哮喘患者弄得措手不及
Complicating things more, these attacks can catch many people off-guard, especially non-asthmatics.
除非你已经患有哮喘病 否则 大部分过敏的人都会流鼻涕 眼睛发痒
Unless you have asthma already, most people with hayfever just get runny noses or scratchy eyes,
但没有呼吸困难
but don’t really have trouble breathing.
因此 这些人手边没有需要的药物 比如救援吸入器
So, those people don’t have the medicines they need on hand, like a rescue inhaler.
尽管这种事件很怪异 也不是需要每天都担心的事
While these are freak events, and not something you need to worry about every day, some experts
许多专家说这有可能随着气候变化变成经常性的事件
say they’re likely to become more frequent with climate change.
在世界上的许多地区 更高的气温
In many parts of the world, hotter temperatures
有可能增加风暴的数量和严重性
are predicted to increase the number and severity of storms.
而且空气里额外的二氧化碳可能刺激植物产生更多的花粉
And extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could spur plants to make more pollen,
或者更多有刺激性的花粉
or even more potent pollen.
因此 如果风暴看起来向你移动 而且花粉数量极多
So, if a storm seems to be headed your way, and the pollen count is high,
你可能需要检查你是否有吸入器
you might want to check to see if you have your inhaler.
来以防万一
Just to be sure.
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Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you
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视频概述

一场风暴引发全城人民哮喘,到底罪魁祸首在哪里?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Daisy

审核员

Ah~Qiu

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBXM45LvW8E

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