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月经周期全过程 – 译学馆
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月经周期全过程

Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle, Animation.

月经周期是个专业术语
The menstrual cycle is a term used to
用于形容女性体内为怀孕可能性作准备的月发性事件
describe monthly events that occur within a woman’s body in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy.
每个月都有排卵期
Each month, an egg is released
卵巢会排出一颗卵子
from an ovary in a process called ovulation.
同时子宫内壁会增厚
At the same time, the lining of the uterus thickens,
等待受孕
ready for pregnancy.
如果卵子没有受精
If fertilization does not take place,
子宫里就会流出经血
the lining of the uterus is shed in menstrual bleeding
月经周期也就开始了
and the cycle starts over.
卵巢里有几十万初级卵母细胞
An ovary contains hundreds of thousands of primary oocytes –
这些都是不成熟的卵子 或者叫卵细胞
immature eggs, or ova.
每个不成熟的卵细胞周围都包着一层叫卵泡的结构
Each of these is enclosed in a structure called a follicle,
这个时期的卵泡叫做原始卵泡
and at this stage — a primordial follicle.
月经周期受荷尔蒙控制
The menstrual cycle is under control of hormones
而荷尔蒙的分泌之处是脑下垂体和卵巢
secreted by the pituitary gland and the ovaries.
脑垂体受下丘脑的控制
The pituitary itself is under control of the hypothalamus.
下丘脑会产生一种荷尔蒙
The hypothalamus produces a hormone called
叫做促性腺激素释放激素 简称GnRH
the gonadotropin-releasing hormone or GnRH.
GnRH会刺激脑垂体前叶
GnRH stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary
使其分泌卵泡刺激素(FSH)
to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
卵泡刺激素会随血液流动进入卵巢
FSH travels in the bloodstream to the ovaries
进而促进卵泡生长
and stimulates a group of follicles to grow.
原始卵泡会先发展成为初级卵泡
These primordial follicles develop into primary
再发展成为次级卵泡
follicles and then secondary follicles.
次级卵泡会产生一种叫“雌激素”的荷尔蒙
These produce a hormone named estrogen
雌激素负责促进子宫内膜的生长
which acts to stimulate the growth of the endometrium —
即促进子宫内膜增生
the inner lining of the uterus.
次级卵泡彼此之间会进行竞争
The secondary follicles compete with each other and only one
只有一个可以存活 长成成熟卵泡
of them will survive and become a mature follicle,
其他次级卵泡会萎缩并死亡
the rest atrophy and die.
下丘脑和脑垂体前叶会大量分泌雌激素
The increasing level of estrogen also acts
进而促进“促性腺激素释放激素”的产生
on the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary to increase the level of GnRH
并诱使另一种荷尔蒙产生——黄体刺激素(LH)
and induce the production of another hormone — luteinizing hormone (LH).
黄体刺激素的释放会引发排卵
A surge in LH secretion triggers ovulation –
即将卵细胞从卵泡和卵巢里释放出来
the release of the egg from the follicle and the ovary.
然后卵细胞会被伞毛扫出来 进入输卵管
The egg is then swept up by the fimbriae and taken into the uterine tube.
在输卵管遇到精子完成受精
Fertilization by a spermatozoon,
受精一般在壶腹发生
when it occurs, usually takes place in the ampulla,
壶腹是输卵管里最宽的部分
the widest section of the fallopian tube.
在前往子宫的路上
The fertilized egg immediately begins the process of development
受精卵就一刻不停地开始发育了
while travelling toward the uterus.
6天后 受精卵变成胚包
After 6 days it becomes a blastocyst and is implanted
被植入子宫内膜
into the endometrium of the uterus.
同时 残余的破裂卵泡会变成黄体
Meanwhile, the left-over of the ruptured follicle
黄体会分泌孕酮
has become a corpus luteum which secretes progesterone.
孕酮进一步促进子宫发育
Progesterone further stimulates uterine development
使子宫成为孕期孕育胚胎的温床
making it a nutritious bed for the embryo in the event of pregnancy.
假如没有怀孕 黄体就会萎缩 孕酮水平就会下降
In the absence of pregnancy, the corpus luteum atrophies and progesterone level falls.
这将导致子宫内膜发生破裂
This leads to the breakdown of the endometrium,
然后出现月经 月经周期就开始了
menstruation begins and the cycle starts over.

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视频概述

动画演示月经周期全过程

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNe43KGZTl8

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