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浪漫主义

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Romanticism

历史
浪漫主义
Romanticism is one of the most important historical events of all time.
在历史长河中 浪漫主义是不可抹杀的一笔
Unlike a lot of what gets called history,
和其它历史事件不同的是
romanticism isn’t a war or a piece of technology or a political event.
浪漫主义既非战争 也非技术或政治事件
It refers to the birth of a new set of ideas.
它指的是一系列新观念的诞生
It is about a mindset and a way of feeling.
它关乎内心和感情方式
Romanticism began in Western Europe in the mid-18 century,
浪漫主义起源于18世纪中期的西欧
in the work of artists, poets and philosophers.
由艺术家 诗人和哲学家发起
And it subsequently spread all over the world.
后来便传遍了整个世界
Changing how millions of people look at nature, children, love, sex, money and work.
浪漫主义改变了数百万人对 自然 孩童 爱 性 金钱和工作的看法
We are all now more or less in some aspect of our sensibilities romantics.
我们都或多或少地受到浪漫主义的影响
Romanticism is best understood as a reaction to the birth of the modern world
最好把浪漫主义理解为对现代世界诞生的反应
and some of its key features: industrialization, urbanization, secularization and consumerism.
其关键特征是:工业化 城市化 世俗化和消费主义
What follows, are some of the central moments in the history of romanticism:
接下来是浪漫主义史上的一些高光时刻:
The Marais, Paris, May 1762.
1762年5月 巴黎马莱区
The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau publishes a book about the raising of children:
瑞士哲学家让雅克·卢梭出版了一本儿童教育的书 ——
“Emile” or “On Education”.
《爱弥儿》 也称《论教育》
It contains diatribes against the oppressive world of adults.
书中讽刺了成人的压抑世界
And praises the natural goodness, spontaneity and wisdom of little children.
并称赞小孩子的天真善良 自然聪慧
It is at points extremely anxious to get mothers to breast-feed their offspring.
并强烈提倡母亲母乳喂养孩子
The first sustained argument for this practice in western civilization.
这是西方文明中首次出现支持母乳喂养的观点
The world around Rousseau is growing ever more, rational, scientific and technologically based.
卢梭周围的世界变得更理性 科学化 技术化
It is increasingly sensible, planned, sterile and bureaucratic.
也越来越理智 单调枯燥 官僚化
Against all of these, Rousseau emphasizes the child,
针对所有这些 卢梭重视孩子
the original rebel,
他们是最初的反叛者
the representative of everything that is pure, unschooled and outside of adult discipline.
代表着纯真 反对教育和成人规则
It is the seat of creativity and genius.
孩童是创造力和天才的温床
For the first time in Western history,
这是西方历史上首次
glamour is directed not at the attainment of reason and adult self control,
认为理性和成人的自控不再拥有魅力
but at the freedom from tradition and the natural,
反而脱离传统的孩童更有魅力
innocence and the sweetness of the child.
他们自然 无邪 甜美
Brook Street, London, August 1770
1770年8月 伦敦布鲁克街
a precocious 17 year old poet called Thomas Chatterton
早熟的17岁诗人托马斯·查特顿
downs some arsenic and ends his life in a tiny attic apartment.
饮下砒霜 在一间公寓小阁楼里结束了生命
He kills himself because no one wants to publish his poetry which is concerned with beauty and wisdom.
他自杀的原因是 没有人愿意出版他那关于美与智慧的诗
And because his uncomprehending family are applying pressure for him to become a lawyer.
还因为他那不解人意的家庭不断施压 想让他成为律师
A cult soon grows up around the young beautiful poet with shoulder length chestnut hair.
这位有着齐肩栗色头发的年轻英俊诗人很快有了许多崇拜者
He becomes an emblem of something that will become very important for romantics:
对浪漫主义来说 他变成了一个非常重要的象征
the idea of the sensitive, doomed person often an artist
即敏感的艺术家 常常被残酷庸俗的世界所拒绝
rejected by a cruel, vulgar world.
最终难逃一死
Chatterton stands at the head of a long line of romantic heroes
查特顿站在一长串浪漫主义英雄之首
that will stretch from Byron to Keiths to Van Gogh,
他身后还有拜伦 济慈 梵高
and eventually all the way to Jim Morris and Amy Winehouse.
一直到吉姆·莫里斯 艾米·怀恩豪斯
Romanticism borrows from Christianity.
浪漫主义借鉴了基督教概念
The romantic hero is a secularized Christ like figure.
浪漫主义英雄是世俗化的耶稣式人物
The loser who is in truth deeply noble
虽然失败 但在少数信者眼中
in the eyes of the few who understand.
却是十足的高尚者
Leipzig, Germany, 1774
1774年 德国莱比锡
The German author Goethe publishes the quintessential romantic love story:
德国作家歌德出版了一本经典浪漫主义爱情小说
The Sorrows of Young Werther.
《少年维特之烦恼》
It tells the story of a passionate doomed love affair
它讲述了一段充满激情却注定失败的恋情
between a young poet called Werther
男主是年轻诗人维特
and a beautiful clever young woman called Charlotte.
女主是聪慧美丽的年轻妇人夏洛特
Unfortunately for Werther, Charlotte is married.
对维特而言不幸的是 夏洛特已婚
So the love is impossible from the very start
所以这份爱一开始就是无望的
but that doesn’t stop Werther, a dreamy and practical young man
但这并不能阻止心有梦幻身在实际的维特
who loves the arts above all else.
他爱艺术胜过一切
Like chatterton, Werther is under pressure to have a sensible career and join bourgeois life
和查特顿一样 维特也迫于体面职业和世俗生活的压力
but he can think of only one thing: The impulses of his heart.
但他脑海里只有一件事:为爱痴狂
Eventually Werther can’t take it anymore and kills himself
维特最终忍无可忍自杀了
but rather than condemning him as a lunatic and a hothead,
但是歌德并没怪罪维特的失心疯和鲁莽
Goethe one of the founding fathers of Romanticism directs all our sympathies towards Werther.
作为浪漫主义之父的他 激起了我们对维特的同情
We are supposed to be on his side
我们站在维特的立场上
admiring his passionate and entirely impractical attitude to love.
欣赏他对于爱充满激情和完全不切实际的态度
The book becomes the most popular novel of a generation.
该书成为一代人最爱的小说
Three million copies are printed.
印刷了三百万册
Napoleon declares it the greatest work of European literature
拿破仑称之为欧洲文学中最伟大作品
and it dramatically changes how many people think of love,
它极大地改变了许多人对爱情的看法
privileging dramatic outpourings of feeling over more traditional rational concerns
使得一泻千里的爱意超越阶级 血统 金钱
for class lineage and money.
突破传统理性的束缚
For a romantic it’s always right and noble to follow your heart.
对浪漫主义者来说 跟从自己的内心永远是正确而高尚的
The disastrous results that follow aren’t any argument
随后招致的灾难性后果并不代表什么
that just proof of how desiccated and heartless the so-called adult sensible world can be.
仅仅证明了所谓成人理性世界是那么虚伪和无情
Madrid, spain, 1798
1798年 西班牙马德里
The artist Francisco Goya produces one of his most iconic images
艺术家弗朗西斯科·戈雅完成了一副代表作
titled “The Sleep of Reason Brings out Monsters”.
题为《理性入睡催生梦魇》
It captures a quintessential romantic interest
它揭示了浪漫主义的一个要义:
in the limits of reason and the power of the irrational over humans fragile minds.
理性限制和非理性力量对人类脆弱心灵影响
To be romantic is to have sympathy for madness
浪漫就是对疯狂抱有同情心
and to hold an almost vengeful attitude towards bombastic claims as to the triumph of rationality, science and logic.
对那些夸夸其谈的理性 科学 逻辑抱有杀意
The Lake District, England, December 1799
1799年12月 英格兰湖区
A young English poet called William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy
年轻诗人威廉·华兹华斯和妹妹多萝茜
move into what set to become one of the most famous residences in the history of English literature:
搬进了英国文学史上一座最有名的住宅:
Dove cottage in Grasmere on the edge of The Lake District.
湖区旁格拉斯米尔镇的鸽屋
Here they will spend the next nine years
接下来的九年他们定居于此
and Wordsworth will write some of the greatest poetry in english language,
华兹华斯将写下部分伟大的英语诗篇
celebrating something that’s very under threat: the natural world.
歌颂内容是风雨飘摇的自然世界
He will write about daffodils, oak trees, clouds, butterflies and rivers
他写水仙花 橡树 云彩 蝴蝶和河流
and his work will charm and seduce Europe.
他的作品魅力无穷 风靡整个欧洲
Within a generation their will in Wordsworth own estimation
华兹华斯自己估计 在一代人的时间里
be more tourists than sheep in The Lake District.
湖区的游客比绵羊还多
Most importantly, running through Wordsworth poetry is
最重要的是 贯穿华兹华斯诗歌始终的是
an abiding hatred for everything mechanical and industrial.
对一切机械和工业的憎恨
When many years later a railway line threatens to pass through the Lake District
许多年后 一条铁路线要通过湖区时
Wordsworth and his followers do everything they can to have the train,
华兹华斯和其追随者竭尽全力
a symbol of Wordsworth hated technology rerouted.
让这一华兹华斯痛恨的技术改道
To be a romantic is to take the side of nature against industry.
做为浪漫主义者 就是站在自然的一边反对工业
It is to prefer a daffodil to a viaduct, to a tree to a factory.
选择水仙花而非高架桥 选择树木而非工厂
At the moment when huge swaths of Britain
当英国的大片土地
are being covered in the often monstrous new cities that are making Europe rich,
被能给欧洲带来富裕的巨大新城市所覆盖
Wordsworth the quintessential romantic
华兹华斯这位典型的浪漫主义者
speaks up for the natural and a simple life.
为自然和简朴生活代言
Niagara, United States, September 1829
1829年9月 美国尼亚加拉瀑布
The American painter Thomas Cole paints one of his most characteristic images of the mighty Niagara Falls
美国画家托马斯·科尔为该瀑布描绘了一幅最具特色的图景
with a couple of Native Americans in the foreground.
画面的中央有一对夫妇
Cole makes his name as a painter of sublime scenes,
科尔以画作壮丽闻名
vast landscapes of the American interior showing nature at its most dignified and impressive.
他笔下美国内陆的广阔风景展现了大自然最庄严 最令人难忘的一面
Man looks lost and puny by comparison.
相比之下 人类看起来迷茫而渺小
This too is a typical romantic attitude,
这也是一种典型的浪漫主义态度
romantics don’t believe in God
浪漫主义者不相信上帝
but they go in search of the emotions one might once have had around religion
但他们寻求一种类似于宗教带给人的崇高感
and locate them in a wide-open spaces of nature.
并寄情于广阔的自然空间
To be a romantic is
做一个浪漫主义者
to find relief from the pressures of competitive city life in the sort of natural grandeur
就是要以那种超越全人类悲喜的自然旷达
that transcends all human achievements and concerns.
从竞争激烈的城市生活压力中得到解脱

Westminster, London, April 1847
1847年四月 伦敦威斯敏斯特
14 years after some fairly incompetent officials destroy the British parliament with fire,
一些相当无能的官员用大火烧毁了英国议会
a new building reopens designed by a rising star architect: Augustus Pugin.
14年后 一座由后起之秀建筑师奥古斯都·普金设计的新建筑重新开放
Oddly even though the building is new
奇怪的是 尽管这座建筑是新的
it is made to look old, very very old, medieval in fact.
但外观很古老 非常破旧 简直是中世纪风格
It is full of suits of armor and seated angels.
里面满是盔甲和坐着的天使
When the architect Pugin defends the building
当建筑师普金为这座建筑辩护时
he argues that is building is noble
他声称 这座建筑是高尚的
because it harks back to his country’s pre-industrial past,
因为它让人回想起英国工业化之前的历史
before it grew obsessed, he is careful to add with money or technology.
他又谨慎地说 当时的英国还没有痴迷于金钱和技术
It begins a cult of the Middle Ages,
该建筑开启了对中世纪历史的狂热崇拜
a big theme and romanticism
这是一个宏大的浪漫主义主题:
which identifies in the world of knights and castles,
认同骑士和城堡的世界
a nobility that is thought missing from the factories and shopping arcades of the modern world.
他们是消失于现代世界工厂和商店街中的高贵
Saint-Germain, Paris, May 1863
1863年5月 巴黎圣日耳曼
The French poet Charles Baudelaire writes a prose poem
法国诗人查尔斯·波德莱尔写了一首散文诗
celebrating an unusual character
歌颂一个不同寻常的人物
whom he calls a flâneur, a stroller or loafer.
他称之为浪子 意为闲逛者或游手好闲者
A casual wanderer who has no particular job to go to
一个无所事事的漫游者 他没有固定工作
and just spend this time observing busy street life of a modern city,
只是花时间观察现代都市繁忙的街头生活
threading his way through the crowds, strolling instead of rushing,
穿梭在人群中 悠然自得
sampling people’s conversations and creating narratives for others lives.
采样人们的对话 将他人的生活写成故事
Baudelaire, a typical romantic
波德莱尔 是一个典型的浪漫主义者
admires the flâneur’s playfulness and lack of practicality.
他钦佩浪子的俏皮和缺乏实用性
This person isn’t a waste of time.
此人并非在虚度光阴
It doesn’t matter that he doesn’t have a job
他没有工作也没关系
for Baudelaire he is a prince,
对波德莱尔来说 他是一个王子
unlike the boring wage slaves rushing to the new offices of capitalism.
和那些拿着无聊工资 对资本主义崭新办公室趋之若鹜奴隶不同
Le Havre, April 1891
1891年4月 法国勒阿弗尔
The french painter Paul Gauguin set sail for Tahiti,
法国画家保罗·高更启航前往塔希提岛
hoping to escape everything that is artificial and conventional.
希望逃离一切虚假 打破成规
He lives in the Pacific South Seas on and off for the rest of his life,
他在南太平洋走走停停地生活了一辈子
drawing young Native women
他画年轻的女性土著
looking relaxed and natural without anything on.
画中的她们轻松自然 不着衣饰
They are in his eyes evidence that civilization
在高更眼中 她们是最好的证明——
is what has made a sick,
文明是病态的
a core romantic belief.
这是典型的浪漫主义理念
The Romantic movement has permanently changed our sensibilities
随着世界越来越科技化和理性化
as the world has grown ever more technological
浪漫主义永久性地改变了我们的敏感性
and rational romanticism has come to stick up for the irrational, the untrained,
浪漫主义支持非理性 支持未经雕琢
the exotic, the childlike and the naive.
支持异域风情 支持天真无邪
There is naturally something a bit adolescent and immature within Romanticism.
浪漫主义自然有一些年轻的不成熟的东西
But then again it can be something rather heartless, cold, dogmatic and arrogant in many aspects of modernity.
但其超越了现代化的无情 冷酷 教条化 傲慢
One hopes this isn’t going to be the end of the story
人们希望这不是故事的结局
that we may in the future learn to soften the worst side of modernity through the best sides of romanticism,
因为在未来我们可能会学会通过浪漫主义最好的一面
in order to create a more evolved alternative,
去软化现代性最坏的一面
what one might term: an age of maturity.
继而创造一个成熟的时代

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浪漫主义的历史

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