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教育革命——自动化因材施教

How a Math Algorithm Could Educate the Whole World — for Free | Po-Shen Loh bigthink

大想法
big think
大概三年前
About three years ago,
我开始担任美国国际奥数大赛国家队教练
I became the national coach of the United States International Math Olympian Team.
我开心了一整天
I was very happy for a day,
觉得这很新鲜 很好奇
thinking this is very interesting.
但是第二天
But the next day,
我就开始想 我应该利用这个机会做点实事
I started to think that maybe I should do something with this.
我决定 我不仅要集中精力
And I decided that I wanted to focus
培训一批精英学子
not only on training an elite group of students,
还要尽我所能
but trying to do as much as I could
提高全美的数学基本水平
to boost the baseline mathematics capability in this entire country.
不幸的是 我没钱
Unfortunately I had no money,
没人脉 就我一个人
no connections and only one person.
我唯一了解的就是数学
So the only thing I knew was mathematics,
算法 概率和网络理论
algorithms and this probability and network theory.
所以思考了一段时间后
So after thinking for some time,
我想到了一个主意
I actually came to an idea,
用我工作的
which was based on using these core mathematical areas
这些核心数学领域为基础
that I’d been working with
找一个解决方法
to actually build a solution for education
向手机终端提供免费教育
that could be delivered for free on every smart phone.
这就是我现在做的项目
This is actually the project
叫“Expii”
I’m working on right now called Expii.
我们的原理是
Our principle is that
让手机变成虚拟老师
actually you could turn that smart phone into a virtual tutor,
自动为用户分配内容
which automates what a person would get,
如同聘请了老师一样
if they hired a tutor.
它无法达到一个真实老师的水平
It wouldn’t be as good as a tutor,
不过可以很接近
but it could get very close.
如果美国的每一部手机
And if you could deliver a free almost tutor,
都可以变成一个不收钱的半老师
on every smart phone in the United States,
教育平等问题就解决了
you might solve equity problems,
就算是生活在不同的地区
you might be able to allow everyone,
人们也能
even if they live in a different ZIP Code,
向这个老师求教
to be able to access this tutor,
而在这之前都只有富人
which previously had only been accessible to people
能享受这种服务
who are quite wealthy.
因为现在一个老师的薪资是30美元一小时
Because today the cost of a tutor is in the $30 an hour,
20美元一小时 50美元一小时
$20 an hour, $50 an hour,
具体情况因人而异
depending on how you look at it.
如果你能把这个数字降到零
If you can reduce that to zero dollars an hour,
就等于为每一个人都敞开了享受这种服务的大门
you would actually open up this accessibility to everyone.
当意识到
If we realize that
我们要做的 其实是一个虚拟老师时
what we’re trying to build is this virtual tutor,
那就要开始概念化……
then you actually, again, can start to conceptualize,
其实知识就是这个网络系统中
well, knowledge happens to be all of these concepts
联结起来的所有概念
linked together in this network.
这样问题就变成了
Then the problem becomes:
给你一个这样的网络
if you have this network,
你怎么用数学来分析
how do you mathematically analyze
一个人应该获得怎样的内容
where a person should go next?
这个问题可以用概率和数据来解决
That can be done by using probability and statistics,
利用它们 找出新方法
to find new ways to measure
来衡量一个人对每一个概念的理解程度
how much each person understands about each concept.
数据哪里来 由于衡量方法
Statistics, because the way that one would measure this
就是提问
is by asking them questions.
所以学习者
The experience someone has is
要大概说一下他们要学什么
they indicate what they want to learn,
然后系统会对他们进行提问
and then the system starts to pitch questions at them,
他们必须回答这些问题
questions that they would need to know how to answer,
这样系统确切地才能知道
in order to understand what they claim
他们想学什么
they want to understand.
问题提出以后
As the questions come,
根据学习者给出的回答
based on people’s responses to the questions,
系统会调整问题难度
the system adjusts the difficulty of the questions,
以及接下来问哪些内容
and where the next questions come from,
就和一名老师根据学生
in the same way that a human tutor adjusts their line of questioning
对第一个问题的回答情况
based on whether a person is successful or not successful
来调整提问思路一样
at the previous question.
如果一个学生
If the student reaches a point,
完完全全困惑不解
where they are hopelessly confused,
根本不知道如何回答问题
meaning they don’t know how to do this question at all.
那系统就会提示
Then the system suggests
或许他们应该先看看概念解释
that maybe they could read some explanations.
可以看到 它颠倒了传统授课流程
As you can see it turns the lesson flow upside down.
顺序不再是 课程第一
It’s not that the class comes first,
作业第二 考试第三
and then the homework, and then the exam.
第一个出来的其实是考试
The first thing that comes is the exam essentially,
然后是根据学习者的情况设置的练习
followed by these practice problems, which adapt to you,
再接下来是所有知识盲点的讲解
followed by the class for anything that you don’t know.
这一方式能让优秀学生不再觉得课程无聊
The idea is that this should cure boredom at the high end,
也能防止能力不足的学生听不懂
and also cure confusion at the struggling end.
这个点子
I actually started this with
我是和一个卡耐基梅隆大学的优秀本科生一起想到的
with a brilliant Carnegie Mellon undergraduate student,
然后我们一起做了这个系统
and then the two of us built this system together.
不过当一个人没有资源时
But when you start with no resources,
就必须自己想
you need to think of ways to
生产内容的方法
actually generate all of this content,
不用花费很多资源的方法
in a way which doesn’t cost enormous amount of resources.
维基百科给了我们灵感
And we took inspiration from Wikipedia.
我们在系统里集聚了
Our system aggregates all of the questions and explanations
世界上任何一个人可能想到的问题和解释
that anyone in the world might want to contribute,
利用Quora网站等发起投票
uses voting like a website called Quora,
来检查内容的专业性
in order to find out which content is strong.
再利用数据和算法
And uses statistics, these…
来得出问题的难易程度
the algorithms to figure out what questions are easy and difficult.
所以最后
So actually in the end,
系统吸纳了所有内容
it turns out that it sucks in all of this content.
所有内容都获得了
It licenses it all
创作共用许可证 就和维基百科一样
with the Creative Commons license, like Wikipedia.
然后全部放到平台上
and then puts it all across on a platform,
任何人都能用手机访问
that anyone with a smartphone can use.
我们在发展数学和算法的同时
As we keep developing these mathematics and algorithms,
真正的目的是通过一个
our goal is actually to deliver free education
自组织系统
to all of the world,
就和数学从基本假设开始的自组织方式一样
using a system that self organizes in the same way
向全世界提供免费教育
that mathematics self organizes from its basic assumptions.
大想法
BIGTHINK.COM

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视频概述

一个美国国家队奥数教练用自己擅长的数学、算法、概率和网络理论创造了一个免费教育平台,因材施教,效率高,同时解决了教育费用高昂的问题

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

Philovist

审核员

NL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLjobWWkfnI

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