ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

小鸟如何摧毁了价值10亿美元的飞机? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

小鸟如何摧毁了价值10亿美元的飞机?

How a Bird Can Destroy a $100 Million Airplane

This video was made possible by Brilliant.
本视频由Brilliant赞助制作
Learn with Brilliant for 20% off
在Brilliant注册学习的
by being one of the first 200 to sign up at brilliant.org/rll.
前两百名会员 享八折优惠
Humans have always been a little jealous of birds at least to an extent.
人类对鸟类的羡慕由来已久
For thousands of years, we looked up at them
数千年以来 人们观察鸟类
and envy their ability to fly.
羡慕它们能自由飞翔
and wondered what the world might look like from up there.
好奇着如果从天空看这个世界会是什么样子
Birds were beautiful majesty creatures full of wisdom.
鸟类美丽又高贵 充满智慧
And eventually we managed to build a machine
最终 人类成功制造了飞机
capable of seeing the world as they saught, the airplane.
得以鸟瞰世界
It was only afterwards though that we discovered birds are kind of dicks.
而正是因为飞机的出现 人类才发现鸟类带来的弊病
Even Orville Wright’s struggled with
1905年奥维尔·莱特曾遭遇
birds hitting his plane in 1905.
鸟类撞击了他的飞机
And at 1911 air race between France and Madrid
1911年 在法国和马德里的航空比赛中
a pilot found himself getting attacked amid air by an eagle
一名飞行员在空中受到了老鹰的攻击
which he drove away by shooting out with his pistol.
随后飞行员开枪赶走了它
In 1912 the first recorded fatality of a bird strike
首次有正式记录的飞鸟撞机导致的死亡事故
on an airplane took place,
发生于1912年
when a gull got stuck in the plane’s controls,
事故中一只海鸥卡在了飞机的控制器中
which cause the pilot to tragically crash.
致使飞行员坠机身亡
Decades later in 1960,
几十年后的1960年
Eastern Airlines Flight 375 took off from Boston
东方航空公司375航班从波士顿机场起飞后
and flew through a flock of birds,
由于飞经鸟群
which severely damaged all four of the plane’s engines
造成飞机四个发动机全部严重受损
and caused it to crash into Boston harbor,
并导致飞机坠毁于波士顿港
resulting in the loss of life of 62 people on board,
机上62人全部遇难
and representing the deadliest known incident ever caused by birds.
这一事故是迄今因鸟类撞机造成的最严重的空难
But it’s not just the engines
然而 鸟儿造成的破坏
that birds are capable of causing damage too.
不仅仅是损坏引擎
In 2004, a KLM flight
2004年 荷兰皇家航空一架飞机
departed from Amsterdam Sciphol
从阿姆斯特丹史基浦机场起飞时
suffered a bird strike to their nose landing gear during takeoff.
机头起落架遭到了鸟类的撞击
since the landing gear ended up being retracted normally,
由于最后起落架正常收回
they continued on to their destination at Barcelona.
飞机继续飞往了目的地巴塞罗纳
But upon landing the plane veered unexpectedly off the runway and crashed,
但在着陆时飞机却意外偏离跑道而失事
because was later determined to be a cut cable
后来事故原因确认为鸟类撞机时
in the nose wheel steering system caused by that bird strike.
前轮转向系统的电缆被切断
And while everybody aboard the plane survived,
尽管机上人员全部生还
the plane itself was destroyed and written off as a total loss.
但飞机本身严重受损 彻底报废
But perhaps the most famous incident of bird strike
然而 最著名的鸟撞飞机事件
on an airplane was back in 2009.
应该要追溯到2009年
when U.S. Airways Flight 1549 took off from LaGuardia Airport in New York
当时 全美航空1549航班从纽约拉瓜迪亚机场起飞
and quickly ran into a flock of geese,
并很快飞入雁群之中
many of which got stuck in the plane’s engines,
许多大雁被卷入飞机引擎中
which caused a complete power failure.
致使引擎熄火
Unable to reach any airport,
当时由于没有任何可以降落的机场
the pilot thankfully managed to guide the plane into a ditch planting in the Hudson River
但幸运的是 机长驾驶飞机最终成功迫降于哈德逊河的沟植被上
and saved everybody on board.
挽救了机上所有人的生命
But the results could’ve obviously been way worse.
不然结果会更糟糕
And that’s not just airplanes that birds hit either.
然而鸟类不仅仅只是撞击飞机
In 1999 Italian’s super model and pony lookalike Fabio
1999年 意大利男模法比奥
got hitten in the face by a bird
在乘坐过山车时
that broke his nose while he was enjoying a roller coaster.
遭一只鸟迎面相撞 撞伤了鼻子
And in the 1960 Belgian Ground Prix,
1960年比利时大奖赛中
a driver for lotus got hitten in his face by a bird while going through a corner just too tight,
莲花车队车手转弯时太急 遭鸟撞脸部
which caused him to crash.
随后撞车
It’s estimated that just in the United States alone
据估计 仅是在美国
about 13000 birds were striking airplane every year
每年就有约13000起鸟撞飞机事件
and cause about $400million of damages,
造成约四亿美元损失
Worldwide it’s believed that bird strikes cause about $1.2billion of damage,
放眼全球 鸟撞飞机事件的损失约12亿美元
more than the price of two brand new airbus A380-800s.
远高于两架全新空客A380-800s的价格
So what makes bird strikes so damaging
是什么造成鸟类撞机事件损失如此严重呢
and what can we do to stop them?
人类又能做什么来避免鸟撞飞机事件呢
Most birds strikes on airplanes occur
鸟类撞机事件大多发生在
during takeoff or landing at lower altitudes
飞机在低海拔地区起飞或降落过程中
where birds are more common to be.
在该区域鸟类频繁出没
That’s not to say that they only happen here though.
但这并不意味着 鸟类撞机事件仅发生在低海拔区域
There was an instance
曾有这样一起案例
a while back where pilot flying over Ivory Coast
不久前飞行员飞过象牙海时
at 11300m unexpectedly crashed into a vulture,
不料在11300米高空撞上了一只秃鹫
which also happens to be the highest recorded altitude of a bird ever measured.
这也是鸟类飞行高度的最高记录
Birds generally make impact on any part of the front facing part of a plane.
通常 鸟类可能会撞击飞机前部的任何位置
So the wing screen, the nose, wings and engines
因此 挡风玻璃 机头 机翼和引擎
are the areas that are most often hit.
都是飞机易受到撞击的部位
The engines in paticular though are the most vulnerable.
尤其是引擎 最容易受到破坏
A bird getting ingested into one is dangerous
引擎里卷入一只鸟是十分危险的事情
because as the bird strikes one of the blades of the fan inside
因为一旦鸟类撞击其中一片引擎扇叶
that blade can become displaced into another blade
该扇叶就会位移 进而影响另一片扇叶
which causes a cascading engine failure.
随之而来 致使引擎故障
The fans inside of the engines are spinning at the highest speed during the takeoff
在飞机起飞时 引擎扇叶旋转速度达到最高
where the presence of birds are also most common
再加上此时鸟类频繁出没
and it therefore makes for the most vulnerable period.
因此 这时飞机最容易受到鸟类袭击
Flocks of birds provide for more opportunities
同时 鸟群的出现
of one causing a cascading engine failure.
增加了引擎因卷吸鸟类而破坏的概率
since multiple strikes are likely to occur.
因为这样更容易发生多次撞击
But what can be done to mitigate this from happenning?
那么 我们能采取什么措施减少此类事件呢
Airports around the world employ various techniques to keep birds away
世界各地的机场采用了各种技术驱赶鸟类
including making food hard to access,
包括增加鸟儿觅食难度
keeping birds of prey or guard dogs present as a visual deterrent,
饲养猛禽或猎犬驱赶鸟类
using fake effigies of predators and speaker systems playing preditor noises
利用假人以及利用音响系统模仿捕鸟的声音
using cannons and pyrotechnics to make loud scary noises.
用烟花炮竹制造巨大的噪音吓走鸟类
placing sharp spikes on areas where birds may perch up on to deny them anywhere convenient to land,
在鸟类可能停歇的地方放置尖钉 让鸟儿无处落脚
or by bringing in sharp shooters with rifles and shotguns
或聘请猎手 使用来复枪和猎枪射杀鸟类
to keep their populations in check.
以控制鸟群的数量
JFK airport in New York used to experience a problem
纽约肯尼迪机场曾一直遭受
with a nearby colony of gulls flying overhead.
机场附近一群海鸥过境的困扰
There was a contributing up to 315 birds strikes on airplanes there per year.
每年有高达315次鸟撞飞机的事件
So they brought in snipers to begin shooting the birds
所以在1991年机场聘请射手
as they flew over in1991,
射杀飞经机场的海鸥
hoping that it will encourage them to change the flight path to somewhere else.
希望此举能迫使它们改变迁徙路线
Within 2 years, they had shot down over 28000 of those gulls,
两年内 他们击落了超过28000只海鸥
which was about half of the population of the colony.
海鸥的数量下降了约一半
And birds strikes on planes were reduced by 89%
鸟撞飞机事件减少了89%
A more humane method of avoiding birds strikes
近年 为避免鸟撞飞机事件
though has been the recent development of avian radar,
人们开发了较人性的探鸟雷达来驱鸟
which is surprisingly powerful.
这一举措效果显著
The Dutch military for example has developed a system
例如 荷兰军方开发了一款
that they call Radar Observation of Bird Intensity, where Robin for short.
名叫鸟类强度感知雷达系统 简称罗宾雷达
Robin is capable of tracking thousands of birds
它能全天不断
symotaneously in real time day and night,
实时追踪上千只鸟类
with 360º coverage out to a range of 10km,
能够覆盖10公里半径范围内的所有区域
updating every single bird’s position, speed,
每2到3秒更新每只鸟的位置 速度
heading and size every 2-3s.
行进方向和大小
Deployment of Robin by the Royal Netherlands Airforce at airbases
荷兰皇家空军在空军基地部署罗宾雷达后
has been proven to reduce birds strikes by 50%,
鸟类撞机事件发生率下降了50%
as air traffic controllers are able to better alert pilots to flock of birds nearby
同时 在飞机起飞和着陆过程中
during takeoff and landing procedures.
航空调度员能更好的为飞行员提供附近鸟群的预警
Still, the impacts of birds on planes
尽管如此 鸟类撞机事件一旦发生
when they do hit can be pretty devastating.
对飞机的影响仍旧是毁灭性的
The force of an impact depends greatly on the weight of the bird,
很大程度上 撞击力取决于鸟儿重量
the speed difference between it and the plane,
鸟与飞机间的速度差
and the direction of the impact.
和撞击角度
The energy of the impact increases with the square of the speed difference,
撞击能量与速度差的平方呈正比
which is why a low speed impact of a small bird
因此 一只低速飞行的小鸟
on a car windshield causes very little damage,
撞上汽车挡风玻璃时损失很小
while a high speed impact with a jet
而撞上高速飞行的喷气式飞机时
can cause catastrophic damage.
却会导致毁灭性的损失
Learning how and why airplanes or cars work is interesting
负责地说 学习飞机或汽车如何工作
and while I’m really qualified to tell you any of that.
及为什么有这样的工作原理相当有意思
There are courses over at brilliant.org
更多课程尽在Brlliant org
and you can get started learning there right now for free at brillian.org/rll.
在brillian org/rll开始免费学习之旅吧
They of course have excellently designed courses on everything
他们的课程设计超棒 内容丰富
from classical mechanics and algebra
从经典力学和代数
to a future upcoming course on automotive engineering.
到即将上线的自动化工程
They don’t teach for basic memorization either.
不教你死记硬背
They teach through teaching you the principles behind the concept
教你理论背后的原理
and guiding you to understand how to use those principles and context.
引导你如何使用原理和定律
Brilliant, addition to brilliant is that
现在更棒的是 除了上网学习Brilliant
you can now download their courses offline on their mobile app.
你还课题在应用下载离线课程来学习
so that you can learn no matter where you are or what you’re doing.
随时随地想学就学
It’s a great way to fill in those small moments or commutes that you might have in your life.
充分利用碎片时间做你想做的事吧
You can start learning for free at brilliant.org/rll
登录Brilliant org/rll免费学习
and then by the one of first 200 to use that link,
使用链接购买年度订阅的前200名会员
you’ll also get 20% off their annual premium subscription.
还享八折优惠哦
And as always,
一如既往
thank you so much for watching.
感谢您的观看

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

看似弱小的鸟儿实际上会对飞机这种庞然大物造成毁灭性的损坏,人类经历了多次的鸟撞飞机事件,并对此问题做出了一系列的解决方案。

听录译者

🍀趁年轻🌴

翻译译者

YXG-0e6e4

审核员

审核员PH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CS2K3gQRgLo

相关推荐