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单词中的形、音、义

Homonyms

啊黑…这里是YouTube频道
Ahoy! You…tube.
[笑]
[laughs]
今天我们要玩单词游戏
There’s going to be some word play today.
希望大家集中注意力
I hope you got your noses strapped on.
几天前我发了推文 列举了一些词
A few days ago I put out a tweet where I gave some facts
一些异形异义同音词
about words that sound the same, but have different meanings,
比如说blue和blew
like “blue” and “blew”.
blue是颜色词 而blew是blow的过去时
“Blue” the colour, and “blew” the past tense of blow.
有的人会响应“对对对 这不就是所谓同音异义词”吗
A few people responded with, “yea yea yea, they’re called homonyms.”
说得对
Fair enough.
blue和blew是同音异义词
“Blue” and “blew” are homonyms. …….
真的吗?
or are they?
但我不称它们为同音异义词
There’s a reason I didn’t call them homonyms,
今天的视频会告诉大家原因
and that reason will be made clear in today’s episode.
咱们从三个方面看两个或多个单词的相似度
Let’s look at three ways two or more words can be similar.
意思是否相同
They can have the same meaning,
拼写是否相同
they can be spelled the same,
发音是否相同
or they can be sound the same when spoken.
如果两个单词意思相同
If two words mean the same thing,
却发音不同 拼写不同
but are pronounced differently and have different spellings,
那它们就只是异形异音同义词
well then they’re just…. synonyms.
我们之前已接触过异形异音同义词
We’ve all heard of synonyms before.
举一个例子吧
An example of synonyms would be
Buy和Purchase
“Buy” and “Purchase”.
这两个单词都有“买”的意思
These two words have nearly the same meaning,
但它们有着不同的隐含意义
I’ll admit that they probably can have different connotations,
Buy更随意 而Purchase比较正式
like maybe “Buy” is more casual and “Purchase” is more fancy.
[拿腔作调]哦 你“买”了那个 但我们成年人都用“购买”
*posh voice*”Oh you bought that, but i purchased it hehe because I’m an adult”
而任何有相同意思的词都可以称为异形异音同义词
Any who, they nearly have the same meaning so they are synonyms.
看来大家很喜欢这些有意思的小知识
For those of you who love little fun facts
那我问大家一个常见的问题:synonym(异形异音同义词)的同义词是什么?
It often comes up, is there a synonym for synonym?
也不是没有答案
Not really,
有一个使用不频繁的过时的词可以是它的同义词
but there is a slightly outdated word that isn’t used very often.
它长这样“poecilonym”(同义词)
It looks like a poe-cil-onym,
但实际上读pe-cil-onym
but really this is pronounced pe-cil-onym,
[pi’ciliεnim]
pecilonym.
这个单词不太好拼
It’s a good spelling bee word
因为拼写和读音不一致 Poecilonym
because it’s not spelt the way it sounds. Poecilonym.
而poecilonym意思是同一事物的不同名称 即同义词
And poecilonym means various names, various names for the same thing… synonyms.
Poecilonym的异形异音同义词是synonym 就是这样
Poecilonym is a synonym for synonym there you go,
今日趣闻[老虎机出钱的声音]
fun fact of the day *slot machine winning sound*
但一切还没结束
But we’re not done.
假如两个或两个以上的单词意思相同
What if two or more words mean the same thing
拼写相同 但发音不相近呢?
and are spelled the same but aren’t pronounced alike?
现在我们对这种词没有确切的定义
Now we don’t really have a word for what those are called,
不如直接举例好了
but lets come up with some examples.
The([ðə])和The([ði])
“The” and “The” (pronounced”Thee”)
这是同一个单词在不同英语语境下的不同发音
They are two ways of pronouncing English’s only definite article,
而它们的意思都是“这个”
so they mean the same thing
但是在美式英语中
however increasingly in American-English especially
越来越多的人强调时念[ði]
“Thee” is being used for emphasis,
这就使the这个单词暂时有加重语气的意思了
which tentatively gives it a different meaning.
有两种读法的the并不是唯一的同形同义异音词
So “The” and”Thee” might not be like a totally perfect example all the time
因为有时候同一个单词也会发音不同
sometimes just accent differences can matter,
比如说about这个单词 我读作[əˈbaʊt] 而加拿大人可能读作[əˈbʊt]
like how I might say “about” and a Canadian might say “aboot” right,
他们拼写相同
they’re spelled the same and
意思相同 就是发音不同
they mean the same thing but they sound differently.
好的 那么那些意思相同 发音相同 但拼写不同的词呢
Ok what about things that mean the same thing and sound the same but are spelled differently,
好的 这些词的唯一区别就是拼写不同
well these are just spelling variants.
比如Barbecue(烤肉)这个单词是这样写的barbacue 含有字母c
For instance, um “Barbecue” spelled like”bar-ba-cue” with a “C”,
Barbaque(烤肉)是这样拼写的 内含字母q
and, “Barbaque” spelled like this with a “Q”.
哦 我把Barbecue拼错了 应该把第二个a改成e
Ooh ah, “Barbecue” is not spelt like that it’s spelt with an “E”.
这是我分享给大家的自创单词 不用谢
This is just me words and all, you’re welcome.
用c还是q不影响单词的意思和发音
Using a “C” or a “Q” doesn’t effect the meaning
只是拼写不同而已
or the sound of the word it’s just a spelling difference.
此类单词还有一个很好的例子
There are two words that also fit into this category
这个例子我尤其喜欢
that I’m particularly fond of.
Diarrhoea(腹泻)和Diarrhea(腹泻)
“Diarrhoea” and “Diarrhea”.
针对这个英式英语中的单词diarrhoea
There’s a fantastic uh mnemonic or acronym
有一个非常棒的记忆法 首字母缩略词记忆法
that you can use to remember how to spell diarrhoea in the UK fashion.
diarrhoea是Dash In A Real Rush Hurry or Else Accident的首字母缩略词
The mnemonic is, Dash In A Real Rush Hurry or Else Accident!
Diarrhoea 而我说的是美式英语
Diarrhoea. Now because I’m in the US we don’t always use that “O”
所以我在用这个记忆法时只需把o抹掉就行
so I just remember the mnemonic and then I erase the “O”.
记成Diarrhea 非常完美
Diarrhea Perfect,
diarrhea就是个很好的例子
diarrhea is a great example of what might fit
很适合填进我们这个韦恩图的交叉处
into this intersection in our Venn diagram.
那么让我们来看一下这个韦恩图的中心部分
Ok, now lets look in the very middle of our Venn diagram.
如果两个单词拼写相同
If two words are spelled the same,
发音相同 意思也相同
are pronounced the same, and have the same meaning.
那它们就是两个完全相同的单词
Well then they are just identical words
例如soup和soup(汤)
an example would be “soup” and “soup”
这两个词发音相同 拼写相同
both sound the same, spelled the same,
意思也相同
and refer to the soup.
这个冷笑话不好笑 咱们继续说正事吧
Not so fun, so lets keep moving on.
而我们韦恩图中的剩余内容包括两个圆
What we have left are these
分别是那些要么拼写相同
two circles where words either are spelled the same
即写下来长得一样
look the same written down or
要么发音相同的单词
they sound the same to the ear when spoken
所以区别就是他们发音方式的不同
so the differences are between the way they sound,
也就是“发音”和“拼写”不同
“phone” and the way they look “graph” okay.
所以咱们来想一下那些发音相同
So lets think about words that sound the same
但意思不同 拼写不同的单词
but have different meanings and are not spelled the same.
哦 可不就是我之前推文中所写的嘛
Um oh that would be something like what I tweeted
“Blue”和“Blew”
“Blue” and “Blew”.
这两个单词之间的区别就是长相(表面)不同(相异)
What distinguishes them is that they look (graph) different (hetero)
所以它们是异形异义同音词
so they are heterogrpahs.
那么那些发音不同
Now what about words that sound different and
意思不同 拼写相同的单词呢?
mean different things but are spelled the same.
我们要举的例子就是
Examples of these would be things like
泪([tir])和撕碎([tɛr])
“tear” and “tear”
如果你“撕碎”我的所爱 我就会“泪”流满面
If you “tear” apart something I love you might cause me to shed a “tear”.
另一个例子就是录制([ˈrikɔːd]) [ˈrɛkərd]
Uh another example is, “Record and “Record”.
我们能“录制”正在做的事情
We can “record” what I’m doing right now,
做出来的这个东西就是“录音”
if we do so what we will have made is a “record” of what I did.
两者之间的区别是它们有不同(相异)的发音(语音)
What distinguishes them is that they have different (hetero) sounds (phones)
所以它们叫做异音异义同形词
they are heterophones.
所以我们来总结一下这两种词之间的区别
Ok so we have these two differences,
异形异义同音词长得不一样 异音异义同形词声音不一样
heterographs look different, heterophones sound different.
然后这两种词的交叉部分是
In the middle of these two we have words that
拼写相同 发音相同 但意思不同的词
look the same and sound the same but have different meanings
比如Bank Bank 或者Skate Skate
like “Bank””Bank” or “Skate” “Skate”.
bank可以指存钱的地方
A bank can either be where money is stored
也可以指一种临河的坡地
or it can be the kind of sloping land
即河岸
near a river, the bank of a river
你不能从“河岸”贷款
you wouldn’t go get a lone from a river bank, haha
也不能在“银行”钓鱼
and you wouldn’t go fish in a financial bank.
skate可以指溜冰 也可以指比目鱼
Skate, “Skate” means to either slide along but it’s also the name of a kind of flat fish.
以上列举单词有一个专有名称
Those words have a very special name,
如果你想准确描述这些词的话
if you want to be really precise
那么落在韦恩图这个圈里的词就叫“同形同音异义词”
only words that fall within this part of the Venn diagram are homonyms, same name.
因为它们发音相同 拼写相同
Because they sound the same and they’re spelled the same
但是我们还可以再细分这两组同形同音异义词
but we can go into even more detail
Bank Bank和Skate Skate这两组词并不平等
because both of these homonyms “Bank” and “Bank”, and “Skate” and “Skate”
因为一组是真正的同形同音异义词
aren’t equal, one is a true homonym
而另一组属于一词多义
and the other is polysemous heh yea
一词多义就是一个词有多种意思
polysemous means many meanings
如果一个词的两个意思出身相同
if two different meanings of a word share the same origin
比如说它们源自同一条河 或者出自同一个人之口
like the mouth of a river and the mouth of a human
那么它们就属于一词多义
then they are polysemous,
但如果两个词起源不同 但发音与拼写相同
but if two words do not have a shared origin but still sound and look the alike well
那么它们就是纯正的同形同音异义词
then their homonymity is quite special, it’s true.
这个韦恩图上有两类词可以合并成一种词
There are two other categories we can draw here
这种词拼写相同
one involves words that are spelled the same
它不仅囊括同形同音异义词 也囊括异音异义同形词
and that’s not only include heterophones but also homonyms
所以我要在韦恩图上画一个轮廓 这个轮廓包括同形同音异义词和异音异义同形词
so I’m going to draw an outline that includes heterophones and homonyms.
那么现在韦恩图上被画出的这部分词 拼写相同
Ok now this little piece of the Venn diagram, these are words that look the same.
它们就叫“同形异义词”
They are what are called homographs.
妈呀 写不下了 同形异义——
Oh my gosh I’m running out of room, homographs.
好吧 无论如何 聪明如你 肯定能懂我写的是“同形异义词”
Well anyways you guys, you get it you guys are smart. Homogrpahs.
大家注意我并没有划分这些有相同意思的词
Notice that I’m not including words that have the same meaning,
因为它们不过是一个单词的不同表达
they’re pretty much just variations of the same
没啥好单独说的
word and they don’t get a special name.
同形异义词长得一样
Homographs look the same,
所以Bank Bank Skate Skate Tear Tear Record Record这些词两两之间都长得一样
so”Bank””Bank”,”Skate””Skate”,”Tear””Tear”,”Record””Record”, they all look the same.
但是还有一类词 它既包括同形同音异义词
But there’s another category which also includes homonyms
还包括异形异义同音词
as well as Heterographs.
这些词发音相同
These words sound the same so
所以你可想而知 它就叫做“同音异义词”
as you can probably imagine they are called homophones.
我不知道银色笔画出来效果如何
I don’t know how well the silver shows up,
但你可以看到同形同音异义词和异形异义同音词的发音相同
but both heterographs and homonyms sound the same,
所以它们是同音词
they have the same sound
比如Skate Skate和Blue Blew
“Skate””Skate”,”Blue””Blew”
再举个同音异义词的例子: To Too Two
other examples of heterographs would be like”To””Too” and”Two”.
现在人们谈论同形同音异义词的时候
Now often when people talk about homonyms
经常将其泛化为同音异义词
what they’re really talking about are homophones
这也不错 在特定时刻
and that’s fine which definition of homonym you prefer to use
你对同形同音异义词的定义完全取决于你自己
or want to use at a given moment is
我不在乎
totally up to you, I don’t care
只要你能表达清楚自己的意思就好
as long as it’s clear what you mean that’s perfect,
我是语言描述学家 我认为语言就是用来使用的
I’m a language descriptionist I think language is how we use it.
我不想给人们规定用法准则
I don’t want to prescribe rules of usage onto people.
最后我们要来谈论一下“发音口型词”
But finally we should talk about Visemes.
发音口型词是一种词 它们的意思不同 拼写不同
Visemes are words that have different meanings, are spelled differently,
发音不同
and sound different
但是它们的相同之处很特别
but yet have something very special in common
即它们发音时的口型相同
they look the same on the lips.
用唇语说这些发音口型词时你很难分辨说话内容
Visemes are words that are difficult to distinguish when lip reading
因为你的嘴唇和舌头的动作很相似
because the way your mouth moves and the tongue and the inside of your mouth are similar.
我最喜欢的发音口型词的例子是Pet Bell Men
Some of my favorite examples are “Pet”,”Bell”, and “Men”
现在我们把声音关了
in fact we’re going to turn the audio off
我按某种次序说一下这三个词
and I’m going to say three of them in some order and
我想请大家在评论中按次序写出我说的是什么词
I want you in the comments below tell me what order you think I said them in.
[一脸懵逼的观众]
(Not sure what order he did them in)
好了开始写吧
There you go.
最后 如果你想了解更多内容
Alright finally if you want to learn more
请看我在简介里推荐的两个视频
I’ve got two videos to recommend that are down in the description,
一个是关于“麦克格效应”的
one is about the McGurk Effect,
如果你不了解麦克格效应
if you’ve never seen the McGurk effect which ties
不知道口型和声音冲突会使人产生听觉错误的话
lip movements into sound and the audio illusion that emerges
请去看看这个视频
you got to check it out.
第二个视频是关于我在Vsauce 1视频中谈到的汤姆7
Also Tom 7 who I’ve talked about in a Vsauce 1 video in the past
汤姆7在一期视频中发明了“碎片单词”
has a great video out about a thing he’s invented called “Anagraphs”.
碎片单词是是字母不同 但字母碎片相同的一组词
Anagraphs are words that don’t share letters they share letter pieces,
这个视频特别好 请一定点击下方简介中的链接观看
it’s a fantastic video that’s linked below check that one out.
今天我们谈了词
While we’re talking about nyms
各种各样的词
names for words.
然后我还要说一种这个韦恩图表上没有的词
Uh I want to talk about somethings that aren’t going to show up on this chart
同义词的相反面是反义词
um the opposite of a synonym is an antonym,
也就是意思相反的词 比如“热”和“冷”
words that have opposite meanings, like hot and cold.
很无聊吗 不过我着迷的是“自身反义词”
Boring right? What I’m fascinated by are autoantonyms,
这种词是指一个词在不同语境中有词意相反现象
a word that can also mean the opposite of one of it’s meanings
以off为例 off既可以表示“激活”又可以表示“注销”
an example would be the word “Off”, off can both mean to activate and deactivate,
比如在这个语境中:我的闹钟“响”了 所以我把它“关”了
as in my alarm went off so I turned it off.
left也是一个自身反义词 它可以表示“离开” 比如说他离开了
“Left” is another good autoanonym left can mean gone like he left
但left也可以表示他没有离开
but left can also mean he didn’t leave
他“留下”了
he’s left.
还有一些“自身反义词组” 比如说wind up
There are also autoanonymic phrases like “Wind up”
wind up可以表示“开始” 比如“开始”投球
wind up can mean get ready like a wind up for a pitch
但它还可以表示“结束”
but it can also mean we gotta stop.
我们得“结束”了 没时间了
“We gotta wind up”, we’re out of time
一如既往 感谢你的观看
and as always Thanks for watching.

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视频概述

一个视频教你分清同义词、同形异义词、同音异义词……

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKeB8BnzPY

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