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思想的历史:工作 – 译学馆
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思想的历史:工作

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Work

One of the things that’s the most peculiar about life
在当今时代的发达国家生活中
in the developed economies in our own time is the way we look at work
最独特的事情之一 是我们看待工作的方式
and in particular, the way we think that work should be about two things:
尤其是我们认为工作离不开这两件事
Making money of course.
赚钱是当然的
But also in far more strangely: Finding fulfillment, creativity and meaning.
但更奇怪的是追寻满足感 创造性与意义
It’s a beautiful idea, of course.
这当然是一个美妙的想法
But it’s also a highly unusual one
但它也是 一个非同寻常的想法
which causes us quite a few headaches as well.
令我们常常感到头大
It’s worth taking a look into the history of work.
工作的历史值得回顾
The garden of Eden 3,900BC
公元前3900年 伊甸园
According to Christian doctrine
在基督教教义中
when Adam and Eve are expelled from the Garden of Eden for eating an apple
亚当和夏娃因吃了苹果而被逐出伊甸园时
that punishment for defying God’s wishes is work.
对违背上帝意愿的惩罚就是工作
“By the sweat of your brow, you’ll eat your food until you return to the ground”.
“你必汗流满面才得糊口 直到你归了土”
the Lord informs them.
耶和华(上帝)告诉他们
Work is what distinguishes life inparadise from the world we know.
工作是天堂与尘世生活之区别所在
Adam will have to work until his 930 years old.
亚当将必须工作到他930岁
Athens 335 BC
公元前335年 雅典
Aristotle opens his public school: the Lyceum
亚里斯多德创办其公立学校 吕克昂学园
a centre of learning for wealthy and cultured young Athenians.
一个供财才兼得的青年雅典人学习的中心
Aistotle make a bold claim:
亚里斯多德大胆断言道
The life of the mind is only open to rich people.
精神生活只对富人开放
“Anyone who has actually to earn money to live is a slave.” Aristotle tells us.
亚里士多德告诉我们 “需要挣钱谋生的人都是奴隶”
However, outwardly grand their life might be,
然而 这位哲学家声称 或许他们的生活表面上奢华
the pursuit of money and good intellectual work is simply impossible, the philosopher declares.
所以根本不可能 追求金钱和良好的脑力工作
and he’s widely believed for hundred of years.
数百年来 人们普遍相信他
Hippo, Roman Africa, 396 AD
公元396年 罗马非洲 希波
Saint Augustine becomes the Bishop of Hippo
圣奥古斯丁成为希波的主教
and in his sermons resurrects the Christian notion of work
在他的布道中 基督教的工作被视作原罪的结果
as a result of original sin.
这一概念得以复兴
In his sermon of the New Testament,
在他的《新约》布道中
Augustine tells his audience:
奥古斯丁告诉他的听众
Many of whom slaves, the work is always going to be miserable.
对于多数奴隶来说 工作永远是苦不堪言的
From this cup of sorrow, no one may be excused.
没有人能被工作这杯苦酒赦免
The cup that Adam has pledged must be drunk.
亚当必须为这杯承诺过的苦酒买单
The only relief is to look forward to the next life in God’s kingdom.
唯一的慰藉是期盼神之国度的来生
Rome 1508,
1508年 罗马
The Florentine painter, sculptor, architect and poet Michelangelo
佛罗伦萨画家 雕刻家 建筑师兼诗人米开朗基罗
begins painting the ceiling of the Sixtine Chapel
受教皇尤利乌斯二世的委任
commissioned by Pope Julius the 2nd.
开始为西斯廷教堂的天花板作画
He’s given complete freedom to design the work
他能完全自由地计划工作
and promised a lot of money in return.
并被承诺会有一笔丰厚的金钱回报
Michelangelo, along with his fellow Italian genius,
米开朗基罗和他的意大利天才同行
Leonardo da Vinci
列奥纳多·达·芬奇
embody a new approach to work:
展现了一种新的工作方式
They work for money;
他们为钱工作
hiring out their talents to the highest bidders in the courts of Europe
将他们的才能出租给欧洲宫廷中出价最高者
but they’re evidently not slave.
但显而易见 他们不是奴隶
At the same time they do not work just for the money,
与此同时 他们不只是为了钱而工作
They do it for the inherent fulfillment that the work brings.
他们是为了工作本身带来的成就感
Our modern ideas of work
我们现代对工作的观念
are a lot the Renaissance idea of remunerative creative genius.
与文艺复兴时期有报酬的创意天才的观念 有异曲同工之处
Our own ambitions are now democratized versions
我们的个人抱负现在是
of the aspiration of men like Leonardo and Michelangelo.
达芬奇和米开朗基罗之辈抱负的大众化版本
We too, wish to be paid and creative.
我们也希望获得报酬和创意性
Württemberg, Holy Roman Empire 1520
1520年 神圣罗马帝国 符腾堡
Martin Luther, the founder of Protestantism,
马丁·路德 新教的创始人
makes mementos pointthat one could serve God through work of many different kinds
提出人们可以通过很多不同工种 来服侍上帝
and not just as it previously been argued by Catholicism
而不是像先前天主教所主张的那样
simply by entering the the priesthood.
仅能通过成为祭司来服侍上帝
He proposes that, the common work of a servant or handmaiden, can be more acceptable to God
他提出 仆人或侍女所做的普通工作
than all the fastings and works of a monk or a priest.
比僧侣或祭司的所有斋戒和工作 更能被上帝所接受
God is milking the cows through the vocation of the milkmaid.
上帝赋以挤奶女工天职 来给奶牛挤奶
For Luther, God has endowed each one of us with talents
依路德所言 上帝赋予每个人以帮助他人的才能
that can be used to help another out, which is how work becomes moral.
这就是工作成为道德的方式
Everyone undertaking essential tasks,
人人都承担着必要的工作
he mentions cleaning, milking, darning, teaching
路德提到从事打扫 挤奶 缝纫 教育的人
is wearing what Luther calls the mask of God,
都戴着他所谓上帝的面具
since God is behind each task.
因为上帝就隐藏在每个重任身后
This, Luther says, demonstrates God’s love.
路德说道 这证明了上帝的爱
He ensures that we’re endowed with the qualities to look after one another through our work.
他确保我们被赋予通过工作互相照顾的品质
Work for Luther, is therefore the best means to employ the doctrine of “Love thy neighbor”.
对路德而言 工作是运用“友爱邻里”教义的绝佳方式
Protestantism is responsible for a momentous reevaluation of the worth
新教使普通劳动的价值和尊严
and dignity of ordinary labor.
获得重要的再定义
Paris, France 1750,
1750年 法国巴黎
Diderot and d’Alembert published the first volume of the Encyclopédie
狄德罗和达朗贝尔出版了《百科全书》第一卷
which sets out to cover each and every branch of human work
本书的列述涵盖了几乎所有的人类工作
There is one chapter in which Diderot writes with particular admiration about bakers
其中一章 狄德罗对面包师敬佩有加
There are others on the work of farmers, bellmakers, locksmiths, and cloth weavers.
书中还花费笔墨于农民 钟匠 锁匠和织布工
It’s the longest illustrated poem in praise of ordinary work
它是有史以来最长的
ever written and it has a huge impact
赞美普通工作的插图诗
on how people perceive the prestige of work.
并且对人们如何看待工作的声誉 产生巨大影响
Paris, France, 1844
1844年 法国巴黎
the exiled Karl Marx finishes his “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844”
流放中的卡尔·马克思完成了《1844年经济哲学手稿》
A series of notes on capitalism
一系列关于资本主义的注解
containing some of his most interesting thinking about work.
包含了一些他对工作的最有趣的想法
He attacks capitalism
他抨击资本主义
not because workers don’t get paid enough or are exploited
不是因为工人没有得到足够的工资或受到剥削
but for a far more interesting reason:
而是因为一个更有趣的原因
because too often, their work is boring.
因为他们的工作往往枯燥无味
And it doesn’t allow them to develop their characters.
而且工作中他们不被允许释放天性
That’s the true problem with capitalism in Marx’s eyes.
这就是马克思眼中 资本主义的真正问题所在
Marx, who worked 12 hours a day
马克思 每天工作12个小时
most days is no enemy of work.
大多数时候他并非工作的仇敌
What infuriates him about capitalism,
资本主义让他恼火的是
is that it seems to prevent us from enjoying our work,
它妨碍了我们享受自己的工作
enjoying it as much as he enjoyed his.
就像他享受他的工作一样
because it encourages the production of goods,
因为它鼓励产品生产
disconnected from the talents and aspirations of the worker.
与工人的才能与愿望相悖
that’s what he so desperately wishes to correct.
这正是马克思迫切想要纠正的
Communism isn’t a project for getting rid of work, it’s about making work more enjoyable.
共产主义不是为了摆脱工作 而是让工作变得更愉悦
University of Chicago, USA, 1899
1899年 美国芝加哥大学
An irritable American academic publishes his first book:
一位急躁的美国学者出版了他的第一本书
The Theory of the leisure class.
《有闲阶级论》
In it Thorstein Veblen captures very clearly
在书中 托斯丹·凡勃伦非常清晰地捕捉到
an idea of being upper-class that’s about to die out forever
一个即将绝迹于上流社会的观念
Veblen argues that as soon as people make it in society,
凡勃伦认为 一旦人们在社会上取得成功
they try to show that superiority by displaying signs
他们就会试图展露出悠闲慵懒的迹象
of what leisurely and idle people they are.
来彰显自己的优越感
Veblen writes that: “The characteristic feature of the rich is a conspicuous exemption from useful employment”
凡勃伦写道 “富人的典型特征是显然不从事有用的工作”
Veblen well may be right for his own day.
在他的时代 这也许是对的
but everything is about to change.
但一切即将改变
Within a few decades, everyone falls prey to a new cult:
几十年不到 人们便深深陷入新的观念狂热之中
the cult of working hard and being very very busy all the time
对拼命工作与时刻保持忙碌的狂热
Soon, only the unemployed are idle.
不久后 唯独无业者无所事事
Everyone else is working away furiously.
众人皆近乎狂热地工作
The richer you are, the more you keep working to show that you’re good and serious.
你越富有 就越得不停歇地工作 以示自己优秀严谨
Be idle is the new taboo.
无所事事成为新的忌讳
Washington DC, USA, 1945,
1945年 美国华盛顿特区
With work newly prestigious,
随着工作的地位再次青云直上
one of the major challenges of societies
社会面临的主要挑战之一变为
becomes that of correctly mining the talents of everyone.
正确挖掘每个人的才能
and helping them to find their way into the right jobs,
并帮助他们找到合适的工作
that is jobs that will fulfill them and make them money.
即能让他们充实并赚钱的工作
Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers
凯瑟琳·库克·布里格斯与其女儿伊莎贝尔·布里格斯·迈尔斯
run the first Briggs-Myers Indicated test
对乔治·华盛顿医学院的学生
on George Washington medical school students.
进行了首次布里格斯-迈尔斯类型指标测试
This test developed throughout the second World war,
这项测试于二战期间得到发展
indicates personality types, and tries to pair people out with ideal jobs.
它指示性格类型 并尝试为人们匹配理想的工作
The test uses 93 questions to figure out
测试通过93个问题来判断
which one of 4 main personality types you might be.
你大概是4种主要性格类型中的哪一种
Introverts/Extroverts;Thinkers/Feelers;Sensers/Intuitives;Judgers/Perceivers.
内倾/外倾 理性/感性 感觉/直觉 主观/客观
So for example, an introvert will enjoy
例如 一个内倾者喜爱在
thinking and working alone in small peaceful groups,
和谐的小群体中 独自思考与工作
and will be suited to work as an accountant, a dentist or librarian.
且适合从事会计 牙医或图书管理员工作
but an extrovert will enjoy action-dominated, high-octane work
但外倾者喜爱行动型 高强度的工作
and might go for acting, salesmanship or trading in financial institutions.
可能适合演戏 推销或在金融机构做交易
The goal Briggs and Myers says:
布里格斯和迈尔斯所述目标是
is to find the type of work that suits you best,
找到最适合你的工作类型
work is about making the correct lifestyle choice that suits your personnality.
工作关于选择与你个性相适的 正确的生活方式
It’s not about arbitrary aims, such as money.
它不关于硬性目标 比如金钱
Living rooms, USA, January 22 1984,
1984年1月22日 美国 大厅
Apple Computers launches the only national airing of its famous 1984 advert
苹果电脑公司 在超级碗橄榄球赛的中场广告时段
during the halftime commercials of the Super Bowl.
发布了其著名广告《1984》的唯一一次全国播放
The 60-second advert sees a heroine,
这则长达60秒的广告中
dressed in bright running gear,
女主人公身穿鲜艳的运动服
saving army of soulless workers
通过摧毁老大哥般的领导
from the conformity of standardized work,
将一群失去灵魂的工人
by destroying their Big Brother-like leader.
从千篇一律的标准化工作中拯救出来
It’s an idea as old as the Renaissance
它是个同文艺复兴时期一样古老的想法
there’s good work and bad work
工作有好坏之分
And the good work is the creative kind,
并且好工作都是创作型的
except now, unlike in Michelangelo’s day,
除了现在与米开朗基罗时代不同
thanks to technology, this is for everyone.
感谢科技 赋予了每个人这个权利
The advert carried the famous tagline:
广告中的口号广为流传:
You’ll see why 1984 won’t be like “1984”.
你会明白为什么1984不会像“1984”一样
The advert underlined the liberating colorful and energetic Mac
这则广告强调Mac是一款解放性的 多彩活力的产品
as a deliverance from the technophobic drudgery of industrial labor.
是对工业劳动中技术苦差事的解脱
The future of work is going to be fun, original and expressive in Apple’s hands.
在苹果的掌控下 未来工作将有趣新颖 极具表现力
But, for millions of the unemployed or the unhappily employed,
但是 对于数以百万的失业者以及不幸的从业者来说
the dream has not turned out to be so easy.
梦想成真并不容易
It can be doubly painful, when you meant to having such fun at work
如果你发现根本找不到能让自己享受乐趣的工作
to find no work at all, or work that doesn’t fulfill your soul.
或是工作根本无法填满你的灵魂 那将会加倍痛苦
The modern world has made the career crisis one of the central difficulties of existence.
现代社会已将职业危机作为生存的主要困难之一
We’re asking so much of our working lives
我们对工作生活的要求太多了
. So no wonder they sometimes don’t deliver against the expectations that we now have of them.
所以难怪它们有时不能达到我们现在的期望
Too often our jobs are closer to the toil of Adam
相较于米开朗基罗提升生活质量的创造性工作
than the life-enhancing creativity of Michelangelo.
我们的工作往往更类似于亚当的苦差事
That remains the challenge for the future of work.
这仍然是未来工作面临的挑战
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人们为何而工作?工作的意义是什么?单纯为了养家糊口,维持生计,还是赋予我们的人生更多意义。从古至今,人们曾追寻探索,也曾捍卫打破关于工作的定义。工作之于未来,我们需如何去做?

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