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因为这个案件才有了塑料钞票 – 译学馆
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因为这个案件才有了塑料钞票

How a Simple Crime Led to Plastic Money

钱币伪造几乎和钱币本身一样历史悠久
Money counterfeiting is almost as old as money itself.
纸币最早在17世纪的欧洲就开始发行
When banknotes were first issued in Europe in the 17th century,
当时它们做工粗糙而且易于复制
they were crude and easily duplicated.
一些历史学家认为在流通环节中假币的数量超过了真币
Some historians believe the counterfeits in circulation outnumbered real banknotes.
为了使纸币更难伪造
To make paper money harder to forge,
大量创新发明相继问世
there’s been a stream of innovations –
从精雕 水印到防伪线
from elaborate engraving, watermarks to security thread.
但这些技术也没有阻止
But these technologies couldn’t prevent a
在1966年发生在澳大利亚的90万澳元诈骗案
$ 900,000 swindle back in 1966 in Australia –
正因该案件我们才有了塑料钞票
which is how we got plastic money.
#澳元 澳分的到来#
In come the dollars, in come the cents
#取代了英镑 先令和便士#
to replace the pounds, and the shillings and pence.
1966年 澳大利亚将英镑换成了十进制通货
In 1966, Australia switched from pounds to decimal currency.
国家储备银行发行了一套新的
The country’s reserve bank issued a new range
拥有现代防伪特征的纸币—
of banknotes with modern safety features –
包括水印 编织金属线
including watermarks, woven metal thread
以及在凹雕印刷下印出来的浮雕区域
and raised areas thanks to being printed on Intaglio presses.
但在不久后 面值为10澳元的假币出现了 而且看起来像真的一样
Soon though, fake ten-dollar notes that looked authentic began to appear.
接下来的几年里
In the following years,
成千上万不同币值的假澳元——
hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of Australian fake notes –
都包含水印和金线——进入流通领域
all with watermark and metal threads – passed into circulation,
危害着澳大利亚新钞的信用
undermining confidence in Australia’s new money.
而这并非是老练的犯罪策划者的杰作
It wasn’t the work of a sophisticated criminal mastermind,
而来自一名店员 一位艺术家 一名摄影师和一名裁缝
but instead a shopkeeper, an artist, a photographer and a tailor.
在职业犯罗伯特·基德的资助下
Financed by career criminal Robert Kidd
犯罪团伙买下了一台印刷机
the gang bought a colour printing press,
一个相机镜头和一些寻常的纸
a camera lens and some ordinary paper.
摄影师拍下真纸币的照片
The photographer took pictures
艺术家则画下水印
of a genuine note and a watermark drawn by the artist.
裁缝花一周时间练习印刷
The tailor took a week’s printing
然后同售货员一起在车库里操作
training and ran it with the shopkeeper in a garage.
造假者没多久就落入了法网
The counterfeiters were soon caught,
当局震惊于
but the authorities were alarmed
他们复制纸币手段之易
by how easy they were able to copy the money.
1968年 时任澳大利亚中央银行行长 H.C.库姆斯
In 1968, the then governor of the Australian central bank H.C. Coombs,
邀请了一个专家团队来做出更安全的纸币
challenged a team of experts to create a more secure banknote.
一位来自柯达公司的代表强调
A representative from camera company Kodak made the point that
如果新纸币可以被拍出来
if the new banknotes could be photographed then
那么它们也能被印刷并伪造出来
they could also be printed and forged.
这点醒了高分子化学家大卫·所罗门
It inspired David Solomon, a polymer chemist.
他有了制作塑料纸币的奇特想法
He came up with a novel idea of a plastic note
此前一位日本教授给了他一张印在塑料上的名片
after being given a business card printed on plastic by a Japanese professor.
没几年 所罗门的团队就开发出了一个独一无二的聚合物衬底
Within a few years, Solomon’s team developed a unique polymer substrate,
其中包含数层薄膜层
which contains several film layers.
该熔融聚合物被挤出圆形模具
The molten polymer is forced out of a circular die
从而形成了一个气泡
in the form of a bubble.
气泡被拉伸为一个垂直的高塔形状
The bubble is drawn up a tall vertical tower.
而这个气泡的大小以及薄膜的厚度
The size of this bubble and hence the
由气泡内空气压力控制
film thickness is controlled by the air pressure within the bubble.
使用该聚合物也包含其他防伪特征
Using polymer meant other security features could also be included.
透明嵌板包含光学可变图案
See-through panels contain Optically Variable Devices –
即难以复制或摄像的全息风格图像
holographic-style images that are hard to copy, or take a photo of.
在塑料上进行打印
Printed on plastic,
首次让这个光学可变装置被包含于任何位置
it incorporates for the first time anywhere this Optically Variable Device
这个光学可变装置 可以呈现不同的图样
which takes on a different appearance depending on the angle
这是由于你所看到的角度不同造成的
at which you view it.
1988年 这个新技术第一次应用在
In 1988, the new technologies were first used
一张10澳元的纪念钞票上
in A $ 10 commemorative notes.
这个技术目前已经出口到其他25个国家
The technology has now been exported to 25 other countries.
高分子聚合物钞票具有防伪功能 也更加清洁
As well as their security features, polymer banknotes are also cleaner
而且它们的使用寿命也长达两年半
and they last two and a half times longer
使用寿命比纸币长得多 这能抵消高分子聚合物钞票增加的成本
than paper notes, which offsets the increase in cost.
在生命周期的最后
At the end of its lifecycle,
塑料钞票能够被回收利用 制作成其他产品
the plastic note can be recycled to make other products.
今天 大约30个国家使用塑料钞票
Today plastic money is used in about 30 countries
占全球货币的百分之三
and accounts for 3 percent of the world’s money.
在塑料钞票的帮助下
In Australia, plastic notes have helped
这几十年来 澳大利亚一直保持低伪币率
keep counterfeiting low for decades,
尤其是在跟其他主要货币
especially when compared with other major currencies
比如欧元 进行比较的时候
like the Euro.
尽管罪犯不断落网 但货币伪造率在近年来仍然呈现增长趋势
The rate has increased in recent years though as the criminals have caught up.
因此 最好的解决措施可能是完全不使用现金
So the best solution might just be to go cashless entirely.
这也将有助于避免
That would also help avoid the embarrassing spelling mistake
澳大利亚今年在4600万张钞票上尴尬的拼写错误
Australia printed on 46 million of its bills this year.

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视频概述

澳大利亚曾经出过货币伪造的事件,虽然犯罪分子很快被抓,当 但如何防范货币伪造成为了当局关心的问题。高分子聚合物化学家提出的塑料钞票的解决措施最终在澳大利亚得到应用,并且得到不错的效果,但最好的措施也许是实现无现金来进行交易,一方面可以防范伪造,一方面也能避免拼写错误。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KVKwwXQS0q4

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