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智能马桶挽救百万人生命

How a Smarter Toilet Could Save Millions of Lives a Year | Philip Eckhoff bigthink

大想法
big think
我最喜欢的事情以及
One of the great things that I love about,
我正在做的事之一是
what I do is we get to
解决全球卫生
take on some of the biggest challenges
与全球发展方面的巨大的挑战
in global health and global development.
水质净化正是挑战之一
And one of those challenges is water sanitation and hygiene.
每个人都需要干净的水源
Everybody needs clean water and, you know,
而且 引用一个书名就是“每个人都需要大便”
to quote the book, everybody poops.
以一种清洁卫生的方式解决这个问题
And dealing with this in a clean and sanitary way
对生活质量有重要意义
is really important for quality of life.
并且对于健康以及
And it’s also really important for health,
抵抗某些疾病也至关重要
and getting rid of certain diseases.
过去几年中 最大的挑战之一
One of the biggest challenges over the last couple years,
也是一个技术上极其有趣的挑战
a really fun technological challenge
即“厕所改造项目”
has been the Reinvent the Toilet Project.
它的基本主题是
The basic theme of this was looking at
21世纪会有
are there new solutions,
新的卫生解决方案吗?
twenty-first century solutions to sanitation,
就和电话及其它通信系统的发展一样
echoing what we saw in telephone and communication systems,
许多国家完全略过了
where a lot of countries completely skipped over,
对地上通信网络和传统电话的建设
building a big network of landlines and traditional phones
而直接发展了手机的网络建设
and went straight to cell phones.
问题是
The question was,
我们能否发明一种类似的技术
could we come up with the equivalent technology
来跳过建立下水道网络
that would jump over building out sewer networks,
以及昂贵的大型水处理工厂这一步骤
and giant expensive water treatment plants,
直接使用无网络下水道设备
and jump immediately to non-network sanitation?
事实证明
And it turns out that
使用机械工程
new approaches are possible,
和化学工程的方法 它是有可能实现的
using mechanical engineering and chemical engineering approaches.
实际上 废物里面有许多自由能
There is actually a lot of free energy in the waste
如果设备的设计得当的话
that can be used to process itself,
它们可以用来处理废物自身
if the machine to do it is designed correctly.
这是一种非常划算的实现方式
And you can actually do this is a fairly cost effective way. 
厕所改造大挑战开始于
So the Reinvent the Toilet challenge was kicked off
大概五年前
about five years ago,
它是为了让各大学
in order to get universities,
不同企业 设计公司以及其他机构
different companies, design firms and so on
去真正考虑这个问题
to actually think about this,
并把21世纪的创新
and put twenty-first century innovation
应用到人类卫生问题上
applied to the problem of human sanitation.
到目前为止 它已经非常成功了
And it’s been remarkably cool and successful so far
人们已经提出了不同的方法
to see the different approaches that have come up. 
有一个“赫兹研究员”团队
There was one team of a lot of Hertz Fellows
开始研究新方法
that started working on figuring out new ways to do…
即使用热解法和其他方法
use the pyrolysis and other approaches
来对干燥和燃烧后的物质进行电解
for using electrolysis for drying and combusting.
还有团队正在利用流引擎
One group is running a steam engine off
把人类废物作为输入流
of human waste as an input stream.
过去一个社区
And where a community would used to have
每天会产生10吨废物
ten tons of waste a day.
而现在
Now all of a sudden,
通过一个发电效率为150千瓦的流引擎
it runs a steam engine that generates 150 kilowatts of electricity,
它们每天能输出一万到两万升饮用水
and puts out 10,000 to 20,000 liters a day of potable water. 
看到创新和新技术的应用
So this is just really exciting to see what innovation can do,
是一件令人激动的事
what new technologies can do,
实际面对这些挑战时 不得不感叹
and actually taking on some of these really big challenges and saying,
“在25或30年前 我们绝对想不到
“What would be a really definitive technological solution to this
用这样一种终极方案
that actually solves the problem in a way that
来解决这个问题”
we would never have imagined trying 25 or 30 years ago?”
BIGTHINK.COM
BIGTHINK.COM

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视频概述

新技术在人类卫生方面的应用。

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

[B]hugue

审核员

审核团SC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUxW3Oqu5WA

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