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美国里根号航母被击沉了?!

How a Single Swedish Submarine Defeated the US Navy

本期Real Engineering视频由Brilliant赞助播出
This episode of Real Engineering is brought to you by Brilliant,
Brilliant是一个解决问题的网站 教你工程师的思维方式
a problem solving website that teaches you to think like an engineer.
美军拥有世界上最强大 最多样化的海军
The US military has the strongest and most diverse navy in the world.
美军航空母舰舰队是如此巨大
The US militaries fleet of aircraft carriers is so large,
使美国海军成为世界第二强空中力量
it makes the US navy the second largest airforce in the world,
仅次于美国空军
second only to the actual US Air Force.
美国尼米兹级航空母舰 比如说美国海军核动力航母里根号
A single Nimitz- class aircraft carrier like the USS Ronald Reagan,
其核动力舰船造价62亿美元
a 6.2 billion dollar nuclear powered ship,
可装载量达到其它国家的航空器的两倍
can carry the twice aircraft as any other foreign carrier,
所以2005年的军事演习让人大跌眼镜
which makes it even more shocking that it was sunk
因为里根号被一艘瑞典的常规动力潜艇击沉了
by a single diesel powered swedish submarine during war games in 2005.
这艘小型潜艇的身价相当于一架F-35战斗机
A single submarine that cost the same as a F-35
造价1亿美元
at 100 million dollars managed to sneak
由一个特遣小组驾驶着偷偷溜进来
by an entire carrier task force,
当时该潜艇进入反潜艇防御工事
with anti-submarine defences to enter the red-zone and score multiple
往里根号上投了多枚鱼雷 后者很快就沉没了
torpedo hits on the USS Ronald Reagan, sinking it virtually,
而里根号根本没探测到大海中有这艘潜艇的存在
before shrinking back into the vast ocean undetected.
这场演习中 瑞典哥特兰级潜艇证明了
This was just one of many exercises where the Swedish Gotland class submarine proved
最强大美国海军也有被偷袭的时候
too stealthy for the world’s strongest navy.
这个新型潜水艇表现出了很强的威胁力
The new submarine proved so threatening
导致美军多租用了一年这艘瑞典潜水艇进行探索
that the US military leased the Swedish sub for
来找出有效战略来消弭这一安静的威胁
an additional year to develop strategies to counter the silent threat.
那么哥特兰级潜艇和其它潜艇有什么不同呢
So what set the Gotland apart from other subs.
一般潜艇探测敌方潜艇的主要仪器是声呐定位仪
Submarines’ primary instrument to detect enemy subs is sonar.
本质上声呐定位仪就是一个精妙协调的耳朵
Sonar is essentially a finely tuned ear
其工作原理和鲸鱼 海豚的回声测距并无二致
that works like a whales or dolphins echolocation
它能绘制出其周边海域的3D地图
to create a 3D map of ocean around it.
潜艇上会安装主动声呐
There is active sonar where the submarine will
主动声呐会发射出一种叫“ping”的声呐脉冲
send out a sound pulse called a “ping”
并倾听该声呐脉冲的回应
and listen for the reflections,
但在战争中这并非良策
but in warfare this isn’t a sound strategy, as that ping
因为ping能被敌军检测 进而进行确切位置
is detectable by enemies to give your exact location,
所以ping被无源声呐代替
so passive sonar is used where no
此时你只需倾听声呐脉冲的回应即可
ping is emitted and instead you simply listen.
电子耳朵非常精确
These electronic ears are so accurate
它甚至可以基于电力系统中
that the nationality of submarines can be determined
交流电的工作频率
based on the operating frequency of the alternating current used
来断定潜艇的国别
in it’s power systems.
美国潜艇是60赫兹的交流电
The 60 Hz alternating current
欧洲潜艇是50赫兹的交流电 两者截然不同
of a US sub could be differentiated from the 50 hz of European subs,
只要变压器和其它电子设备没有充分和船体绝缘便能探测到这一差别
if the transformers and other electronics were not adequately insulated from the hull.
而瑞典人研发了一种静悄悄的潜艇
The Swedes managed to create a
实际上该潜艇不会被无源声呐检测到
submarine so silent that it was practically undetectable
那么瑞典是如何以较低的造价
by passive sonar, so how did they do this
研发出这一潜艇的呢?
at such a low cost?
哥特兰级潜艇是世界上首个
The Gotland was the first submarine
使用斯特林发动机的潜艇
in the world to use a stirling engine as it’s power generator.
斯特林发电机并不是一个新概念
Stirling engines are not a new concept
由罗伯特·斯特林于1816年首创
with the first being created and patented by Robert
并申请专利
Stirling in 1816.
工业革命伊始 受一系列蒸汽锅炉爆炸的启发
Inspired by a series of high pressure steam boiler explosions at the beginning of the
斯特林有意创造一种更安全的
industrial revolution, Stirling wanted to
不需要在高压环境下运作的引擎
create a safer engine that did not require such high pressures.
请原谅我无法画出斯特林的草图
I can’t be arsed trying to animate this old drawing,
咱们就凑合看这个简单点的模型吧
let’s go for something simpler.
斯特林制作了一个封闭气缸
He did this by creating a closed cylinder containing
并将处理过的大量气体永久封存在里面
a fixed mass of gas permanently sealed within.
这个活塞气缸两侧有巨大的缓冲间隔
Here one side of the piston cylinder has a large buffer space,
能保证活塞气缸的一侧相对恒压
which allows for a relatively constant pressure on this side of the piston,
而另一侧会有交替的加热循环
while the other side fluctuates in pressure
进而造成压力波动
due to alternating heating cycles.
当活塞气缸外部传来热量时
When heat is applied to the outside of the cylinder,
带来的压力增加会导致活塞移动
the pressure increases causing the
直到压力达到均衡
piston to move until the pressure equalizes.
现在如果我们用散热片冷却气缸外部的温度
Now, if we cool the outside of the cylinder
压力就会降低
with a heat exchanger, the pressure will drop
然后活塞会再次移动
and once again the piston will move.
这就是机械作业中的基本压力转换
This is our basic pressure cycle to create mechanical work.
但这是一个紊乱的低效率系统
But, this is an insanely inefficient system,
因为我们注入系统的大部分能量
as most of the energy we put into the system
都成为了在冷却循环中散失的热量
as heat is lost during the cooling cycle,
别说气体了 就连气缸内壁
not to the gas, but to the actual cylinder wall,
也没能产生有效的机械作业
which provides no mechanical work.
而罗伯特·斯特林通过添加置换器解决了这个问题
Robert Stirling solved this by adding a displacer piston,
置换器能够驱使气体从气缸的一端
which can drive the gas from one end
移动到另一端
of the cylinder to the other.
这就使气缸的一端永远是热的 而另一端永远是冷的
Allowing this end to be permanently hot, and the other permanently cold.
所以气缸壁不必再经历温度循环
So the cylinder wall is no longer experiencing a temperature cycle.
而该气缸的压力循环工作原理也有些许不同
The pressure cycle here works slightly differently.
首先热气缸里的气体会扩散
First the air in the hot end expands
通过置换器与动力活塞里的气体产生交流
and causes the displacer to move into contact with the
进而使冷气缸里的更多气体
power piston, displacing more air
被加热并扩散
from the cold end to be heated and expanded, allowing
此时动力活塞的作用被充分发挥了
work to be done on the power piston.
现在热气缸的气体无处可去
The air on the hot end now has nowhere to go,
唯有被挤到冷气缸里
and so is driven to the cold end, where
进而被冷却 被压缩
it is cooled and contracts causing work to
动力活塞再一次很好地发挥了作用
be done once again on power piston.
这就是我们的新型压力转换
This is our new pressure cycle.
该系统能够大大增加效率
The efficiency of this system can be increased further
基本上只需要在热气缸和冷气缸之间
by placing what is essentially a heat
放置一块热度电池即可
battery in the tubes between the hot and cold cylinder.
热度电池可以保存大量热量
This conserves a huge amount
避免热量在冷循环过程中被浪费
of heat that would otherwise be wasted during the cooling cycle,
并在系统工作时
and gives the heat back to the air
将多余热度散到空气
as it travels back to through.
这个就是罗伯特·斯特林发明的蓄热器
Robert Stirling dubbed this the regenerator.
现在我们拥有了有用的引擎基础
Now we have the foundations of a useful engine.
通过结合冷气缸和热气缸的作用
By incorporating a coolant system and
我们可以创造一个更大的温度差异
a heating chamber we create a larger temperature differential
来使引擎更好地工作
to drive the engine,
而通过增加沟通热冷区域的管道数量
and the efficiency can be further increased by increasing the number
效率会被大大提高
of tubes connecting the hot and cold spaces,
同时伴随着蓄热器数量的增加
along with the number of regenerators,
发动机数量的增加 从而提高管道的表面积
and adding fins to increase the surface area
达到热量传递的目的
of these tubes to allow for heat transfer.
我说的是不是很简单
Did I say simplified?
抱歉 容易理解不好么
Sorry I meant easier to read.
或许我喜欢悲惨
Maybe I like the misery.
斯特林引擎最终落入低微
Stirling engines ultimately fell into obscurity
因为以柔韧的钢为材料能使蒸汽机锅炉更加安全
as stronger steel became available to make steam engine boilers safer,
但随着哥特兰级潜艇近年来的崛起
but have seen a resurgence in recent decades with the Gotland
斯特林引擎最好地实现了自己的价值
being the most famous implementation.
哥特兰级潜艇使用了
The Gotland uses two Stirling engines that use
两个以柴油和液氧为动力的斯特林引擎
diesel and liquid oxygen to provide heat,
两个引擎轮流运作 相当于75千瓦的发电机
which in turn runs it’s 75kw generators.
这些发电机可以直接驱动电动机
These generators can run an electric motor directly,
还能给电池充电
or charge batteries that can provide
以便需要时就能大大提速
a huge boost in speed when needed.
排气始终被压缩被储存于潜艇上
All the while the exhaust is compressed and stored on board,
使潜艇能在水底待上2周以上的时间
allowing the sub to stay submerged for up to 2 weeks
这个时间和其它柴电潜艇相比算非常长了
vastly longer than any other diesel power submarine.
所以为什么该潜艇比其它潜艇安静呢
So why is it so silent compared to other submarines,
我想这个问题无需解释了吧
it doesn’t require much explanation as to
因为使用内燃机
why using an internal combustion engine
使用小型电动机
using tiny controlled explosions for power tends
往往会导致一些噪音
to cause some noise.
而一般造价数十亿美元的核动力潜艇
While the the multi-billion dollar nuclear
需要往其反应器里加大量的冷却剂
powered submarines need to pump huge volumes
来避免材料熔化
of coolant to their reactors to prevent a meltdown,
这就导致它发出的声音
causing enough noise to be detectable
能够被特定范围内的无源声呐探测到
by passive sonar within a certain range.
此外
On top of this,
近来的解密情报表示
recently declassified intelligence suggest that Russian subs are using these
俄罗斯正使用一些仪器来探测
instruments to detect the faint trail of radiation left
这些核动力潜艇遗留的模糊踪迹
in the wake of these nuclear powered submarines.
斯特林发动机让瑞典潜艇不易被探测到
Giving the swedish submarine another way of avoiding detection.
这真是热力学定律的迷人应用
This is a fascinating application of the laws of thermodynamics.
理解并应用科学定律
Understanding and applying the laws
能够使我们更了解世界上的超级大国
of science is the closest to a real life superpower in this world.
所以为什么不去解锁那些能让你更好地理解宇宙的能力呢
So why not unlock your superpower of understanding the universe
只需学习Brilliant上的天文学课程即可
by taking this course on Astronomy on Brilliant.
这里的课程会带你见识
This course take you from learning
天体物理学家观察宇宙的工具
about the tools astrophysicists use to observe the universe
这里的课程会带你推算
through to the calculations that will allow you to peer
以窥测未来宇宙的样貌
into the future of the universe.
Brilliant是一个为你解决问题的网站
Brilliant is a problem solving website that teaches
教你如何像工程师一样思考
you how to think like an engineer.
你可以来到这里 从基础物理开始
You can dive in and start learning about a huge range
学习大范围的物理知识
of topics starting from basic physics
并将触角伸到更复杂的领域
and working your way up to more complicated topics.
如果你想赞助Real Engineering频道 并对Brilliant网站有所了解
To support Real Engineering and learn more
请前往这个网址链接brilliant.org/RealEngineering
about Brilliant, go to brilliant.org/RealEngineering
进行免费注册
and sign up for free.
通过该链接注册的前73人
The first 73 people to sign up
将享受全年会员资格8折优惠
with this link will get 20% off their annual premium subscription.
我开始了解并解决这类问题
I get to learn and solve these kind
我以此为生 并乐在其中
of problems for a living and I love it.
当我终于征服了一个难题
It gives me that warm glowy feeling
我会由内而外散发出满心的喜悦
inside when I finally conquer a difficult problem.
每天积极挑战你的大脑
Actively challenging your brain
做好一件事情 此间你的脑内咖会让你兴奋不已
on a daily basis and getting that endorphin rush of a
这种状态显然是有益于身心健康的
job well done is great for your mental health.
Brilliant甚至还提供了同款应用 让你随时随地挑战自己
Brilliant even have an app where you can challenge yourself on the go.
还是要感谢大家赞助我的Patrons账户感谢你们一直以来对我视频的支持
As always thank you to my Patrons and thank you for watching.
如果你有意加入真正工程师社区
If you would like to join the Real Engineering community,
请关注我近来在Reddit上subreddit版块发布的内容
I have recently set up subreddit
我们在那里会讨论一切有关工程的内容
where we discuss everything engineering related and more.
相关链接我放在简介里了
The link for that is in the description.

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视频概述

2005年的演习中,造价6亿美元的里根号航母被瑞典的一艘小潜艇“击沉”了,在重重反潜防护中这艘小潜艇是如何做到游刃有余呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saCdvAp5cow

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