未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

历史 vs.切·格瓦拉

History vs. Che Guevara - Alex Gendler

“我们仍需假以时日 待意见双方的热情都过去 才能让历史给切·格瓦拉一个定论”——Uva de Aragon博士 (作家 编辑 学者)
全世界都认识他
His face is recognized all over the world.
一个成为革命符号的年轻医学生
The young medical studentwho became a revolutionary icon.
但是 切·格瓦拉究竟是穷人的拥护者
But was Che Guevaraa heroic champion of the poor
还是留下镇压遗风的残暴军阀?
or a ruthless warlordwho left a legacy of repression?
秩序 秩序!嘿
Order, order. Hey,
我之前在哪见过这个家伙?
where have I seen that guy before?
嗯哼 法官大人 这位是欧内斯托·切·格瓦拉
Ahem, your Honor, this is Ernesto Che Guevara.
二十世纪五十年代早期
In the early 1950s,
他离开自己在阿根廷优渥的
he left behind a privileged life
医学生生活
as a medical student in Argentina
前往拉丁美洲农村
to travel through rural Latin America.
他亲眼目睹的贫穷与悲惨让他明白
The poverty and misery he witnessedconvinced him that saving lives
救人所需要的远比医学更多
required more than medicine.
因此他变成了一个试图暴动推翻当地政府的恐怖分子
So he became a terrorist seeking to violently overthrow the region’s governments.
什么?
What?
当地政府推行残暴的寡头政治
The region’s governmentswere brutal oligarchies.
殖民主义形式上已经终结
Colonialism may have formally ended,
但精英阶层依然控制着所有财富
but elites still controlledall the wealth.
美国公司买断从土著手里掠夺来的土地
American corporations bought up landoriginally seized from indigenous people
并以此谋利和出口
and used it for profit and export,
甚至未耕作大部分土地 而当地人却在挨饿
even keeping most of it uncultivatedwhile locals starved.
难道他们不能通过选举改变现状吗?
Couldn’t they vote to change that?
哦 他们试过 法官大人
Oh they tried, your Honor.
1953年 切来到危地马拉
In 1953, Che came to Guatemala
该国当时由民主选举出的阿本兹总统统治
under the democratically-electedgovernment of President Árbenz.
阿本兹总统通过改革将部分未开发的土地
Árbenz passed reforms to redistribute
重新分配到人民手中
some of this uncultivatedland back to the people
同时给予土地所有者以补偿
while compensating the landowners.
但他被中情局资助的政变推翻了
But he was overthrownin a CIA-sponsored coup.
军方保护私有财产不被夺取
The military was protecting againstthe seizure of private property
并防范共产主义者来接盘
and communist takeover.
他们在保护公司利益
They were protecting corporate profits
切明白他们会利用人们对共产主义的恐惧
and Che saw that they would usethe fear of communism
去推翻任何威胁到这些利益的政府
to overthrow any governmentthat threatened those profits.
因此他带着危地马拉的教训去了墨西哥
So he took the lessons of Guatemalawith him to Mexico. There,
在那里他遇到了被流放的古巴革命者
he met exiled Cuban revolutionaries
然后决定帮助他们解放其国家
and decided to help themliberate their country.
你是说帮助菲德尔·卡斯特罗将生机勃勃的古巴变成独裁政府?
You mean help Fidel Castro turn a vibrant Cuba into a dictatorship.
古巴在革命前是在独裁统治下的
Dictatorship was what Cubahad before the revolution.
富尔亨西奥·巴蒂斯塔是个在军事政变中掌政的暴君
Fulgencio Batista was a tyrant who came to power in a military coup.
他将哈瓦那变成了外国人的奢侈乐园
He turned Havana into a luxury playgroundfor foreigners
却将古巴人陷于穷困潦倒之境 在警察镇压中杀死的人数以千计
while keeping Cubans mired in poverty and killing thousands in police crackdowns.
甚至肯尼迪总统都称之为
Even President Kennedy called itthe worst example
“世界上经济殖民 侮辱 剥削的极端案例”
of”economic colonization, humiliation,and exploitation in the world.”
无论巴蒂斯塔有什么错
Whatever Batista’s faults,
都无法与卡斯特罗建立的极权噩梦相匹敌
it can’t compare to the totalitarian nightmare Castro would create.
强迫劳动集中营 对囚犯的酷刑
Forced labor camps, torture of prisoners,
没有言论自由或离境自由
no freedom to speak or to leave.
但这不是对菲德尔·卡斯特罗的审判 不是吗?
But this isn’t the trialof Fidel Castro, is it?
切·格瓦拉在卡斯特罗攫取政权上是有帮助的
Che Guevara was instrumental in helpingCastro seize power.
作为游击战队的司令官
As a commander in his guerilla army,
他在农村开启了恐怖的统治
he unleashed a reign of terror across the countryside,
杀掉一切可疑间谍或异见人士
killing any suspected spies or dissenters.
他也帮助农民建立医疗诊所和学校
He also helped peasants buildhealth clinics and schools,
教他们认字读书甚至给他们背诗
taught them to read, and even recited poetry to them.
他的严明纪律对于对抗更强大的敌人是必要的
His harsh discipline was necessaryagainst a much stronger enemy
而敌人对帮助反叛军的村落会毫不犹疑地一把火夷为平地
who didn’t hesitate to burn entire villages suspected of aiding the rebels.
让我们不要忘了新政权在1959年掌政后
Let’s not forget that the new regimeheld mass executions
在没有审判的情况下进行大规模处决
and killed hundredsof people without trial
杀人如麻
as soon as they took power in 1959.
被处决的人是在巴蒂斯塔统治时
The executed were officialsand collaborators
拷打过劳苦大众的官员及协作者
who had tormentedthe masses under Batista.
这些人支持这一革命正义
The people supportedthis revolutionary justice.
哪些人呢?
Which people?
嗜血的暴民并不能制造民主
An angry mob crying for blooddoes not a democracy make.
更不消说那些强迫劳动集中营
And that’s not even mentioningthe forced labor camps,
随意拘捕 以及革命后对LGBT人群的持续镇压
arbitrary arrests, and repression of LGBT people that continued long after the revolution.
人们有理由冒死逃跑
There’s a reason people keptrisking their lives to flee,
除了身上的衣服常常别无他物
often with nothing but the clotheson their backs.
所以这就是切带给古巴的所有吗?
So was that all this Che brought to Cuba?
只是另一个暴虐独裁?
Just another violent dictatorship?
不尽然
Not at all.
他监管土地重新分配 帮助建立大学教育
He oversaw land redistribution, helped established universal education,
组织志愿读写队
and organized volunteer literacy brigades
将古巴的识字率提高到96%
that raised Cuba’s literacy rate to 96 %,
现在依然是世界最高之一
still one of the highest in the world.
这能让政府控制每个人接收的信息
Which allowed the government to controlwhat information everyone received.
作为财政部长 格瓦拉不当的理想主义
Guevara’s idealistic incompetenceas Finance Minister
引发了生产力的大幅度跌落
caused massive drops in productivity
只因他将涨工资换成了发道德证书
when he replaced worker pay raiseswith moral certificates.
他镇压一切媒体自由 宣称报纸是寡头政治的工具
He suppressed all press freedom, declaring that newspapers were instruments of the oligarchy.
也正是他
And it was he who urged
督促卡斯特罗部署苏维埃的核武器
Castro to host Soviet nuclear weapons,
引发了古巴核弹危机
leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis
并将整个世界都带到毁灭边缘
that brought the worldto the brink of destruction.
他是个领导者 而非官僚
He was a leader, not a bureaucrat.
这也是为何他最终离开并将革命传向国外
That’s why he eventually left to spreadthe revolution abroad.
但过程并不顺利
Which didn’t go well.
在刚果他没有集合起反叛者
He failed to rally rebels in the Congo
甚至在苏维埃不同意的情况下赴玻利维亚
and went to Boliviaeven when the Soviets disapproved.
玻利维亚政府在中情局的帮助下
The Bolivian Government,with the help of the CIA,
于1967年在这名恐怖分子做更大破坏之前
was able to capture and neutralizethis terrorist in 1967,
抓获并消灭了他
before he could do much damage.
虽然在这个过程中他们自己搞了很多破坏
While doing plenty of damage themselvesin the process.
所以这就是结局吗?
So that was the end of it?
并不是 就如同切说过:革命不朽
Not at all. As Che said,the revolution is immortal.
他在世界各地被公开缅怀
He was publicly mourned in citiesall over the world.
不包括那些努力逃脱的古巴人
Not by the Cubans who managed to escape.
他的事迹将鼓舞未来几代的年轻运动家们
And his story would inspireyoung activists for generations to come. Ha.
对于那些从未在他统治下生活的人来说
A trendy symbol of rebellion
是一个流行的反叛符号
for those who never had to live under his regime.
革命的符号可以商品化
Symbols of revolutionmay become commodified,
但是一个追求更公平世界的思想永存
but the idea of a more just world remains. Maybe,
也许 但是我不想分享咖啡
but I’m not sharing my coffee.
切·格瓦拉在玻利维亚被政府军抓捕并处决
Che Guevara was captured andexecuted by government forces in Bolivia.
他的遗体之后30年都没有找到
His remains would not be foundfor another 30 years.
但是他到底是英雄还是已变成恶徒?
But did he die a hero or had he already become a villain?
革命是应该按照它们的理想还是结果来评判?
And should revolutions be judgedby their ideals or their outcomes?
这是我们审判历史时需要面对的问题
These are the questions we face when we put history on trial.
这个视频因Patreon上我们的社区支持而得以制作
如果你喜欢的话
请在本播单里查看更多“历史v.s”系列视频

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频以历史审判的动画方式回顾了切·格瓦拉波澜壮阔而富有争议的一生。他到底是英雄还是恶徒?还有一个的问题很值得我们思考,在做历史审判时我们会面对的一个重要问题是:我们到底应该按照理想还是结果来评判革命?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

霜霜

审核员

审核员 MF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjrvKA4w9-Y

相关推荐