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思想的历史 – 宗教信仰 – 译学馆
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思想的历史 - 宗教信仰

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Religion

宗教在历史上大多时候一直都是人类关注的中心点
For most of history, religion has been a central focus of human concerns.
但现如今在大多发达国家 宗教已变成小事 甚至无关紧要
But now in large parts of the developed world, it’s become a side show or even an irrelevance.
因为它被我们这个时代最强大的力量——科学——宣判为假
Because its been declared untrue by the most powerful force of our age: science.
但讨论宗教的真假问题最终并不是我们要采取的重要行动
But debating whether religion is true or not may not in the end be the most important move we can make.
关键在于我们要理解是哪些需求驱动人们信仰宗教
Its also key to understand what needs have traditionally driven people to religion.
这样我们就可以在超自然的解释框架以外
So we can go on recognizing and answering these needs,
确定这些需求并加以满足
even outside a supernatural structure.
公元前4000年 在澳大利亚安恒地区
4000 BC, Arnhem land, Australia
一位土著在岩石上画下一条大蛇
An aboriginal Australian paints an image of a serpent on a rock.
这种叫做Yingarna蛇(彩虹蛇)是澳洲土著宗教的重要部分
The so-called Yingarna Serpent is a key part of aboriginal religion.
这种生物以及其他相关灵蛇类因为无所不能而被崇拜:
This creature and a few other associated divine serpents are worshiped for having done everything:
他们创造了天空、山川湖泊 他们将鸟类染成五彩
[They] created the sky, the lagoons the mountains, they colored the birds, they
他们还创造了有关婚嫁、食物分配、死亡仪式的律令
decreed laws relating to marriage, food distribution and death ceremonies.
当有人打破族规时 这些灵蛇也能呼风唤雨
The serpents also generate rain and storms when anyone breaks the rules of the tribes.
早期澳洲人的信仰结构基本与我们
The belief structure of the early Australians is almost identical to that
在世界其他地方发现的原始宗教并无二致
found in primitive religions pretty much everywhere around our planet.
人类想解释纷乱的世间现象 因而诞生了宗教
Religion has its origins in a desire to explain a very confusing world.
它是对人类对自然界各种关注点的广泛投射
It is a wild projection onto the natural realm of all kinds of human concerns.
它变成了宗教仪式的核心 用来平息诸神的怒气
It becomes the focus of rituals to appease the possibly angry gods.
人们想讨好诸神并获得好处就得献上供品
Offerings are made in return one hopes for favors and kindness.
对死亡的恐惧往往伴随着与神结盟的希望 以便更从容地应对更坏的情况
Always there is the terror of death and the hope that the worst of it can be handled by an alliance with the gods.
我们从研究中可以知道原始宗教中的恐惧与迷惑
One comes away from the study of primitive religions full of compassion
这些恰恰是使信仰得以产生的因素
for the terrors and confusion that were responsible for generating these beliefs.
也是产生我们祖先注定永生的可怕愚昧思想的因素
And for the frightening ignorance in which our forebearers were fated to live.
但同时也让我们尊重自身的微妙心理
But one also comes away with respect for our own psychological ingenuity,
通过对自己讲故事来平静自我 我们在这方面的智慧
For our cleverness in telling ourselves stories to calm ourselves down,
使得人类社会凝聚在一起 并得以对抗不可知
hold the community together and deal with the unknown.
公元前400年 在印度的克什纳伽尔
400 BC, Kushinagar, India
一位善良的哲人王子乔达摩·悉达多寿终正寝
A kind philosophical Indian prince, Siddhārtha Gautama meets his end,
他的另一个名号——佛陀 意为觉醒或觉悟的人
his other title Buddha means awakened or enlightened one.
他教导他无数的信众接受人生七苦
He teaches his followers of whom they will soon be millions, to expect constant suffering in life
但同时要努力脱离现世桎梏
but also to strive to detach themselves from their immediate circumstances
通过自省与冥思摆脱散乱的心神 即“心猿”
and the anxious spasms of what Buddhists call the “monkey mind” through reflection and meditation.
在佛教里我们看到宗教
In Buddhism we see a characteristic attempt
致力于去除信众在生死疾苦上的执着心
of religion to calm the minds of followers in relation to anxiety, poverty, illness and death.
宗教的任务在于让我们保持希望
The task of religion is to keep us hopeful,
让我们身心免于恐惧
to stop our minds caving in to terror
并与我们携手度过人生最后的苦难日
and to hold our hands through the worst last days of our lives.
公元1025年 在中国的宋朝年间
1025 AD, Song Dynasty, China
一位雕匠制作了一具美丽善良的佛教女神代表形象——观音
A sculptor produces this representation of a beautiful kindly female Buddhist deity called Guanyin.
观音就是佛教里的圣母玛利亚
Guanyin is the Buddhist counterpart of the Virgin Mary.
她也承担着与圣母类似的角色:
And she fulfills a similar role as this lady:
聆听人间疾苦 普照终生
that of hearing us in our distress, meeting us with tenderness and
在我们面对人生诸事时赐予我们力量
strengthening us to face the tasks of life.
佛教与基督教里的这些重要女性形象
The centrality of these maternal figures in both Buddhism and Christianity
说明成人世界里
suggest that mature adult lives
共有那些糟糕的、撕裂般的自我怀疑的时刻 它让我们向往
share moments of terrible and lacerating self-doubt which breed longings to
回归儿时的那种安全与舒适感
recover some of the security and coziness of childhood.
一个人不可能总是保持理智
Being reasonable an adult doesn’t always work.
在如逆水行舟的困境里
In our worst crisis we regress,
我们渴望像五岁孩童一样被拥抱 理解和原谅
we want to be held and understood and forgiving like we were five years old.
而宗教了解并尊重这些 也不因此嘲笑我们
All this religion knows, honors and does not mock us for.
1133年 在英格兰的温彻斯特
1133, Winchester, England
南英格兰的温彻斯特区的穷苦人们
The poorest people in the parish of Winchester in Southern
在各医院及救济院居住下来
England take up residence in hospitals across and the almshouse of noble poverty.
这是英国史上最古老的慈善组织
This is the oldest charitable institution in the United Kingdom,
它由温彻斯特教区的主教设立 这位主教通读福音书
founded by the Bishop of Winchester who has read the Gospels thoroughly and
耶稣以体面对待穷人的教令他深受启发
taken inspiration from Jesus command to treat the poorest with special dignity.
这些救济院专为穷人所设 并且其建造规模
They’re destined for the poorest, the almshouses are built on the scale of an
都是当时牛津或剑桥学院才拥有的恢宏建筑
Oxford or Cambridge College with the most beautiful noble architecture of the day.
它们代表了世界所有宗教的一个主题:
The almshouses are typical example of a theme found in all world religions:
慈善以及富人对穷人所负有的责任
that of charity and of the duty of the rich towards the poor.
或者退一步讲 宗教在缓和人类自私冲动
That there may be a regressive aspect of this, religions can be praised for moderating egoistic
促使有权者关心无势者的方面值得被称颂
impulses and urging the powerful to think of the defenseless.
人们很容易认为穷人是罪恶的 应为他们自己的命运负责
It can be tempting to think of the poor as evil and responsible for their fate
但是宗教要求有权者将他们视为不幸者
but religions ask the powerful to imagine them always as unfortunate and
在神的计划里他们也值得拥有一席之地
worthy of a special place in the divine scheme.
1543年 德国纽伦堡
1543, Nuremberg, Germany
尼古拉·哥白尼出版了他的《天体运行论》
Nicolaus Copernicus publishes “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres”.
他以“日心说”代替了
This post a heliocentric view of the universe rather than geocentric version
当时被广泛接受的约书亚书所提出的“地心说”
widely accepted at the time and based on the book of Joshua.
1616年天主教会宣称“日心说”是歪理邪说
In 1616 the Catholic Church moves to declare this heliocentric theory nonsense
并愤怒地禁止了哥白尼的著作
and angrily bans Copernicus’s work.
然而 哥白尼革命并未平息
However, Copernicus’s revolution will not be quelled.
伽利略·伽利莱在1632出版的《关于两大世界体系的对话》中维护了这一学说
Galileo Galilei will defend the system in “The Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems” published in 1632.
罗马教会再次震怒
Again the papacy is furious.
它更猛烈地谩骂哥白尼并将伽利略禁足在家里
It curses Copernicus once more and put Galileo under house arrest.
我们或许会嘲笑天主教会的行为
It’s tempting to laugh at the catholic church
但他们也只不过在努力捍卫曾经发挥作用的美好观念:
but the church is trying to hold on to something rather lovely that had served humankind well:
我们人类的宇宙重要性
the idea of our cosmic significance.
这种观点认为人类很重要 而有人在上面关心着我们
The idea that we matter, that someone out there cares.
哥白尼和伽利略的理论就如同人类童年的痛苦终结
Copernicus and Galileo’s theories are like the very painful end of the childhood of man kind.
他们发现人类只是这个宇宙里被遗忘的一个偶然的、无意义的蓝点
Their discoveries that we are but a tiny forgotten meaningless blue dot in the randomness of space
就如同孩童发现自己或父母在世间万物中其实根本无足轻重
is akin to a child discovering that his or her parents are in truth really unimportant in the scheme of things.
这种存在感的危机一直呼应着各时代的科学发现
A new existential terror will echo down the ages from these scientific discoveries.
而现在我们依然在处理这个问题
We are still dealing with it.
1830年7月 英国伦敦
July 1830, London, England
查尔斯·莱尔出版了他的地质学三部巨著的第一部:
Charles Lyell publishes the first of three volumes of his geological masterpiece:
《地质学原理》
Principles of Geology.
这部书采用新的地质学方法展现了
The book uses new geological methods to show
地球远比我们之前认为的要古老
that the earth is far older than was ever previously believed.
圣经上说地球已存在6000年
The Bible had said it was 6000 years old.
而莱尔认为 根据对海洋化石的观察证明
Lyle says the fossil record proves it must be at least 240 million years old,
地球至少已存在2.4亿年之久
based on this observation of marine fossils.
现代科学现在将其调整为45亿年
Modern science now puts it at 4.5 billion years.
为了响应莱尔的发现 英国社会批评家及作家约翰·罗斯金
In response to Lyle’s discoveries the British social critic and essayist John Ruskin
甚至抛弃了他的信仰
abandons belief.
他说他的信仰在如此强大的证据面前被打击得如同金叶般稀薄
He says his faith has been beaten to the thinness of a gold leaf by such rockbound evidence.
他写到 如果不是这些地质学家 我还过得挺好的
If only the geologists would leave me alone he writes I could do very
但我听到那些振聋发聩的巨锤
well but those dreadful hammers
叮叮当当敲打着圣经的每句话
I hear the clink of them at the end of every cadence of the bible verses.
科学现在让每个有理智的人都
Science now makes it almost impossible for any intelligent person to believe in
不再相信圣经是真的
the Bible is literally true.
1835年 德国图宾根
1835 Tübingen, Germany
27岁的大卫·弗里德里希·施特劳斯发表了他旷世巨著的第一卷第一版:
27 year old David Friedrich Strauss publishes the first edition of the first volume of an epochal work:
《耶稣传》
“The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined”.
施特劳斯进一步提出 耶稣是否是上帝的儿子
Strauss advances the view that it doesn’t matter whether or not Christ really was the son of God or worked
耶稣是否会创造奇迹 或者耶稣是否在被钉上十字架后死而复生 这些都不重要
miracles or came back from the dead after being crucified because what’s
重要的是他所树立的道德典范:
important about him is the moral example he gives:
他的慷慨 他对弱者的无比温柔 以及
his generosity, his immense tenderness to the weak,
他的宽恕之心
his commitment to forgiveness:
“我弟兄得罪我 我当宽恕他四百九十次” 他写到
“You must forgive your brother seven times seventy” he notes.
他的谦卑: 他以做木匠营生 并跟穷苦人一起过着朴素的生活
His humility: he lived as a carpenter had a simple life lived amongst the poor.
施特劳斯开启了一种研究宗教的新视野:
Strauss initiates a new way of looking at religion:
它并不是对于世界本来面目的真实描述
It isn’t a true description of how the world actually is.
而是人类创造出来用来安慰自己的
It something humans have invented to comfort themselves in highly valuable
值得我们尊重的无比重要的方式
and important ways that deserve our selective reverence.
1885年 荷兰阿姆斯特丹
1885, Amsterdam, Netherlands
荷兰国家博物馆正式开馆
A new national museum, the Rijks Museum officially opens.
建筑师Pierre Cuypers终生致力于设计、修复教堂及展品
The architect Pierre Cuypers has spent his career designing and restoring churches and their shows.
这一博物馆很快就因其彩色玻璃及教堂般肃穆的气氛
The building is quickly dubbed a new cathedral devoted to art with it’s
被誉为一座艺术的教堂
stained glass and ecclesiastical solemnity.
该博物馆是许多在19世纪后中期建立的博物馆之一
The museum is one of many to open the second part of the 19th century.
它们是在信仰式微引起的普遍恐慌中探索宗教替代品的结果
It’s the result of a widespread panic as to what can replace religion now that belief is in decline.
其中一个流行观点就是以文化代替圣经
One leading answer is that Culture can replace Scripture.
它认为 艺术可以为我们获得许多宗教曾经赋予我们的东西:
The argument is that art can achieve for us many of the things that religion once did:
它可以成为人生向导
It can be a guide,
一种安慰的源泉 智慧与热情并存的导师 它能
a source of consolation, a teacher of wisdom and compassion, a reminder of our better
提示我们有更好的本性 提供一种不完美却在一定程度上可以与我们凡人命运和解的东西
nature and something that can imperfectly but still to a real extent reconcile us to our mortality.
2006年 英国牛津
2006, Oxford, England
英国生物学家理查德·道金斯发表了《上帝的错觉》
An English biologist Richard Dawkins publishes “The God Delusion”.
道金斯认为宗教是谬误的妄想 应该从
Dawkins argues that religion is intellectually wrong and delusional and
公众文化中彻底去除
therefore should be removed entirely from public culture.
道金斯只差没有说要法律禁止人们
There Dawkins has just about stops from saying that people should be prevented by law
私下信教了
from being religious in private but only just.
他对宗教的嗤之以鼻与西方对激进伊斯兰的不安情绪不谋而合
Dawkins’s mocking view of religion coincides with deep disquiet about militant Islam in the West.
那些边缘穆斯林组织的嗜杀成性应是道金斯真正谴责的对象
The murderous ways of fringe Muslim groups seems to be Dawkins’ real target.
宗教只不过是狂热人群也会感兴趣的东西
Religion just comes to seem like something a bunch of mad people could ever be interested in.
道金斯坚称 理性的人们可以在科学和医学里找到所有的慰藉
Dawkins insists that reasonable people can find all the consolation they need in science and medicine.
医生可以取代牧师 福利国家可以取代慈善组织
The doctor can replace the priest, the welfare state can replace charity,
实验室可以取代宗教仪式
and the laboratory can replace rituals and ceremonies.
除此之外我们还有电视和新闻
For the rest we have television and the news.
然而宗教可以解决的需求始终是真实而重要的 尽管我们有科学 电视机 主题公园
The needs that religions answered were real and important and despite science and TV and theme parks and
和癌症治疗中心 但我们仍然有这些需求
cancer treatment centers we still have many of these needs.
我们仍然会死 我们仍然需要慰藉 我们仍然需要谨记
We still have to die, we still need to be comforted, we still need to be reminded
在强势的资本主义洪流中我们对社会对穷人的责任
in conditions of aggressive capitalism of our duties to the community and to the poor,
我们仍然需要有这么一个地方来寄托我们受挫的梦想 挫败感和悲伤
and we still need somewhere to take our disappointed ambitions, frustrations and sorrows.
宗教也许曾是一种深深的错觉 但它
Religion may well have been a deep illusion but it
仍然是一种很重要的错觉 我们需要用真诚的内心和热情去了解它
was an important illusion that we need to understand with sincere depth and
以便在我们这个时代建立一个运转良好的世俗社会
compassion in order to know how to create functioning secular societies in our own time.

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视频概述

宗教曾在人类历史上发挥重大的作用,但随着科学发现渐渐式微。从哥白尼革命到当今的反激进伊斯兰的潮流,宗教与科学的较量始终没有停止过。然而宗教仍然能够解决我们得某些需求,尤其在当今资本主义的洪流中它对我们内心的安抚可以让我们维持一个正常运转的世俗社会。

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