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历史上最“糟糕”的修女

History's "worst" nun - Theresa A. Yugar

我学习不是为了增长知识 而是为了减少无知 ——胡安娜·克鲁斯
Juana Ramírez de Asbaje sat before a panel of prestigious theologians,
胡安娜·拉米雷斯坐在一群专家面前
jurists, and mathematicians.
这些专家包括有名的神学家 法学家和数学家
The viceroy of New Spain
新西班牙辖区总督邀请他们来到这里
had invited them to test the young woman’s knowledge
请他们提出一些自己觉得最难的问题
by posing the most difficult questions they could muster.
来测试这位年轻女子的知识水平
But Juana successfully answered every challenge,
但无论是复杂方程式还是哲学问题
from complicated equations to philosophical queries.
都没能难倒胡安娜
Observers would later liken the scene
后来旁观者将当时的场景比做:
to “a royal galleon fending off a few canoes.”
“一夫当关 万夫莫开”
The woman who faced this interrogation was born in the mid-17th century.
这个接受审问的女人出生于17世纪中叶
At that time, Mexico had been a Spanish colony for over a century,
当时墨西哥成为西班牙殖民地已有一个多世纪
leading to a complex and stratified class system.
使得这里出现了复杂的分层阶级制度
Juana’s maternal grandparents were born in Spain,
胡安娜的外祖父母来自西班牙
making them members of Mexico’s most esteemed class.
在墨西哥属于最受尊敬的社会阶层
But Juana was born out of wedlock,
但胡安娜的母亲生她的时候还没结婚
and her father – a Spanish military captain –
她的父亲是一位西班牙上尉
left her mother, Doña Isabel,
这个人抛弃了她母亲多娜·伊莎贝尔
to raise Juana and her sisters alone.
留她独自一人抚养胡安娜和姐妹们
Fortunately, her grandfather’s moderate means
幸运的是 胡安娜的外祖父还算富有
ensured the family a comfortable existence.
一家人过得还算舒适
And Doña Isabel set a strong example for her daughters,
尽管多娜·伊莎贝尔不识字 当时女性也很受歧视
successfully managing one of her father’s two estates,
她还是成功地把父亲的两个庄园之一管理得井井有条
despite her illiteracy and the misogyny of the time.
为女儿们树立了好榜样
It was perhaps this precedent that inspired Juana’s lifelong confidence.
也许正是母亲的先例让胡安娜终身都充满信心
At age three, she secretly followed her older sister to school.
她3岁就开始偷偷地跟着姐姐去上学
When she later learned that higher education was open only to men,
后来得知只有男性能接受高等教育
she begged her mother to let her attend in disguise.
她又恳求母亲允许自己女扮男装去上学
Her request denied,
但母亲拒绝了这个要求
Juana found solace in her grandfather’s private library.
她只好在外祖父的私人图书馆里寻求慰藉
By early adolescence,
刚进入青春期时
she’d mastered philosophical debate, Latin,
胡安娜就已经掌握了哲学论辨 拉丁语
and the Aztec language Nahuatl.
以及阿兹特克人的纳瓦特尔语
Juana’s precocious intellect attracted attention
胡安娜的早慧
from the royal court in Mexico City,
引起了墨西哥城王室的注意
and when she was sixteen,
在16岁时
the viceroy and his wife took her in as their lady-in-waiting.
胡安娜被总督夫妇纳为侍女
Here, her plays and poems
在这里 她创作的戏剧和诗歌
alternately dazzled and outraged the court.
经常让宫里人在赞叹和愤怒之间往复
Her provocative poem Foolish Men
比如她的挑衅诗《愚人》
infamously criticized sexist double standards,
毫不留情地批判了性别双标
decrying how men corrupt women
谴责了男人如何一边引诱女性堕落
while blaming them for immorality.
一边又指责她们不道德
Despite its controversy,
尽管她的作品存在很多争议
her work still inspired adoration, and numerous proposals.
还是有很多人因此仰慕她 向她求婚
But Juana was more interested in knowledge than marriage.
然而相比婚姻 胡安娜对知识更感兴趣
And in the patriarchal society of the time,
而在当时的父权社会
there was only one place she could find it: the Church,
只有一个地方能满足胡安娜的需求——教堂
while still under the zealous influence of the Spanish Inquisition,
在西班牙宗教裁判所带来的狂热影响下
would allow Juana to retain her independence and respectability
教堂使得胡安娜即便是未婚
while remaining unmarried.
也能保持独立和受人尊敬
At age 20, she entered the Hieronymite Convent of Santa Paula
在20岁时 她进入了圣保拉圣像修道院
and took on her new name: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.
并且取了新名字:胡安娜·克鲁斯(胡安娜修女)
For years, Sor Juana was considered a prized treasure of the church.
多年来 胡安娜修女都被视作教会的珍宝
She wrote dramas, comedies, and treatises on philosophy and mathematics,
她创作戏剧 喜剧 撰写哲学 数学论著
in addition to religious music and poetry.
以及宗教音乐和诗歌
She accrued a massive library,
她收藏了大量的图书
and was visited by many prominent scholars.
有许多知名学者前来拜访
While serving as the convent’s treasurer and archivist,
同时她还是修道院的司库和档案保管员
she also protected the livelihoods of her niece and sisters
保障了侄女和姐姐们的生计
from men who tried to exploit them.
不受他人盘剥
But her outspokenness ultimately brought her
但她的直言不讳最终使她
into conflict with her benefactors.
跟自己的恩人起了冲突
In 1690, a bishop published
胡安娜修女私下批判过一篇颇受推崇的布道
Sor Juana’s private critique of a respected sermon.
1690年 一位主教把这件事写了出来
In the publication,
在文章中
he admonished Sor Juana to devote herself to prayer rather than debate.
他告诫胡安娜修女 要投身于祈祷 而不是辩论
She replied that God would not have given women intellect
而胡安娜修女回答道:如果上帝不希望女性运用智慧
if he did not want them to use it.
就不会赐予女性智慧
The exchange caught the attention of the conservative Archbishop of Mexico.
而这次争执引起了保守的墨西哥大主教的注意
Slowly, Sor Juana was stripped of her prestige,
慢慢地 胡安娜修女声望不再
forced to sell her books and give up writing.
被迫卖掉了她收藏的书籍并放弃写作
Furious at this censorship,
她对这种审查感到非常愤怒
but unwilling to leave the church,
但又不愿离开教堂
she bitterly renewed her vows.
于是不情愿地重写了她的誓言
In her last act of defiance, she signed them
她最后的反抗
“I, the worst of all,” in her own blood.
是用鲜血写下:“我 是最糟糕的”
Deprived of scholarship,
不能再做学术之后
Sor Juana threw herself into charity work,
胡安娜修女投身慈善事业
and in 1695,
最终于1695年
she died of an illness she contracted while nursing her sisters.
在照顾姐姐们时染病身亡
Today, Sor Juana has been recognized
如今 胡安娜修女已经是公认的
as the first feminist in the Americas.
美洲第一位女权主义者
She’s the subject of countless documentaries, novels, and operas,
成为了无数纪录片 小说 歌剧的主角
and appears on Mexico’s 200-peso banknote.
并且被印在墨西哥200比索的钞票上
In the words of Nobel laureate Octavio Paz:
用诺贝尔奖得主Octavio Paz的话来说:
“It is not enough to say that Sor Juana’s work is a product of history;
“胡安娜修女的作品不仅源自历史
we must add that history is also a product of her work.”
更是创造了历史”
Check out these lessons to learn about other revolutionary women,
如果想了解更多改变了历史进程的杰出女性
making good trouble in changing the course of history.
来看看这些课程吧

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视频概述

通过了解胡安娜修女的生平,来感受这位伟大女性的魅力吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小霸王阿呆

审核员

审核员VV

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wSOt3z_-YY

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