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初创团队是如何照例改善白宫的工作效率的 – 译学馆
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初创团队是如何照例改善白宫的工作效率的

How a start-up in the White House is changing business as usual | Haley Van Dyck

今天我要向各位讲述
I’m here to talk to you today
一个我们都习惯性认为
about a story that we have all been conditioned to believe
不可能发生的事
is not possible.
一个鲜活的初创团队
It’s a story about a living, breathing start-up
在不可能的环境:即美国政府中
flourishing in an unlikely environment:
运筹帷幄的故事
the United States government.
现在这个初创团队正在
Now, this start-up is fundamentally beginning to disrupt
由内而外地从根本上 改变政府运作的方式
the way government does business from the inside out.
在我讲这个之前先从问题开始吧
But before I get there, let’s start with the problem.
对于我来说这个问题开始于一个数字:137
For me, the problem begins with a number: 137.
137是一个老兵
137 is the average number of days
需要等待退伍福利的平均天数
a veteran has to wait to have benefits processed by the VA.
137天
137 days.
仅仅是准备福利申请材料
Now, in order to file that application in the first place,
她就需要浏览1000多个不同的网站
she has to navigate over 1,000 different websites
以及900多个不同的电话号码
and over 900 different call-in numbers,
这些网站和号码都属于政府并由其掌管
all owned and operated by the United States government.
我们现在生活在一个飞速变化的时代
Now, we live in times of incredible change.
私人机构在不断地变化
The private sector is constantly changing
不断地自我改进
and improving itself all the time.
事实上 他们改善了我生活中 任何一点我可能想到的
For that matter, it’s removing every single inconvenience in my life
不方便的地方
that I could possibly think of.
我可以坐在公寓的沙发上
I could be sitting on my couch in my apartment,
用电话订一份热腾腾的无麸质美食
and from my phone, I can order a warm, gluten-free meal
并且在10分钟内送货上门
that can arrive at my door in less than 10 minutes.
但同时一位依靠食品券
But meanwhile, a working mother who depends on food stamps
来养家糊口的职场母亲
to support her family
却需要完成一份复杂繁琐的申请表
has to complete an arduous, complicated application
甚至都不能网上提交
which she might not even be able to do online.
她无法在沙发上做相同的事情
And the inability of her to do that same work from her couch means
这意味着她需要从工作时间中 抽出几小时甚至是几天时间
that she might be having to take days or hours off of work
这将是难以承受的损失
that she can’t spare.
这个存在于科技革命的受益者
And this growing dichotomy
和那些无法受益的人之间
between the beneficiaries of the tech revolution
日益加深的鸿沟
and those it’s left behind
是我们这个时代 所面临的最大的挑战之一
is one of the greatest challenges of our time —
(掌声)
(Applause)
因为政府并没有很好地普及数字化服务
Because government’s failure to deliver digital services that work
这严重影响了那些 最需要这项服务的人们
is disproportionately impacting the very people who need it most.
这影响了想要去念大学的学生
It’s impacting the students trying to go to college,
那些尽力去争取医疗保险的单身母亲
the single mothers trying to get health care,
那些从战场回到家中的老兵
the veterans coming home from battle.
他们无法得到必需品
They can’t get what they need when they need it.
对于这些美国人来说
And for these Americans,
政府的概念不只是一场 四年一次的总统选举
government is more than just a presidential election every four years.
政府是能够提供给他们服务的生命线
Government is a lifeline that provides services they need
这些服务是他们所需的 依赖的 应得的
and depend on and deserve.
也就是 坦白讲
Which is, quite frankly,
政府本就应该高效运作而不能烂摊子遍地
why government needs to get its shit together and catch up.
只是个人想法
Just saying.
(掌声)
(Applause)
现在 我热衷的这个问题已经缓解很多
Now, this wasn’t always a problem I was passionate about.
2008年当我加入奥巴马总统的选举团队时
When I joined President Obama’s campaign in 2008,
我们将科技产业最好的实践经验 引入了政治活动中
we brought the tech industry’s best practices into politics.
我们赚了更多的钱
We earned more money,
招募了更多的志愿者
we engaged more volunteers
我们赢得了政治选举史上最多的选票
and we earned more votes than any political campaign in history.
我们是一个永久性改变了 政治游戏的前沿初创团队
We were a cutting-edge start-up that changed the game of politics forever.
所以当奥巴马总统让我们中的小部分人
So when the President asked a small group of us
将同样彻底的变革带入政府
to bring that very same disruption directly into government,
我知道这绝非易事
I knew it wasn’t going to be easy work,
但我仍然热情高涨 迫不及待要开始工作
but I was eager and showed up ready to get to work.
我第一天到华盛顿的时候
Now, on my first day in DC,
第一天在政府中任职
my first day in government,
我走进办公室他们给了我一台笔记本电脑
I walked into the office and they handed me a laptop.
里面的操作系统是Windows 98
And the laptop was running Windows 98.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我是说 从政府更新这台电脑的系统以来
I mean, three entire presidential elections had come and gone
已经过去了整整三届总统大选
since the government had updated the operating system on that computer.
三届!
Three elections!
这时我们意识到
Which is when we realized
问题比我们想象中的还要麻烦
this problem was a whole lot bigger than we ever could have imagined.
我来给你们分析一下当前的形势
Let me paint the picture for you.
联邦政府是世界上最大的机构
The federal government is the largest institution in the world.
它每年在联邦IT项目上花费860亿美元——
It spends over 86 billion dollars a year — 86 billion —
860亿——
on federal IT projects.
为了方便你们理解:
For context:
这个数字比整个风投产业全年的
that is more than the entire venture capital industry spends
在所有方向的投资额总和都要大
annually — on everything.
现在的问题是
Now, the problem here
纳税人没有得到我们付钱应得的服务
is that we the taxpayers are not getting what we pay for,
因为有94%的联邦IT项目
because 94 percent of federal IT projects
都超出了预算或是逾期完成
are over budget or behind schedule.
94%!
94 percent!
不用算了
For those of you keeping score,
94离100没差多少
yes, the number 94 is very close to 100.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
还有一个问题
There’s another problem:
40%的项目永远没有完成过
40 percent of those never end up seeing the light of day.
它们被彻底废除或是抛弃了
They are completely scrapped or abandoned.
这对任何组织来说都是 一个极其痛苦的时刻
Now, this is a very existentially painful moment for any organization,
因为这意味着如果政府继续按照
because it means as government continues to operate
原先的逻辑运转的话
as it’s programmed to do,
失败在所难免
failure is nearly inevitable.
如果当前面临的是最冒险的选择
And when the status quo is the riskiest option,
这意味着除了彻底的改革
that means there is simply no other choice
我们别无选择
than radical disruption.
那么 我们对此能做什么呢
So, what do we do about it?
该如何解决这个问题呢
How do we fix this?
然而 讽刺的是
Well, the irony of all of this
我们仅仅需要借鉴自己本土的经验就够了
is that we actually don’t have to look any further than our backyard,
因为美国恰恰是20年前给世界带来
because right here in America are the very ideas, the very people,
彻底变革的理念和民众的
who have swept our world into a radically different place
诞生之地
than it was two decades ago.
那么如果申请学生贷款和老兵福利
So what would it look like
就像我从家里订购猫粮一样容易
if it was actually as easy to get student loans or veterans’ benefits
那该会是怎样的一番景象
as it is to order cat food to my house?
如果有一条便捷的途径
What would it look like
让那些曾为科技界带来变革的 企业家和创新者
if there was an easy pathway for the very entrepreneurs and innovators
为政府带来变革
who have disrupted our tech sector
又会是怎样一种状况
to come and disrupt their government?
亲爱的朋友们现在是时候来讨论一下
Well, my friends, here’s where we get to talk
我们发现的能为政府带来变革的
about some of the exciting new formulas we’ve discovered
新的公式了
for creating change in government.
输入“美国数字服务局”
Enter the United States Digital Service.
美国数字服务局是一个新的 初创团队网
The United States Digital Service is a new network of start-ups,
一个为团队服务的团队
a team of teams,
供政府中的团队们组织 起来创造根本性的变革
organizing themselves across government to create radical change.
美国数字服务局的宗旨是帮助政府
The mission of the United States Digital Service is to help government
提供世界级的数字化服务
deliver world-class digital services
为学生、移民、儿童、老人 ——每个人——
for students, immigrants, children, the elderly — everybody —
提供世界一流的数字化服务
at dramatically lower costs.
实际上 我们正在尽力为当下的人们
We are essentially trying to build a more awesome government,
创立一个民享、民治的先进政府机构
for the people, by the people, today.
我们不关心…(掌声)谢谢
We don’t care — (Applause) Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
谁不想要一个更棒的政府呢
Who doesn’t want a more awesome government, right?
我们才不关心政治
We don’t care about politics.
我们在乎的是如何让 政府工作起来更有效
We care about making government work better,
因为我们只有这一个政府
because it’s the only one we’ve got.
(掌声)
(Applause)
你可以这样想我们的团队—— 这很有意思——
Now, you can think of our team — well, it’s pretty funny —
把我们的团队想成和平护卫队
you can think of our team a little bit like
美国国防部高级研究计划局 和海豹六队的结合体
the Peace Corps meets DARPA meets SEAL Team 6.
我们像是由“书呆子” 组成的和平护卫队
We’re like the Peace Corps for nerds,
但我们并不是到有趣刺激的远方去旅行
but instead of traveling to crazy, interesting, far-off places,
而是花很多时间呆在室内呆在电脑后面
you spend a lot of time indoors, behind computers,
帮着修复我们的民主结构
helping restore the fabric of our democracy.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我们的团队为美国电子服务系统 编写的剧本
Now, this team — our playbook for the United States Digital Service
很简单
is pretty simple.
第一步 我们招募这个国家
The first play is we recruit the very best talent
最出色的人才
our country has to offer,
招募他们短时间为政府效力
and recruit them for short tours of duty inside government.
正是这些人建造的产品和公司
These are the very people who have helped build the products and companies
让我们国家的科技领域走在 全世界创新的前沿
that have made our tech sector amongst the most innovative in the world.
其次 我们把政府内尽职尽责
Second, we pair these incredible people from the tech core
在一线创造改变的公仆和科技领域核心的
with the dedicated civil servants already inside government
优秀人才配对
on the ground creating change.
第三 我们有策略地有效利用他们
Third, we strategically deploy them in a targeted formation
来开展政府提供的肩负重大使命
at the most mission-critical, life-changing, important services
能够改变生活的重要服务
that government offers.
最后 我们为他们提供下至机构领导层
And finally, we give them massive air cover,
高至总统的
from the leadership inside the agencies
大众媒体覆盖服务
all the way up to the President himself,
来让这些服务变得更好
to transform these services for the better.
现在这个团队正在从里到外的
Now, this team is beginning to disrupt
改变政府运作的方式
how government does business from the inside out.
如果你研究了变革的经典模式
If you study classic patterns of disruption,
一种非常普通的模式是很简单的
one very common pattern is rather simple.
当把一个领域内已经 成为惯例或者标准的东西
It’s to take something that has become routine and standard in one industry
应用到另一个领域 将会给这个领域
and apply it to another where it’s a radical departure
带来飞跃
from the status quo.
想象Airbnb从好客的常态中发展出的
Think about what Airbnb took that was normal from hospitality
给我的公寓带来革命性变化的创新
and revolutionized my apartment.
这也正是美国数字服务局 正在做的事情
The United States Digital Service is doing exactly that.
我们从硅谷和私人部门汲取
We are taking what Silicon Valley and the private sector has learned
大量经验知识
through a ton of hard work
来以更低的价格为用户提供满意的
about how to build planetary-scale digital services
大规模的数字化服务
that delight users at lower cost,
我们把这应用于政府
and we’re applying that to government,
这确实是对现状的激进变革
where it is a radical departure from the status quo.
好消息是
Now, the good news is:
初步成效已经开始显现了
it’s starting to work.
我们知道奏效了 是因为我们看到了诸如
We know this because we can already see the results
我们早先对Healthcare.gov
from some of our early projects, like the rescue effort of Healthcare.gov,
所出现的问题进行的改善
when that went off the rails.
解决Healthcare.gov 的问题 是我们改变的第一步
Fixing Healthcare.gov was the first place that we ran this play,
今天我们正在复制同样的经验
and today we are taking that same play
并大规模运用到由许多政府机构
and scaling it across a large number
提供的最为重要的公民服务中去
of government’s most important citizen-facing services.
现在让我花点时间
Now, if I can take a moment
赞扬一下我们这个团队——
and brag about the team for a second —
这个团队囊括了我能够想到的
it is the highest concentration of badasses
最棒的人
I could have ever dreamed of.
我们有来自像谷歌、脸书、 亚马逊、推特等公司的
We have top talent from Google, Facebook, Amazon, Twitter and the likes,
天才们加入
all on staff today,
共同选择加入他们的政府
all choosing to join their government.
最棒的是
And what’s incredible is,
每个人不仅智慧超群而且十分热情和善良
everybody is as eager and kind as they are intelligent.
我还要顺便补充一句有半数以上的人都是女性
And I might add, by the way, over half of us are women.
(掌声)
(Applause)
最好的理解这个策略的方式
The best way to understand this strategy
是通过一些案例来理解在实际中
is actually to walk through a couple of examples
它的工作表现
of how it’s working out in the wild.
我来快速的举两个例子
I’m going to give you two examples quickly.
第一个例子跟移民有关
The first one is about immigration.
亲爱的朋友们这是一份典型的移民申请
This, my friends, is your typical immigration application.
是的,你猜的没错——
Yes, you guessed it —
它几乎全是纸质的申请
it’s almost entirely paper-based.
即使是最顺利的情况下
In the best case,
整个申请过程也要耗费6到8个月
the application takes about six to eight months to process.
它真的会在6个中心之间被
It is physically shipped thousands of miles — thousands of miles! —
辗转运输上千英里 上千英里!
between no less than six processing centers.
现在 我要讲个小故事
Now, little story:
大概十年前
about a decade ago,
政府想到如果申请能够通过网络系统
the government thought that if it brought this system online,
就可以为纳税人节省一大笔开销
it could save taxpayer dollars and provide a better service,
这会是个好主意
which was a great idea.
于是 典型的政府工作流程启动了
So, the typical government process began.
在经过6年的时间耗费了12亿美元之后
Six years and 1.2 billion dollars later,
却没有什么实际的成果
no working product was delivered —
12亿换来一个不尽如人意的结果
1.2 billion with a “B.”
在这个节骨眼上负责此事的政府机构
Now at this point, the agency responsible,
美国公民及移民服务处
US Citizenship and Immigration Services,
本可以继续往 这个失败的项目里投钱
could have kept pouring money into the failing program.
很遗憾 这种事儿经常发生
Sadly, that’s what often happens.
这就是现有的情况
That’s the status quo today.
但他们没有继续投钱
But they didn’t.
政府内部的人员
The dedicated civil servants inside the agency
决定要站出来呼吁改变
decided to stand up and call for change.
我们启用了一个只有6个人的小团队
We deployed a small team of just six people,
很多人不知道的是
and what many people don’t know is
这个团队的体量和拯救Healthcare.gov的团队一样
that’s the same size as the rescue effort of Healthcare.gov —
仅有6人
just six people.
那个团队加入了改变这个项目的
And that team jumped in, side-by-side,
政府机构 与他们并肩
to support the agency in transitioning this project
把这个项目变成了一个 更现代化的商业和发展实践
into more modern business practices, more modern development practices.
通俗点说
Now, in non-tech speak,
就是把需要很多年完成的大型项目
what that basically means is taking big, multi-year projects
分解成一个个小的环节
and breaking them up into bite-sized chunks,
这样我们能够减少风险
so that way we can reduce the risk
每隔几周就能看到效果
and actually start to see results every couple of weeks,
而不是保持黑箱状态等上几年
instead of waiting in a black box for years.
在我们团队抵达第一线的 不到三个月的时间里
So within less than three months of our team being on the ground,
我们已经能够让第一个产品上线了
we were already able to push our first products to production.
第一个产品是I-90表格
The first one, this is the form I-90.
这个表格是用来递交 更换绿卡的申请
This is used to file for your replacement green card.
对于移民签证的持有者来说
Now, for immigrant visa holders,
更换绿卡是非常重要的事情
a replacement green card is a big deal.
绿卡是你身份的证明
Your green card is your proof of identification,
是你工作的授权
it’s your work authorization,
是你能够呆在这个国家的证明
it’s the proof that you can be here in this country.
所以等待政府6个月的处理时间
So waiting six months while the government processes the replacement
体验很糟
is not cool.
今天我迫不及待的要宣布
I’m excited to tell you that today,
你们现在第一次可以全部通过 网上系统来申请绿卡更换
you can now, for the first time, file for a replacement green card
全程不需任何人接触一张纸
entirely online without anyone touching a piece of paper.
这会更快 更便宜
It is faster, it is cheaper,
对于申请人和政府雇员来说
and it’s a better user experience for the applicant
这都是一个更好的用户体验
and the government employees alike.
(掌声)
(Applause)
我再举一个简短的例子
Another one, quickly.
去年秋天 我们刚刚发布了 一个全新的模拟公民考试系统
Last fall, we just released a brand-new practice civics test.
要想成为一个美国公民
So as part of becoming a US citizen,
你必须得通过一个公民考试
you have to pass a civics test.
对于已经参加过考试的人来说 这是一个压力山大的过程
For anyone who has taken this test, it can be quite the stressful process.
所以我们团队发布了一个 通俗易懂 便于操作的工具
So our team released a very easy, simple-to-use tool in plain language
来帮助人们准备考试
to help people prepare,
帮助他们缓解紧张的情绪
to help ease their nerves,
帮助他们获得更多自信
to help them feel more confident
来开始追求美国梦的下一步
in taking the next step in pursuing their American dream.
因为所有的移民工作
Because all of this work, all of this work on immigration,
是关乎简化复杂的过程使之更加人性化
is about taking complicated processes and making them more human.
那天 一个工作在第一线的公务员
The other day, one of the dedicated civil servants on the ground
说了一句意味深长的话
said something incredibly profound.
她说她自从为政府效力以来
She said that she’s never been this hopeful or optimistic
从没有如此期待和乐观过
about a project in her entire time in government.
她已经为政府效力了30年
And she’s been doing this for 30 years.
这正是我们尽力去营造的希望
That is exactly the kind of hope and culture change
以及要去改变的文化
we are trying to create.
我第二个例子想要再回到 老兵的话题上来
For my second example, I want to bring it back to veterans for a second,
回到我们正在为他们打造的 退伍老兵事务部
and what we are doing to build them a VA
对得起他们曾付出的服务和牺牲
that is worthy of their service and their sacrifice.
我很骄傲地说 就在几个月前
I’m proud to say that just a few months ago,
我们发布了一个新网站, Vets.gov的
we released a brand-new beta
全新测试版本
of a new website, Vets.gov.
Vets.gov是一个操作简单的网站
Vets.gov is a simple, easy-to-use website
它把老兵在网络上 所需的所有服务集于一身
that brings all of the online services a veteran needs into one place.
所有的服务都在一家网站而非几千家网站
One website, not thousands.
这个网站正在逐步运行 但已经取得了很大的进展
The site is a work in progress, but it’s significant progress,
因为这个网站是专为它的核心用户:
because it’s designed with the users who matter most:
老兵们设计的
the veterans themselves.
这可能听起来很显而易见因为本该如此
This might sound incredibly obvious, because it should be,
但遗憾的是这并不是政府的常态
but sadly, this isn’t normal for government.
通常的情况是 产品决定 是由利益相关者的委员会下达的
Far too often, product decisions are made by committees of stakeholders
这些委员会尽力去代表用户的利益
who do their best to represent the interests of the user,
但往往这些人并非是用户
but they’re not necessarily the users themselves.
于是我们在老兵事务部的人员走出门去去做数据调研
So our team at the VA went out, we looked at the data,
去跟老兵们交流
we talked to veterans themselves
我们从简单的小规模问题开始
and we started simple and small,
关于他们最关心的两个重要服务:
with the two most important services that matter most to them:
教育福利和残疾福利
education benefits and disability benefits.
我很骄傲地告诉大家 这两项服务目前已经上线
I’m proud to say that they are live on the site today,
而且这个团队会持续让更多的服务上线
and as the team continues to streamline more services,
而旧的站点则会最终关闭
they will be ported over here, and the old sites, shut down.
(掌声)
(Applause)
对我来说 这就是2016的新变化
To me, this is what change looks like in 2016.
当你步入白宫的椭圆形办公室
When you walk out of the Oval Office,
我第一次走进那里的时候我注意到
the first time I was ever there, I noticed a quote
总体摆放的地垫上绣着的
the President had embroidered on the rug.
是经典的肯尼迪语录
It’s the classic JFK quote.
“没有关乎人类命运的 问题是超乎人类本身的”
It says, “No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings.”
千真万确
It’s true.
我们现在有解决这些问题的工具
We have the tools to solve these problems.
我们的工具可以让我们的社会、 国家团结起来
We have the tools to come together as a society, as a country,
共同解决这些问题
and to fix this together.
没错 这会很难
Yes, it’s hard.
当我们拒绝向“一切不会改变”的
It’s particularly hard when we have to fight,
信念屈服时尤其艰难
when we have to refuse to succumb to the belief that things won’t change.
但从我的经验来看
But in my experience,
最难的事情往往是最值得做的事情
it’s often the hardest things that are the most worth doing,
因为如果我们不去做这些事
because if we don’t do them,
谁会来做呢
who will?
这是我们的责任
This is on us,
这是我们所有人共同的责任
all of us, together,
因为政府不是一个虚无的机构或概念
because government is not an abstract institution or a concept.
我们的政府就是我们自己
Our government is us.
(掌声)
(Applause)
如今改变是否有可能发生
Today, it is no longer a question
已不再是个问题
of if change is possible.
问题不是“我们能够改变吗?”
The question is not, “Can we?”
而是“我们会去改变吗?”
The question is, “Will we?”
你会吗
Will you?
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

来自美国科技巨头的明星团队,是如何一点一滴改造了美国政府,提升了政府的工作效率的。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OgsRa7VDtI

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