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历史vs弗洛伊德

History vs. Sigmund Freud - Todd Dufresne

Working in Vienna at the turn of the 20th century,
在20世纪之初的维也纳
he began his career as a neurologist
弗洛伊德开创精神分析学
before pioneering the discipline of psychoanalysis.
之后才开始神经学家的职业生涯
He proposed that people are motivated by unconscious desires
他提出 人们被潜意识的欲望
and repressed memories,
和被压抑的记忆所驱使
and their problems can be addressed
这些问题可以通过谈话疗法
by making those motivations conscious through talk therapy.
让这些动机变成意识而得以解决
His influence towers above that of all other psychologists in the public eye.
在公众眼中 他的影响力超过了其他所有心理学家
But was Sigmund Freud right about human nature?
但弗洛伊德对人性的洞察是正确的吗?
And were his methods scientific?
他的方法是科学的吗?
Order, order. Today on the stand we have… Dad?
肃静 肃静 今天出庭作证的是……爸?
Ahem, no, your honor.
呵 不是 法官大人
This is Doctor Sigmund Freud,
这位是西格蒙德·弗洛伊德医生
one of the most innovative thinkers in the history of psychology.
心理学史上最具创新性的思想家之一
An egomaniac who propagated pseudoscientific theories.
一位宣传伪科学理论的自大狂
Well, which is it?
例如?
He tackled issues medicine refused to address.
他解决了医学界无法解决的问题
Freud’s private practice treated women
弗洛伊德的私人诊所治疗了
who suffered from what was called hysteria at the time,
患有当时称为歇斯底里的妇女
and their complaints hadn’t been taken seriously at all.
她们的抱怨根本从没有被认真对待
From the women with depression he treated initially
从他最初治疗的那些抑郁症妇女
to World War I veterans with PTSD,
到患有创伤后应激障碍的一战老兵
Freud’s talking cure worked,
弗洛伊德的谈话疗法奏效了
and the visibility he gave his patients forced the medical establishment
显著的疗效迫使医疗机构
to acknowledge their psychological disorders were real.
承认病人的心理障碍是真的
He certainly didn’t help all his patients.
当然 他并没有帮助所有的病人
Freud was convinced that our behavior is shaped by
他相信人类所有的行为都是由
unconscious urges and repressed memories.
潜意识的冲动与被压抑的记忆所塑造的
He invented baseless unconscious or irrational drivers
他编造了创伤康复者的行为背后毫无根据的潜意识
behind the behavior of trauma survivors— and caused real harm.
或非理性的驱动因素 而这对他们造成了真正的伤害
How’s that?
怎么说?
He misrepresented some of his most famous case studies,
他歪曲了他的一些最著名的研究案例
claiming his treatment had cured patients when in fact they had gotten worse.
声称他治愈了病人 而事实上他们病得更重了
Later therapists influenced by his theories
而后 被他理论影响的治疗师们
coaxed their patients into “recovering”
诱骗病人恢复所谓被压抑的童年受虐记忆
supposedly repressed memories of childhood abuse that never happened.
实际上这些记忆从未发生过
Lives and families were torn apart.
生活与家庭皆分崩离析
You can’t blame Freud for later misapplications of his work—
你无法怪罪弗洛伊德后来滥用
that would be projecting.
自己准备推展的学说
Plenty of his ideas were harmful without any misapplication.
因为就算没有被滥用 他的许多想法本身就很危险
He viewed homosexuality as a developmental glitch.
他认为同性恋是一种发育缺陷
He coined the term penis envy—
他创造了“阴茎嫉妒”这个词
meaning women are haunted for life by their lack of penises.
意思是女性因没有阴茎而困扰一生
Freud was a product of his era.
弗洛伊德是他所处时代的产物
Yes, some of the specifics were flawed,
是 他学说的某些细节是有些缺陷
but he created a new space for future scientists to explore,
但他给未来的科学家创造了一个
investigate, and build upon.
探索 调查 和发展的新空间
Modern therapy techniques that millions of people rely on
数以百万计的人们所依赖的现代治疗技术
came out of the work he started with psychoanalysis.
脱胎于他精神分析学说的成果
And today everyone knows there’s an unconscious—
如今 每个人都知道潜意识这个概念
that idea was popularized by Freud.
这个想法是由弗洛伊德推广的
Psychologists today only believe in a “cognitive unconscious”,
如今的心理学家只相信“认知潜意识”
the fact that you aren’t aware of everything going on at a given moment.
即你没有意识到某个特定时刻发生的一切
Freud took this idea way too far,
但弗洛伊德想得太过头
ascribing deep meaning to everything.
认为一切事物都有深刻含义
He built his theories on scientific ideas that were outdated even in his own time,
他将自己的理论建立在不仅仅是以当今的标准来看
not just by today’s standards.
而即使在他那个时代也已过时的科学思想上
For example, he thought individual psychology
举例来说 他认为个体心理
is derived from the biological inheritance of events in ancient history.
起源于古代历史事件的生物遗传
And I mean ancient— like the Ice Age or the killing of Moses.
所谓古代指的是 比如冰河时期或摩西被杀时
Freud and his closest allies actually believed
弗洛伊德和他最亲密的盟友确实相信
these prehistorical traumas had ongoing impacts on human psychology.
这些史前的创伤对人类心理有持续性的影响
He thought that the phase of cold indifference to sexuality
他认为青春期对性冷漠的阶段
during pubescence was literally an echo of the Ice Age.
与冰河时期的特征如出一辙
With fantastical beliefs like these,
对于这些异想天开的信念
how can we take him seriously?
我们如何能认真看待他呢?
Any renowned thinker from centuries past
几个世纪以来的著名思想家
has ideas that seem fantastical by today’s standards,
都有一些以现今的标准来看很荒谬的想法
but we can’t discount their influence on this basis.
但我们不能因此忽视他们带来的影响
Freud was an innovator linking ideas across many fields.
弗洛伊德是一位创新者 横跨了多个领域
His concepts have become everyday terms
他的概念已经演变成塑造
that shape how we understand and talk about our own experiences.
人们理解和论述自我经历的日常用语
The Oedipus complex? Ego and id? Defense mechanisms? Death wishes?
恋母情结?自我和本我?防御机制?死亡驱力?
All Freud.
这些都来自弗洛伊德
But Freud didn’t present himself as a social theorist—
但弗洛伊德没有把自己看作是一个社会理论家
he insisted that his work was scientific.
他坚持他的工作都是科学领域的
Are you saying he… repressed inconvenient facts?
你是说他……掩盖不利于他的事实?
Freud’s theories were unfalsifiable.
弗洛伊德的理论是无法证伪的
Wait, so you’re saying he was right?
等等 所以你是说 他是对的?
No, his ideas were framed so that there’s no way to empirically verify them.
不 他的想法是自成体系的 因此无法凭经验来验证
Freud didn’t even necessarily believe in the psychoanalysis he was peddling.
弗洛伊德甚至不怎么相信自己所传播的精神分析
He was pessimistic about the impact of therapy.
他对治疗的作用感到悲观
What! I think I need to lie down!
什么!我觉得我需要躺下!
Many of Sigmund Freud’s ideas don’t hold up to modern science,
西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的许多想法经受不住现代科学的检验
and his clinical practices don’t meet today’s ethical standards.
而且他的临床实践也不符合现今的道德准则
At the same time, he sparked a revolution in psychology and society,
与此同时 他引发了一场心理学与社会的革命
and created a vocabulary for discussing emotion.
并创造了讨论情绪的词汇
Freud made his share of mistakes.
弗洛伊德犯过错误
But is a thinker responsible for how subsequent generations
但是 思想家需要对后代如何
put their ideas to use?
运用他们的想法负责吗
Do they deserve the blame, credit, or redemption
当我们对历史进行审判时
when we put history on trial?
他们应该受到指责 赞扬 或救赎吗
Freud was fascinated by sleep
弗洛伊德对睡眠很着迷
and believed that analyzing dreams can reveal repressed desires.
认为分析梦境可以揭示被压抑的欲望
But is that true?
但这是真的吗?
Over one hundred years later,
一百多年后
what do we even know about sleep?
我们到底对睡眠了解多少?
If you are interested in learning more about
如果你有兴趣了解更多
the vital hours you spent unconscious,
你在睡眠中度过的重要时间
we recommend《Why We Sleep》.
我们推荐阅读《我们为什么要睡觉?》
A ground breaking book that examines how we can harness
这是一本开创性的书籍 探讨了我们如何利用
the transformative power of sleep to change our lives for the better.
睡眠的变革力量来改善我们的生活
Visit audible.cim/ted-ed to download a free copy.
访问audible.cim/ted-ed下载免费版

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视频概述

弗洛伊德和他的精神分析学说存在诸多争议,本视频辩证地分析了其重大影响和局限性,为我们理解弗洛伊德提供了全面的视角

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Mei Hsi (Emily)

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mKG-PEVYOR8

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