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思想的历史:侘寂 – 译学馆
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思想的历史:侘寂

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Wabi-sabi

思想的历史
侘 寂
When it comes to what things look like,
当谈及审美时
the Western world is obsessed by perfection, by symmetry, and ideal proportion.
西方世界痴迷于圆满 对称和完美的比例
This is a taste for beauty shaped by reverence for universal laws,
对普遍法则 数学的尊崇以及对完美和永恒的渴望
mathematics, and an appetite for the perfect and the eternal.
塑造了这种审美品味
Japanese aesthetics are, however, very different indeed,
然而日本美学却与之截然不同
and the core of the difference is captured in a term
不同的关键集中体现在
for which Western languages have no direct equivalent:
一个叫做“侘寂”的词
a term known as Wabi-Sabi [pronounced: Wah-bi-sah-bi].
西方语言中没有语义相同的词与之对应
Wabi-Sabi refers to the beauty of the impermanent,
“侘寂”代表的是一种
the imperfect, the rustic, and the melancholy.
残缺无常 质朴清寂之美
It derives not from the love of invincibility, youth and flawlessness,
它不是源于对青春无敌 完美无暇的热爱
but from a respect for what is passing, fragile, slightly broken and modest.
而是出于对脆弱易逝 质朴微瑕之物的尊崇
Wabi-sabi believes the things are always more beautiful
它认为那些历经岁月打磨
forbearing the marks of age and individuality;
刻有岁月印记的独特之物更美好
A trickle of glaze or a beautifully repaired crack on a piece of pottery
陶器上的釉滴 被精心修复的裂纹
are to be appreciated rather than made invisible.
人们应加以欣赏而不是抹去
Wabi-sabi’s history is intimately linked with Buddhism and its suggestion
“侘寂”的历史与佛教及其观点关系密切
that wisdom comes from making peace
即认为智慧源自于
with our transitory, imperfect and unheroic natures
与自身短暂 残缺及平凡的生命本质达成妥协
Kyushu, Japan. 1191.
1191年 日本九州岛
A monk known as Eisai returns to Japan from China,
一位叫做荣西的日本僧人从中国返回日本
with plans to create Japan’s first Zen Buddhist temple.
计划修建日本第一座佛教禅宗寺庙
Zen presents a challenge to Japan’s indigenous religion; Shinto.
禅宗对日本本土的神道教构成了威胁
Zen offers a complex philosophical system
禅宗提出了一套复杂的哲学体系
which presents nature with its constant cycles of life and imperfect patterns
通过冥想生命生生不息 不甚完美的自然规律
as a focus of meditation and a lens through which to understand our own transients and emptiness.
促使我们理解生命的无常与空虚
Zen will go on to be the philosophical bedrock of Wabi-sabi.
禅宗后来便成为“侘寂”的哲学基础
14th Century, Japan.
14世纪 日本
The meaning of two words:
“侘寂”这两个字的内涵
Wabi and Sabi begin to evolve and become more positive than they had been.
开始向更积极的方向进行演变
Wabi had originally meant the misery and loneliness of living in nature,
“侘”最初表示的是远离人类温暖
away from human consolation,
穷困 孤独地居住在大自然中
but, its meaning now shifts to refer to
然而 如今其含义转变为
an almost exquisite bitter sweet melancholy being on ones’ own.
独处时一种微妙 惬意 又饱含伤感的情绪
Sabi, meanwhile, which had originally meant chill, lean, or withered,
“寂”原本指清冷 困窘或者憔悴
started to denote the marks of aging and wear,
现在表示人为其人 物成其物
which can enhance an object.
所经历的岁月雕琢和时光打磨
It refers to a positive impermanence
它指的是积极面对无常
and the welcome and noble signs of time.
和坦然接受岁月的洗礼
The ancient pattern of a pot or a crack beautifully mended are now called Sabi.
陶器上的旧图案 被精心修复的裂纹都是“寂”的体现
Kyoto, 1488.
1488年 京都
Murata Shukō sits down to write a letter to his student, Furuichi Chōin.
村田珠光写信给他的弟子古市播磨
This document will come to be known as the Letter of the Heart (Kokoro no fumi)
这封信就是为后世所知的“心之文”
And will define the ideal way that one should drink tea – the tea ceremony –
信中定义了喝茶的最佳方式 即“茶道”
and lays out the aesthetic of Wabi-Sabi.
同时阐释了“侘寂”美学
The tea ceremony had originated as a way for monks to stay awake
茶道最初是一种使僧人在长时间打坐时
in order to practice long periods of Zen meditation,
保持觉醒的方法
but recently it’s been overtaken by the ruling class of warlord, or shoguns.
后来受军阀统治阶级 幕府将军影响
They used it as a way of showing off expensive vessels and utensils imported from China.
统治者将其作为炫耀从中国进口的昂贵器具的方式
The tea ceremony has become flashy, often in elaborate and gaudy surroundings,
在精美花哨的环境里 茶道变得奢华起来
and slipped a long way from its spiritual roots.
与它的精神本源渐行渐远
Now, Shuko redesign the tea ceremony wth the ideals of Wabi-Sabi in mind.
珠光根据“侘寂”美学重新设计了茶道
The fashion at the time was to enjoy tea on a balcony while looking at the full moon,
当时的风尚是在阳台上边饮茶边欣赏满月
but Shuko claims that he has no taste for the full moon.
但是珠光声称不欣赏满月
Instead, he urges his student
相反 他提倡学生
to appreciate the more subtle interplay of shadows on half of the moon,
欣赏半月上的暗影婆娑
or the partially clouded moon.
或被云影半遮面的月亮
He also stresses
他还强调
that one should abandon the perfect and lustrous tea drinking cups of the Chinese,
人们应该丢弃那些产自中国的
which seem to evoke the flawlessness of the full moon,
宛如满月般无暇 精美光亮的茶杯
and instead to commission more rustic ware from Japanese artisans,
转而使用出自日本工匠之手的质朴器皿
who will make little errors in the glaze,
这些器皿上有一些釉滴瑕疵
and let these be a deliberate part of their work.
是工匠刻意为之的结果
Kyoto, 1582.
1582年 京都
Sen no Rikyu is someone to the service of Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
丰臣秀吉统一了军阀混战时的封建日本
a powerful warlord who unites the warring factions of Feudal Japan.
千利休是这位势力强大的军阀的侍从
He commissions Rikyu to create a tea ceremony,
丰臣秀吉委任利休设计一种
that can help to foster peace.
有助于实现内心平静的茶道
Along with Shuko, Sen no Rikyu is revered in Japan
在日本 千利休和珠光
as the father of the modern tea ceremony,
共同被尊为现代茶道之父
and the most perfect practicioner of Wabi-Sabi –
以及“侘寂”美学思想的最佳完美践行者
A story that is most often used to illustrate the spirit of Wabi-Sabi is taken from his life.
有一个取自他生活中的故事常用来阐释“侘寂”精神
One day, Rikyu asked a disciple to clean his tea house,
有一天 利休让一个弟子打扫茶房
and the young boy worked all day
这个年轻人用了整整一天
to scrub and sweep every inch of the house and garden.
扫遍了屋院的每一个犄角旮旯
When Rikyu came to inspect it,
利休来前来检查时
he reached up and shook a maple tree overhanging the path.
伸手摇了下低垂在小路上的枫树枝
The sprinkling of leaves that fell brought Wabi-Sabi to the scene,
落叶点缀 瞬间场景便有了“侘寂”意味
thus the manmade and the natural, artifice and random chance
如此这般 略施巧计与自然造化相得益彰
were united in a perfect expression of beauty and wisdom.
完美地展现了美与智慧
Rikyu goes further than Shuko
利休在抨击将军们的奢靡之风上
in undermining the high taste of the shoguns,
比珠光更进一步
and strips everything non-essential from his tea ceremony.
他去除了茶道中所有不必要的事物
The pots he uses are often directly taken from peasant environments,
用的茶具通常直接取自于农民的生活环境
or are modeled after a particularily rustic roof tile
或者仿制他在经过当地村庄时见过的
that he spots while walking through a local village.
一种颇具质朴风格的屋顶瓦片
Rikyu also codifies the movements of the tea ceremony,
利休还整理编纂了茶道的步骤
creating the perfectly economical and graceful motions of preparing tea with a minimum fuss
他去繁就简 创立了极其简洁高雅的备茶手势
thereby adding Wabi-Sabi to the very core of the ritual.
自此 “侘寂”美学成为茶道仪式的内核
Unfortunately for Rikyu, his boss, the warlord Hideyoshi,
不幸的是 利休的主人
comes from a peasant background,
也就是军阀丰臣秀吉系农民出身
and begins to fear that the whole process
他担心茶道的整个流程
is maybe an elaborate joke at his expense.
或许就是对他花费无度的嘲讽
This causes him to order Rikyu to commit harakiri.
于是命令千利休切腹自尽
In an eerie parallel to Socrates’ demise,
与苏格拉底的死可怕地相似
Rikyu holds a final tea ceremony among his closest friends
千利休在好友间
before obediently stabbing himself through the stomach.
主持完最后一次茶道仪式便把刀插入了腹部
Today, all the great schools of tea trace their lineage back to Rikyu,
今天所有优秀的茶道学校都尊利休为鼻祖
and all follow the motions and traditions that he set out.
并遵循他提出的手势和传统仪式
The maker of the humble tile that he so admired was known as Raku,
他极喜爱的简朴制陶工艺叫做“乐烧”
and Raku pots are still made today,
现在乐烧茶具仍在被制作使用
and appreciated as the greatest embodiment of Wabi-Sabi
它们被赞赏为“侘寂”的完美化身
If you take tea in the Silver Pavilion in Kyoto –
如果你在日本正式茶道诞生地
the birthplace of the formal tea ceremony in Japan,
也就是银阁寺 喝茶
you can drink from the same cup as the troublesome Hideyoshi once sipped from.
那么你可能会用到丰臣秀吉曾用过的杯子
Edo, 1684.
1684年 江户
Matsuo Basho, the father of the Haiku, and Japan’s most revered poet,
日本最受尊敬的诗人 俳句之父 松尾芭蕉
sets off on the first of his great pilgrimages.
踏上了自己的首次精神之旅
These aimless wanderings will take him to the heart of solitude and nature,
这趟令他体会到自然和孤寂的漫游旅程
and help him capture the spirit of Wabi-Sabi in words.
帮助他用文字捕捉“侘寂”的精神
A depressive with a great talent,
芭蕉 这位天才的忧郁诗人扮作乞丐
Basho takes great joy in wandering the dangerous roads around Edo disguised as a beggar.
漂泊在江户周边的险路上 欣喜无比
Here he distills the fragile beauty of the sights around him
他将周围景色的易逝之美融入他的诗里
into poetry that tries to spot the eternal.
希冀能够一窥永恒
Through the fleeting moment, we can hear the beautiful desolation
我们可以通过他笔下这首著名的俳句
in one of his most famous haiku,
感受那种稍纵即逝的荒凉之美
Solitary now – Standing Amidst the blossoms- Is a cypress tree.
孤独 盛开的花中间
一棵柏树驻立
GInza district, Tokyo, 2013.
2013年 东京银座
An enormous new outlet of Louis Vuitton opens
一个由日本建筑师青木淳设计的
built by the Japanese architect Jun Aoki.
巨大崭新的LV旗舰店开张了
Fourty-five percent of all Japanese women are now estimated to
据估计日本45%的女性都拥有
own a bag by the french luxury goods firm:
一个这家法国奢侈品公司的包
featuring Western ideals, shininess, perfection and symmetry.
耀眼 完美 对称 堪称西方美学典范
Wabi-Sabi is, like many traditional Japanese ideas,
如同日本的其他许多传统思想一样
under enormous threat from the consumerist values of the west.
“侘寂”也处在西方消费主义价值观的巨大冲击之下
Wabi-Sabi is, at one level,
一方面 “侘寂”是一种
an idea that relates to pottery, drinking tea, and the history of Japan,
与日本 陶艺 饮茶及其历史相关的理念
but another, it’s a lesson for all of us, for all times,
另一方面 它给我们所有人上了一堂永恒的课
because the place we really have to come to terms with
因为我们真正需要面对的
imperfection, melancholy and age, is in ourselves.
是我们自身的不完美 忧郁和衰老
Wabi-Sabi is a giant marketing effort
“侘寂”是一场大规模的营销行动
which urges us to take a second look at
促使我们重新审视
what we might otherwise dismiss or treat with disdain.
那些我们所摒弃和蔑视的事物
It recognises that our tastes are not fixed,
它承认我们的品味不是一成不变的
and that if someone with talent and artistic grace
如果哪个有天赋且极具审美的人
urges us to look more sympathetically
引领我们以更悲悯的目光
at some moss, a slightly wonky teacup,
去欣赏一处苔藓 一个倾斜的茶杯
or indeed, the wise, wrinkled face of a friend or relative,
甚至是亲友的一张皱纹纵横 充满智慧的脸庞
we will be able to find charm and beauty here too.
我们也必将能够从中发现魅力和美好
Our notions of beauty and interests are relative
我们的审美和爱好是相对的
and open to change and improvement.
是易于改变和提高的
With the ideals of Wabi-Sabi in mind,
只要我们认可“侘寂”的理念
we may learn to find greater satisfaction in the humbler moments;
平凡的瞬间也能带给我们莫大的感动
In a walk down a slightly crooked path,
比如 一次蜿蜒小径上的漫步
or an overcast autumn day,
一个阴沉沉的秋日
or a less than blemish free house, face or soul
再或者 陈迹斑斑的房子 面容或灵魂
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视频通过茶道的变迁来阐述侘寂美学的内涵

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