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人类的主观能动性 – 译学馆
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Hope: Why We Invest All Our Energies into a Future We Can't Predict | Victoria McGeer

发挥主观能动性的方法 即 在完全无法控制
What is it about our way of inhabiting our own agency that makes us so directed towards
是否发生的未来事务上下功夫的方法 是什么
future states of affairs that we don’t completely control whether or not they come about?
So these are things that may happen.
是我们为之努力 却无法保证“一定”发生的事情
They’re things that we can work towards, but we never have any guarantee that they will happen.
可是 我们在上面花了很多精力
And yet we invest a lot of our energy in that.
我把它看作 我们的能动性 非常特别且独有的特征
I’ve come to think of that as a very special and characteristic feature of our own human
agency, that we are structured in that way.
We just do not have very fulfilling or happy human lives if we’re not directing our agency,
our energy towards those anticipated events, hoped for events.
想到人类的发育 我们属于异类生物
When we think about human development we’re a very atypical kind of species insofar as
出生时 不像其他多数生物 我们几乎不具备独立
when we’re born, unlike most other species, we have very little self-standing capacity
to survive in the world.
We need other people.
We need our parents.
我们需要其他照料者 帮我们提升各项技巧和能力
We need other caregivers to help us develop the kinds of skills or capacities we need
我们需要在世上生存下去 并繁衍生息
to be able to survive, to be able to flourish in our world.
所以 我们依赖他人传授 教会这些技能
So we rely on others to give us those skills, to teach us those skills, to enable us to
使我们成为 羽翼丰满 独立自主的个体
become fully fledged autonomous individuals.
那个过程旷日持久 且包括某种
And that process is a long drawn out one and it involves a certain important relationship
与照顾者之间的重要关系 他们能构筑我们的环境 并用这种方式
with our caregivers that they’re able to structure our environment in such a way that
一步步把我们带入 世间纷繁复杂的环境
they bring us little by little into certain rather complex sorts of engagements with the
给予我们 逐渐增强语言沟通的能力
world, allowing us little by little to build up our capacities for linguistic engagement,
for the kind of skills we need to play with toys.
你知道 考虑学前教育时 母亲会和她的孩子相互影响
You know when you think about very early development and the way a mother may be interacting with her child.
给孩子演示怎样操控玩具或其他东西 孩子就能
Showing the child how to handle a toy or something so the child now comes to be able to do it
for him or herself.
那都是些很小的举动 但却是我们凭借漫长的发展
Those are very small acts but those are the way we build up all our skills through our
long protracted development.
而且 那也是心理学家所称的“父母的脚手架” 我们对待自己的婴儿
And that’s what psychologists have called parental scaffolding that we treat our infants
就像他们能做些自己并不在行的事情 但我们
as if they’re capable of doing things that they’re not quite yet capable of but we’re
正为他们构建一个 他们能够在其中 尝试并探索自身极限的世界
structuring a world for them in which they’re able to try and explore their limitations
and maybe be frustrated at times.
但慢慢地 逐渐学会如何为自己
But slowly, little by little, learn how to do things for themselves that they couldn’t
do initially.