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从一只鸡的角度看历史

History through the eyes of a chicken - Chris A. Kniesly

把它当作想要的东西 把设计鸡舍看作和设计教堂一样重视――弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特


古埃及国王图特摩斯三世时的史书上
The annals of Ancient Egyptian king Thutmose III
描述过一种“每天都产蛋”的令人惊奇的外国鸟
described a marvelous foreign bird that “gives birth daily.”
索罗亚斯德教的教徒把它们视为
Zoroastrians viewed them as spirits
其啼鸣昭示着宇宙中黑暗和光明间竞争的精神
whose cries told of the cosmic struggle between darkness and light.
罗马人把它们带到战场上
Romans brought them on their military campaigns
预言接下来战斗的成功
to foretell the success of future battles.
今天 这种鸟仍然占据着一个重要的
And today, this bird still occupies an important,
但却不那么高贵的位置
though much less honorable position
在餐盘上
– on our dinner plates.
现在的鸡主要从红原鸡进化而来
The modern chicken is descended primarily from the Red Junglefowl,
部分从其他三种近亲进化而来
and partially from three other closely related species,
所有品种都原产于印度和东南亚
all native to India and Southeast Asia.
这一地区的竹子每隔几十年
The region’s bamboo plants produce massive amounts
结出大量的果实
of fruit just once every few decades.
原鸡每天下蛋的能力
Junglefowls’ ability to lay eggs daily
可能已进化到利用这些稀罕的盛宴
may have evolved to take advantage of these rare feasts,
在食物充足时增加种群数量的程度
increasing their population when food was abundant.
这是人类可以一直利用的东西
This was something humans could exploit on a consistent basis,
这种鸟的弱飞行能力 以及对空间的有限需求
and the birds’weak flight capabilities and limited need for space made them
导致它们容易被捕捉 控制
easy to capture and contain.
最早的家养鸡
The earliest domesticated chickens,
可以追溯到至少七千年前
dating at least back to 7,000 years ago,
并不是为了吃 而是为了某些今天看来不那么体面的东西
weren’t bred for food, but for something considered less savory today.
繁殖的雄鸡的攻击性
The aggressiveness of breeding males,
生就天然直腿
armed with natural leg spurs,
使斗鸡成为一种流行的娱乐方式
made cockfighting a popular entertainment.
到了公元前第二个千禧年
By the second millennium BCE,
鸡从印度河流域传至中国
chickens had spread from the Indus Valley to China
以及中东 占据皇家“动物园”
and the Middle East to occupy royal menageries
用于宗教仪式
and to be used in religious rituals.
但在埃及
But it was in Egypt where the next chapter
开始了鸡历史的新篇章
in the bird’s history began.
当一只母鸡自然孵蛋时
When a hen naturally incubates eggs,
她会停止下蛋 坐在6个或更多鸡蛋的
she will stop laying new ones and sit on a “ clutch ”
“离合器”上21天
of 6 or more eggs for 21 days.
到了公元前第一千年的中期
By the middle of the 1st millennium BCE,
埃及人通过把鸡蛋放在位于热灰之上的篮子里
the Egyptians had learned to artificially incubate chicken eggs
学会了人工孵化鸡蛋
by placing them in baskets over hot ashes.
使得母鸡能有空继续每天下蛋
That freed up hens to continue laying daily,
曾经的皇家美食
and what had been a royal delicacy
或宗教祭品的鸡蛋成为了普通菜肴
or religious offering became a common meal.
埃及人孵化鸡蛋的同时
Around the same time as Egyptians were incubating eggs,
腓尼基商人把鸡带到了欧洲
Phoenician merchants introduced chickens to Europe,
在欧洲 鸡很快成了欧洲家畜的重要部分
where they quickly became an essential part of European livestock.
然而 很长一段时期
However,for a long time,
鸡的地位继续受人尊敬
the chicken’s revered status continued to exist
与其烹饪地位并存
alongside its culinary one.
古希腊人使用斗鸡作为年轻武士的精神象征
The Ancient Greeks used fighting roosters as inspirational examples for young soldiers.
罗马人商议把鸡作为预言圣物
The Romans consulted chickens as oracles.
只是在七世纪
And as late as the 7th Century,
鸡才被视为基督教的标志
the chicken was considered a symbol for Christianity.
接下来几世纪后 鸡伴随着人类而迁移
Over the next few centuries, chickens accompanied humans wherever they went,
通过商业交易 征服 殖民
spreading throughout the world through trade, conquest,
传至全世界
and colonization.
鸦片战争之后 中国鸡被带到了英国
After the Opium Wars, Chinese breeds were brought to England
与当地鸡交配
and crossed with local chickens.
这就导致了一种叫做
This gave rise to a phenomenon called
“母鸡发热”或“幻想”的现象
“ Hen Fever ” or “ The Fancy ”,
欧洲的农民努力用特质的特殊组合
with farmers all over Europe striving to breed new varieties
繁殖新品种
with particular combinations of traits.
这种潮流吸引了查尔斯•达尔文的
This trend also caught the attention
注意力 他想知道
of a certain Charles Darwin, who wondered if
这本质上是否是一种类似选择繁殖的过程
a similar selective breeding process occurred in nature.
达尔文结束自己历史上著名的工作的同时
Darwin would observe hundreds of chickens
他观察了上百只鸡
while finalizing his historic work
引入了进化论
introducing the theory of Evolution.
但鸡对科学的最大贡献
But the chicken’s greatest contribution to science
还没有出现
was yet to come.
二十世纪早期
In the early 20th century,
英国的一个三人组科学家认为 大范围的鸡的杂交配种
a trio of British scientists conducted extensive crossbreeding of chickens,
建立在格里格•孟德尔的基因遗传的研究上
building on Gregor Mendel’s studies of genetic inheritance.
利用鸡的基因多样性 很多不同的特质
With their high genetic diversity, many distinct traits,
每一代之间只有七个月
and only 7 months between generations,
鸡是最好的主题
chickens were the perfect subject.
这些工作促成了著名的庞尼特氏方格
This work resulted in the famous Punnett Square,
方格用来显示 起源于饲养的借鉴组队的
used to show the genotypes that would result
基因型
from breeding a given pairing.
从那时起 大量的饲养新方案使得鸡
Since then, numerous breeding initiatives have made chickens
变得更大 更多肉 比之前下更多的蛋
bigger and meatier, and allowed them to lay more eggs than ever. Meanwhile,
同时 鸡生产转变为一个产业 类工厂模式
chicken production has shifted to an industrial, factory-like model,
鸡在物种里一步一个脚印地崛起
with birds raised in spaces with a footprint
每个脚印都不超过一页纸
no larger than a sheet of paper.
由于动物权利和环境问题
And while there’s been a shift towards free-range farming
曾经出现了向散养模式的转变
due to animal rights and environmental concerns,
今天世界上超过两千两百万只鸡
most of the world’s more than 22 billion chickens today
是在工厂养殖的
are factory farmed.
从角斗士 神的礼物
From gladiators and gifts to the gods,
到“旅行必备品“” 研究主题
to traveling companions and research subjects,
几个世纪以来 鸡扮演了很多角色
chickens have played many roles over the centuries.
尽管它们可能比谚语里的蛋出现得晚
And though they may not have come before the proverbial egg,
鸡的精彩历史还是告诉我们很多关于我们自己的事
chickens’ fascinating history tells us a great deal about our own.

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视频概述

鸡的历史原来如此

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KsuesiVJgtI

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