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历史vs屋大维

History vs. Augustus - Peta Greenfield & Alex Gendler

“[奥古斯都]可以夸耀自己继承的是砖 留下的是大理石 ”
— 苏埃托尼乌斯 《奥古斯都的一生》
.
他的统治标志着历史上一个最伟大帝国的开始
His reign marked the beginningof one of history’s greatest empires
以及史上最早的共和政体的结束
and the end of one of its first republics.
罗马的第一位皇帝到底是
Was Rome ’ s first emperor a visionary
巩固其文明在历史中地位的 有远见的领导者
leader who guaranteed his civilization ’ s place in history
还是摧毁其核心价值观的暴君呢?
or a tyrant who destroyed its core values?
请看 《历史诉奥古斯都案》
Find out in History versus Augustus.
肃静 肃静
Order! Order!
今天的被告是盖乌斯•屋大维?
The defendant today is Gaius Octavius?
盖乌斯•尤利乌斯•凯撒/奥古斯都……
Gaius Julius Caesar/Augustus…
我们是不是搞错人了?
Do we have the wrong guy?
没有 法官大人
No, your Honor.
盖维斯•屋大维生于公元前63年
Gaius Octavius, born in 63 BCE,
被其姑老爷收养后 成为其养子和继承人
He became Gaius Julius Caesar
改名盖乌斯•尤利乌斯•凯撒
upon being named his great-uncle ’ s adoptive son and heir.
公元前27年 在元老院授予殊荣时
And he gained the title Augustus in 27 BCE
他获得了“奥古斯都”的称谓
when the Senate grantedhim additional honors.
你是说他确立了独裁统治 成为罗马的皇帝
You mean when he established sole authority and became emperor Roman
那不好吗?
Is that bad?
那时候不是到处都有国王或皇帝的吗?
Didn’t every place have some kingor emperor back then?
实际上 法官大人
Actually, your Honor,
在共和国建立前的几个世纪
the Roman people had overthrown their kings centuries before
罗马人民就已推翻了他们的国王
to establish a republic,
而共和国政府是为人民服务的
a government meant to serve the people,
不是皇家统治的特权
not the privilege of a ruling family.
而且是屋大维摧毁了这一传统
And it was Octaviuswho destroyed this tradition.
屋大维曾是模范公务员
Octavius was a model public servant.
16岁时 他被选入监督宗教礼拜的
At 16, he was electedto the College of Pontiffs
庞蒂夫斯学院
that supervised religious worship.
他在西班牙与他的姑老爷凯撒一起为罗马而战
He fought for Rome in Hispaniaalongside his great-uncle Caesar
而且在元老院腐败的寡头们背叛并谋杀了凯撒之后
and took up the responsibilityof avenging Caesar’s death
承担起为他报仇雪恨的责任
when the corrupt oligarchs in the Senatebetrayed and murdered him.
凯撒曾是一个渴望权力的暴君
Caesar had been a power-hungry tyrant
他在与埃及艳后
who tried to make himself a king
克利奥帕特拉在一起时 试图称王
while consorting withhis Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
他死后 屋大维与他的将军马克•安东尼一起
After his death, Octavius joined his general Mark Antony
开始了一场祸乱罗马的内战
in starting a civil war that tore Rome apart,
之后 他暗算自己的盟友并增加了自己的权力
then stabbed his ally in the back to increase his own power
安东尼是个傻瓜
Antony was a fool.
他在帕提亚发动了一场灾难性的战争
He waged a disastrous campaign in Parthia
并策划要将罗马领土
and plotted to turn Roman territories
变成自己和埃及艳后的个人王国
into personal kingdoms for himself and Cleopatra.
那不是凯撒受到的指控吗?
Isn’t that what Caesar had been accused of?
哦……
Well…
那么 屋大维消灭了企图称王的安东尼
So Octavius destroyed Antonyfor trying to become a king
而后自己成为国王了?
and then became one himself?
是的
That’s right.
您甚至可以从他的头衔看出
You can see the megalomania
那只是一种宗教敬称
That was a religious honorific.
而且奥古斯都并非为自己的利益而追求权力
And Augustus didn’t seek powerfor his own sake.
作为内战的胜利者
As winner of the civil war
和拥有部队最多的指挥官
and commander of the most troops,
他的职责就是恢复罗马的法律与秩序
it was his duty to restore law and order to Rome
以便其他派系不再继续征战
so that other factions didn’t continue fighting.
他并没有恢复法律 –
He didn ’ t restore the law –
而是让法律为他所用
he made it subordinate to him!
不是事实
Not true.
奥古斯都努力恢复了元老院的声望
Augustus worked to restorethe Senate’s prestige,
为下层阶层改善了食品安全
improved food securityfor the lower classes,
而且他在辞去执政官职务后 让出来军权
and relinquished control of the army when he resign his consul pose
掩人耳目而已
Mere optics.
他利用自己的军事影响力与个人财富
He used his military influence and personal wealth
让元老院偏向于自己
to stack the Senate in his favor,
同时保留了保民官的职位
while retaining the powers of a tribune
和庆祝军事胜利的权力
and the right to celebrate military triumphs.
他用几乎所有的军团控制着各省
He kept control of provinces with the most legions.
如果这还不够的话
And if that wasn ’ t enough,
他不止两次恢复执政官一职以提升其孙子的地位
he assumed the consul position twice more to promote his grand children
很显然 他在试图建立一个王朝
He was clearly trying to establish a dynasty.
但他利用这些权力都做了什么呢?
But what did he do with all that power?
很高兴您问到这个问题 法官大人
Glad you asked, your Honor.
奥古斯都的成就几乎不胜枚举
Augustus’s accomplishmentswere almost too many to name.
他统一了所有省份的税制
He established consistenttaxation for all provinces,
结束了当地税务官员的私下盘剥
ending private exploitationby local tax officials.
他个人出资修建道路 雇用信使
He personally financed a network of roadsand employed couriers
便于国内的新闻传播及部队行进
so news and troops could traveleasily throughout the realm.
而且许多罗马著名的公共建筑
And it was under Augustus
都是在奥古斯都统治时期建造的
that many of Rome ’ s famous public buildings were constructed.
当时的作家几乎异口同声地称赞其统治
The writers of the time were nearly unanimous in praising his rule.
当时的作家有其他选择吗?
Did the writers have any other choice?
奥古斯都以莫须有的罪名放逐了许多人
Augustus exiled plenty of peopleon vague charges,
其中包括罗马最伟大的诗人之一 奥维德
including Ovid, one of Rome’s greatest poets.
而且你忘了提及
And you forgot to mention the
关于侵犯公民个人生活的法律 –
intrusive laws regarding citizens ’ personal lives –
惩罚通奸 限制社会阶层之间的通婚
punishing adultery, restricting marriagebetween social classes,
甚至还有对独身的处罚
even penalties for remaining unmarried.
他只是在试图提高公民素质 灌输纪律性
He was trying to improve the citizenryand instill discipline.
而且他成功了
And he succeeded.
他为后人留下的遗产显而易见:
His legacy speaks for itself:
在罗马边界四面扩张的职业军队
a professional army that expandedRome’s frontiers in all directions,
依旧记得要作公民道德典范的政府
and a government still rememberedas a model of civic virtue.
他留下的是 继续进行无休止的征战
His legacy was an empire that would go
直到崩溃为止的帝国
on to wage endless conquest until it collapsed,
和军事独裁的传统
and a tradition of military autocracy.
每当有穿着将军制服的独裁者
Any time a dictator in a general’s uniformcommits atrocities
打着“人民”的旗号犯下暴行时
while claiming to act on behalfof”the people,”
我们都得感谢奥古斯都•凯撒
we have Augustus Caesar to thank.
所以 你说的是奥古斯都是个好皇帝
So you’re saying Augustus was a good emperor,
而你说的是从来没有这样的事情?
and you’re saying there’s no such thing?
我们习惯为历史伟人
We’re used to celebrating historical leaders
歌功颂德
for their achievements and victories.
但如果要问
But to ask
起初个人是否应该拥有这样的权力
whether an individual should have such power in the first place
那就是将历史本身置于审判之中了
is to put history itself on trial.
请查阅播单
Check out this playlist
观看更多“历史诉历史人物”系列视频
for more episodes of our History Versus series,
对著名历史人物 比如埃及艳后
where we put famous figures like Cleopatra,
弗拉基米尔•列宁以及成吉思汗进行诉讼
Vladimir Lenin and Genghis Khan on trial

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视频概述

屋大维的功与过

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收集自网络

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昵伊荙

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrcmojhFmzY

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