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思想的历史 – 仪式 – 译学馆
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思想的历史 - 仪式

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Rituals

现代社会和传统社会最显著的差别之一
One of the things that most strongly differentiates modern from traditional societies
在于仪式之事
is the business of rituals.
大而言之 现代社会的仪式很少
Broadly speaking, modern ones have very few of them;
而传统社会则礼仪繁复
Traditional ones have a lot of them.
那么 仪式是什么?
What is a ritual?
它是社会中的一种定期活动
It’s a periodic invitation by your society,
通常都是由宗教发起
typically by its religion,
人们为了一件事聚集到一起
to come together with other people for an event that marks an occasion,
它是一种经常带有精神或心理寓意的场合
often of an underlying spiritual or psychological nature.
也许发生在新年伊始 或者某位神的生日 是忏悔日
Perhaps it’s the start of the year, the birthday of a God, a day to apologize,
又或者是感怀春日的时刻 或是以爱祭奠已逝去亲人
or a moment to feel grateful for springtime, or the love of now dead relatives.
然后人们载歌载舞 互道祝辞 吃节庆食品 着节日盛装
And so you dance, say some rather formal words, eat an unusual food, or wear special clothes.
通过这些事 人们以某种方式得到了庇佑
And by doing all this, you are, somehow, helped.
身心得以净化 人得以成长迈入新的阶段
Purged in some way. Helped to grow, transition to a new stage,
与某种重要思想相通 或获得内心的安宁
reconnect to an important idea, or guided to inner peace.
而我们现代社会的标志是无情地摒弃了许多仪式
What marks out modern societies is how ruthlessly they’ve stripped back rituals.
很大程度是因为人们都忙着赚钱了
Largely because they get in the way of making money.
一般来说 当社会变得现代化
To generalize, when societies become modern,
仪式便退出人们视野 社会的主要关注点开始转向私人生活和工作
rituals drop out of the calendar and the main focus starts to be private and work life,
很少能在两者之间兼顾
and not much in between.
理解我们自身的时代 关键是要了解仪式的历史
A key part of understanding our own times is therefore to grasp the history of rituals.
它们过去是怎样的 它们去哪了 而今天我们又是怎样失去了它们
What they have been, where they’ve gone, and in what ways we might be missing them today?
罗马 公元150年 12月17日
Rome, 17th December, 150 AD
农神节三日庆典的首日
It’s the first day of a three-day celebration known as the Saturnalia: a
这是一个纪念萨图尔努斯的节日 他是罗马人掌管财富和农业的神
ritual festival in honor of Saturn, Roman God of wealth and agriculture.
农神节是人们纵情狂欢的日子 罗马诗人卡图卢斯
The Saturnalia is a time of ecstatic release and exuberance. The Roman poet Catullus
称这个节日为“最好的日子”
describes the occasion as “the best of times.”
这几天人们可以无视古罗马所有的社会规范与准则或反其道行之
All the normal social codes and rules are temporarily put on hold or turned upside down.
奴隶主要照顾好他们的奴隶 父母要服从他们的小孩
Masters are expected to look after their slaves and parents to obey their
奴隶们甚至可以侮辱和嘲笑他们的主人 而完全不用受惩罚
children. Slaves can’t even insult and poke fun at their masters with complete impunity.
位高权重的治安官和政府官员
Important magistrate and public officials
身着花花绿绿的傻缺服装 头戴锥锥形帽子
wear colorful sometimes silly clothes and cones on their heads.
在大街上与陌生人擦肩而过时 你得对着他们大叫: Io Saturnalia(农神节快乐)!
Your meant to shout “Io Saturnalia” at strangers when you pass them in the street.
已婚夫妻可以有艳遇 而不必觉得过度不安
Married couples can have affairs and no one is meant to be unduly upset.
女性可以主动向男性示爱或者跟多人上床
Women can make the first move on men or sleep with one another.
人们随心所欲地纵欲狂欢、赌博喝酒
There are orgies and you can gamble and drink as much as you like.
三天狂欢后 一切戛然而止 秩序回归
Then after three days of fun everything comes to a stern halt and order is
但是生活已变得不再那么艰难和难以忍受
restored but life feels a lot less bitter and oppressive.
奴隶回到他伺候人的生活中 但是
The slave is back to his dinner duties but the memory of having called his
他痛骂主人的回忆让他觉得日子轻松了不少
master a shit lighten his burdens.
房子的女主人回家继续和粗俗的丈夫一起生活
The mistress of the house is back to putting up with her boorish husband
但是与美发师共度的两夜春宵 使得无趣的生活变得可以忍受
but the two nights with a hairdresser make a sarcasm and dullness importantly more bearable.
罗马很多人都等不及12月17日的来临
Across Rome a great many people can’t wait for the 17th of December to roll around again.
公元969年 埃及 亚历山大港 提斯利月第十天
Alexandria, Egypt, 10th day of Tishrei, 969 AD
犹太历新年后不久的提斯利月
It is shortly after the beginning of the Jewish new year,
是在阿拉伯仁政的保护下 于犹太人生活的繁盛中心之一举行的
in one of the thriving centers of Jewish life, under the protection of benevolent Arab rule.
赎罪日或“Yom Kippur”(犹太人赎罪日) 它是希伯来历里非常重要的隆重节日
The Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur is a solomn critical event in the Hebrew calendar.
《利未记》里指示 在这一天所有的犹太人必须停止家庭事务及商业活动
Leviticus instruct that on this date all Jews must set aside their usual family and commercial activities
从精神上审查自己过去一年的行为
and mentally review their actions over the preceding year,
找出所有他们伤害过或不公平对待过的人
identifying all those whom they’ve hurt or behaved unjustly towards.
这个节日由吹羊角号——
The ritual festival is kicked off by the blowing of the shofar:
一种中空的公羊角——开始
a hollowed-out ram’s horn.
然后在教堂里犹太人们共同祈祷:
Then together in a synagogue the Jewish community repeat in prayer:
“我们有罪 我们做下恶行”
“we have sinned we have acted treacherously.”
然后他们向那些被自己打击 泄愤 随意抛弃或背叛的人
They then seek out those whom they frustrated, angered, discarded casually or otherwise betrayed.
致以深深的忏悔
And offer them their fullest contrition.
这全都出自上帝的旨意 是一个获得全部宽恕的宝贵机会
This is God’s will, and a rare opportunity for blanket forgiveness.
祈祷曰: “我们所有人都有罪 所以让
“All the people are in Fault” says the pray and “so make all the people of
所有以色列人以及生活在他们中的所有陌生人都能得到宽恕”
Israel be forgiven including all the strangers who live in their midst.”
赎罪日的巨大优势在于 它可以让忏悔
The day of Atonement has the immense advantage of making the idea of saying sorry
听起来像是从别处而来 而非作恶者或受害者的想法
look like it came from somewhere else neither the idea of the perpetrator nor of the victim.
在仁慈的天父的注视下
Under the assumed eye of a benevolent God,
它让每个人都有机会清算过往 继续前行
it allows everyone a chance to make a clean break and move on.
麦地纳 公元10年 6月12日
Medina, June 12, 10 AD
穆斯林神圣斋月的开始
It’s the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan,
它代表了可兰经第一次向穆罕默德神启
marking the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad.
作为伊斯兰五大功修之一 禁食对所有穆斯林来说是必须履行的仪式
As one of the five pillars of Islam fasting is obligatory for virtually all Muslims,
同时也要禁欲 戒烟 不可骂人或实施暴力
requiring abstinence from sex as well as smoking swearing and violence.
人们相信禁食可以通过去除世俗心
Fasting is believed to cleanse the soul by removing from it
只关注上帝而达到净化灵魂的目的
worldly concerns and focusing on God alone.
它被尊为一种教人自律 自制及同情不幸者的方式
It’s admired as a way to teach self-discipline, self-control and empathy for those less fortunate.
遵守斋戒能够给人力量与精神成长 来迎接新的一年
Adherence to Ramadan will provide strength and spiritual growth for the upcoming year.
斋戒也给人们所求之事以鼓励:
Ramadan gives vital encouragement to an enduring human desire:
就是希望从此能以改头换面从新开始 并过上更好的生活
the wish to start a fresh, reform oneself and lead a better life hence forth.
但伊斯兰并没有把这些理想留给个人解决
But rather than these ambitions being left to the individual alone,
它明智地创造了一种集体行为来强化这种意志 而且找到了一种
Islam wisely creates a collective moment to strengthen the will and it finds a
身体活动来支持本质上的精神追求
fitting physical activity to support what is at heart a spiritual endeavor.
1652年 巴布亚新几内亚 加泽尔半岛
Gazelle Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, 1652
一位母亲来到贝宁部落的一个村庄
A mother has come to visit her adult daughter and grandchildren,
拜访了她女儿及外孙数周时间
for a few weeks in a village community of the Baining tribe.
到了告别的时刻
Now it’s time to say farewell.
空气中弥漫悲伤的味道 母亲和向导穿过丛林密布的山间离开了
There is sadness all around and the mother and her guide head off through thickly forested hills.
母女二人不知何时才能再次重逢
It may be a long time to mother and daughter will see each other again.
贝宁部落发明了一个词来形容
The Baining have developed a special word to describe the feeling that can come over you
挚爱的亲朋好友离开时的那种感觉 他们叫“Awumbuk”
when a friend or relative you love has left. They call it “Awumbuk”.
Awumbuk的症状包括睡懒觉 没有目标感 和总想哭的感觉
Symptoms of Awunbuk include sleeping in, losing a sense of purpose and an inclination to burst into tears.
但贝宁部落也发明了一个用以应对Awumbuk 悲伤的仪式:
But the Baining have also developed an accompanying ritual to deal with the sadness of Awunbuk:
被离开的一方可以获得三天时间
The people who have been left are granted three days during
不需要做任何园艺或捕猎
which they’re not expected to do any gardening or hunting.
每个人都会对他们很温柔
Everyone is supposed to behave very gently around them.
然后在第三天 伤心者必须要在走廊上放一椰壳的水
Then, on the third day the sufferers have to leave a coconut shell of water on the veranda of their house.
人们相信这样可以吸收悲伤 然后边念祷词
It’s believed to soak up sadness and with a few ritual words they then throw
边把水泼到园子里 以此来清理自己的情绪
the water out into the garden thereby purging their emotions and signaling a
然后回归本来的生活
return to active life.
Awumbuk 跟世界全世界的哀悼仪式都很类似
The ritual of Awunbuk is similar to mourning rituals all over the world.
它把可能会产生的愧疚或忧郁变得合理化
It legitimates what might otherwise be a guilty or confused melancholy.
它给予悲伤以具象及方向 并为悲伤划定了时间
It gives sadness a shape and a direction. It demarcate a time for it
然后平和地创造了一个解决悲伤并回归人群的时刻
and then gently creates a moment when we meant to overcome it and rejoin the group.
1798年春 波兰 华沙
Warsaw, Poland, spring 1798
这是犹太人的节日“Birkat Ilanot”
It’s the Jewish festival of “Birkat Ilanot”
这个节日规定 在第一支花盛开时 人们要一起
which dictates that at the time of the first blossom the community will gather
到户外的花草树木旁欣赏大自然的美丽
outdoors by some trees and flowers in bloom to appreciate the beauty of nature
并且歌颂造物主的慷慨
and honor the generosity of its creator.
在拉比的陪同下 人们诵读犹太法典中的祷词 歌颂使繁花盛开的上帝之手:
In the company of a rabbi, Jews recite a ritual prayer from the Talmud honoring the hand that made the blossom:
“神圣的我主 我们的上帝 宇宙之王
“blessed are You Lord our God, King of the universe who didn’t leave a single thing
你用最美的生物与树木给人以愉悦 让世间万物没有一丝缺失”
lacking in his world filling it with the finest creatures and trees so as to give pleasure to all of mankind.
2000公里外的西方 一位英国诗人也被明媚春光惊艳到
2,000 kilometers to the west, an English poet is also struck by the beauty of spring
于是想表达他的热情与感激:
and wants to express his enthusiasm and gratitude:
“我倚坐在树林中, 聆听千万种和谐的声音”, 威廉·华兹华斯在
“I heard a thousand blended notes while in a grove I sat reclined” writes William Wordsworth
他1798年的《早春诗行》开篇写到
in the opening stanza of his “Lines written in early spring” of 1798.
犹太人和这位诗人同是欣赏春日
Both the Jewish community and the poet appreciate springtime
但华兹华斯却无意仪式化其情感
but the poet is not interested in ritualizing his feelings.
他标志着一个新的浪漫主义时代的开始
He is emblematic of a new age known as Romanticism which believes in leaving people to feel
浪漫主义主张让人在自己选择的时间里按自己的节奏来感受事物
things at their own pace at a time of their choosing.
在欧洲宗教信仰渐渐式微 许多仪式因与
Religious belief is in decline across Europe and for many rituals are tainted
超自然相关而被黑化
by being associated with a supernatural.
这很不幸 即使在宗教这里 仪式也是身心状态
That’s unfortunate. Even in the hands of religions, rituals have been guardians
重要的守护者 如果没有仪式 我们的身心状态往往会被现实击碎或忽略
are very important states of mind that would otherwise be crushed or neglected.
一本诗集最终是喧闹世界的一处安静
A book of poetry is in the end a hushed object in a noisy world whereas a ritual
而仪式保护着我们真挚的情感 但如果少了
protects emotions to which we are sincerely inclined but which without a
一番准备与构画 我们或许会因为精力涣散或
degree of fabrication and structure we might be too distracted and
头绪混乱而抽不出时间来做
undisciplined to make time for.
伦敦 1834年10月
London, October 1834
英格兰银行行长James Patterson将每年的全国节假日——也叫银行假期
James patterson, the governor of the Bank of England cuts annual, national or so-called bank holidays
减少到一年四天
to just four a year.
就在三年前 英国银行还与其他商家一样
Only three years earlier the English bank like many
每年要停止营业36天 来举行全国上下
English businesses had been closed for 36 days a year to make room for all
各种各样的传统节日活动
sorts of traditional ritual festivals up and down the land.
该银行减少节假日的行为代表了18世纪晚期以来一百年都在进行的事情
The bank’s drive to slash holidays is typical of a hundred year long process that begins in the late 18th century.
工业革命使得雇主非常不愿让员工
The industrial revolution has made it deeply
因为这样那样的仪式而休假
inconvenient for employers to let their workers take holidays to mark this or that ritual.
雇主们才不在乎什么集体净化灵魂
The collective purification of the soul is of no interest to employers.
员工想做这些事情可以在自己的时间去做
It’s something you can do in your own time.
甚至有人提议把圣诞节和复活节都省掉
There are even suggestions to put an end to Christmas and Easter
因为这两个节让工业损失巨大
which together cost industry of fortune.
德国纽伦堡 1933年8月30日
Nuremberg, Germany, 30th of August 1933
阿道夫·希特勒举行了“胜利的集会” 有70万人参加
Adolf Hitler leads “The Rally of Victory”. 700,000 people are in attendance.
人们对着大喇叭唱行军曲震耳欲聋
People sing marshall songs are gonna blast from speakers.
游行方队举着纳粹十字旗帜 几千士兵踏步行进
There are banners of swastikas torchlight parades and thousands of soldiers goose-stepping.
为了表达一种兄弟友爱之情 旗帜还专门
To engender a sense of fraternity flags are ritualistically touched against a
仪式般染成希特勒啤酒馆政变所用旗帜的红色
blood-soaked flag from Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch of November 1923.
希特勒演讲数小时鼓吹种族优越性 德国艺术 建筑 以及
Hitler speaks for hours on racial supremacy, German art and architecture and
犹太人企图摧毁雅利安民族的国际阴谋论
an international Jewish conspiracy threatening to bring down the Aryan race.
这类狂热行为引起了现代人对于许多仪式的质疑
Behavior like this hastens the modern suspicion of any ritual behavior.
集体行为及狂热现在看起来更像是可怕的暴民行动
Collective activity and excitement start to seem ever more eerie mob like and
跟个人主义时代格格不入
out of sync with an individualistic age.
伦敦 1966年7月30日
London, 30th of July 1966
包括英国女王在内的96000人
96,000 people including the Queen of England
坐在温布利球场
take their seats inside Wembley stadium
观看英国战胜西德的世界杯决赛
to watch England defeat West Germany in the world cup final.
三千两百万人在电视上观看了此比赛
32 million people are watching on TV.
英国队队长鲍比·摩尔举起奖杯的图像
The picture of England captain Bobby Moore hoisting the trophy is
变成了东伦敦的一座雕像 而比赛所用足球也被曼彻斯特一家博物馆收藏
immortalized by statue in East London while the ball is canonized in a special museum in Manchester.
仪式在现代依然存在但它们更常与体育运动联系在一起
Rituals have continued into the modern age but they now tend to be around sport.
它们很少包含什么理想 也缺乏许多
They’re very limited in their ambitions and lack a lot of the psychological
旧时宗教仪式所拥有的丰富的心灵层面意义
richness of religious minded rituals of old.
澳大利亚 2015年5月26日
Australia, 26 of May 2015
第十八届年度道歉日在澳洲举行 在这一天 澳洲白人对
The 18th annual Sorry Day is held in Australia, when white Australians atone for the
将5万名原住民儿童从他们的家庭带走这一事件表示忏悔
removal of 50,000 children from aboriginal tribes.
这一天是澳洲一个沉重的反省日 来自原住民社区及
The day is a somber occasion for reflection with speeches from the indigenous Australian community
各层次的政客都会进行道歉发言
and politicians of all stripes.
然而 这个节日很少引起公众重视 改变甚微
However, the day meets with little public enthusiasm and engenders little change
也没有补偿措施 许多人会觉得这个节日反而遮掩了问题 至今仍有许多
no compensation is awarded and many feel the day obscures the still prevalent
儿童从其原住民家庭被偷走
kidnapping of children from aboriginal families.
如同其他现代仪式一样 即使曾在国家层面强调了重大事件
Like so many modern rituals even once emphasizing important events in a nation’s identity
全国道歉日也显得非常平和 在很多方面徒留象征意义
national Sorry Day feels rather placid and in many ways token.
人性渴望及创造仪式的那一部分尚未去除 但现在
The part of human nature that craved and created rituals has not been eliminated but it is currently in many
在很多发达国家 它们因为与宗教不光彩的瓜葛而变得沉寂
developed societies quiescent or unfairly tainted by associations with a
甚至被抹黑
less admirable sides of religion.
我们曾经在仪式里做的许多事现在只在私下里做了:
So a lot of what we used to do in ritual ways we now do privately:
我们也有纵情狂欢的时刻 醉酒 乱搞
we have moments of carnivalesque indulgence, we get drunk, have affairs
道歉 净化自己 感恩人生
say sorry, purge ourselves and feel grateful for existence.
但我们也因没有指导 而使得自己的行为
But we also do so without guidance and therefore our behavior
缺少界限 不够诚心或苍白无趣
often lacks boundaries or is half-hearted or colorless.
我们也经常遗忘事情
We also often just forget things.
我们在重要情感时刻极少有集体表达的场合
We have very few collective appointments with important emotions
但我们却可能很需要这些仪式
but perhaps we remain in need of rituals all the same.
日历上的标注帮我们努力保持清醒与友好
Points in the calendar that help us in our endeavors to be sane and kind.
未来我们面临的一个挑战是能否慢慢形成
A challenge for the future will be to create new rituals every bit as
与旧时仪式同样令人信服的植根于艺术 音乐及设计
convincing as those of old with the proper resources of art, music and design
的新仪式 来帮我们卸下一些个人负担
that will take some of the burdens off us as individuals.
我们终将意识到 变得现代并不能取代我们对仪式的需求
We’ll have realized that being modern has not replaced our need for rituals.

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视频概述

现代社会已没有旧时那些繁复的仪式,但人类对仪式的心理需求依然存在。我们应着眼于创造与旧时仪式同样令人信服的新仪式,来帮我们卸下现世生活中的一些心灵负担。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

霜霜

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_xJpVlry14

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