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历史:修道主义

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Monasticism

历史
修道主义
We’ve come to see living on our own or in a small family unit of our own
我们已经将独自生活或小家庭生活
as a key step in growing up;
视为成长的关健一步
it’s the dominant image we have of adult existence.
这是我们对成人生活的主要印象
So, monasticism,
修道主义
which involves unmarried people working and living together
指不婚人士在高度有组织的社区
in highly organized communities,
共同工作和生活
can seem very marginal and odd.
看起来又边缘化又奇怪
We may not have anything particularly against monasticism,
我们可能没有特别反对修道主义
but it can seem just very unusual,
但它看起来很不寻常
something that might work for a very few individuals
这可能只对极少数人有用
without being relevant to the lives of most people today.
与当今大多数人的生活无关
At its core, monasticism puts forward the bold thesis
修道主义提出了大胆的核心论点
that people can actually lead the most fruitful, productive, and happy lives
当人们放弃伴侣生活和单独居住的想法时
when they abandon the idea of coupledom and the single family dwelling,
其实可以过最丰富多彩的幸福生活
get together into controlled, very organized groups of friends,
聚在一起成为纪律性组织性很强的朋友团体
have some clear rules,
有明确规则
and direct themselves towards a few big ambitions.
指引他们走向一些宏伟目标
The modern world insist that we’ll always be happier in a small home, on our own
现代观念认为我们独自或和一两个特别的人
or with one or two very special people,
组建小家庭总会更快乐
but this ideal can be deeply problematic,
然而这观点可能有很大问题
leaving us occasionally looking around for some sort of an alternative.
时不时的 让我们四处寻找替代方案
Even if we’re not planning on setting up a secular version of a monastery anytime soon,
即使不打算短期内建一个世俗的修道院
the history of monasticism deserves to be studied for the lessons it can yield
修道主义历史值得研究是因为它可以带来
about the limits to modern individualism.
现代个人主义局限性的教训
A site near Athens, 300 BC
公元前300年 雅典附近的某处
The philosopher, Epicurus, buys some land just outside the city of Athens
哲学家 伊壁鸠鲁 在雅典市郊买下土地
and invites friends to come and live with him.
邀请朋友来和他一起生活
It’s the world’s first proper commune based around philosophy.
这是世界上第一个基于哲学的公社
Epicurus has come to the view that we tend not to be very happy
伊比鸠鲁认为我们往往不会很幸福
because we overrate the importance of three things:
因为高估了下面三件事的重要性
romantic love, having lots of money, and the enjoyment of luxury.
浪漫爱情 多金 及享受奢华
The point of this commune is to help people avoid these mistakes
公社旨在帮助人们避免这些错误
and to focus instead on friendship, simple pleasures, and cultivating the mind.
而专注于友情 简单的快乐及陶冶心智
In the commune, everyone has a room and there are common areas downstairs in the grounds.
在公社每人一间房 楼下地面有公共区域
That way, the residents are always surrounded by people who share their outlooks,
这样 居民总是被有相似想法的
are entertaining and kind.
有趣而友善的人围绕
Children are looked after in Rota, everyone eats together,
孩子们被轮流照料 人们一起吃饭
one can chat in the corridors late at night.
深夜可以在走廊上聊天
It’s a very successful arrangement
这种方式很成功
and a great many other epicurean communities are founded.
而且很多其他类似的社区被建立
The movement flourishes for almost 400 years.
该活动兴盛了近400年
The big move that Epicurus makes is that people should live together
伊壁鸠鲁的重大结论是 人应该共同生活
not because they happen to be related by family ties, or were born in the same geographical region
不是因为他们有家庭关系或出生地相同
They should do so because they share values and ideals.
而应该是因为有相似的价值观和理想
Epicurus proposes that we need the presence and assistance of like-minded people
伊比鸠鲁建议我们需要志同道合的人协助
able to free ourselves from the usual social preoccupations
使我们能从日常社会事务中解脱出来
and get on with the sincere tasks of our lives.
继续我们生活中的真诚使命
Monte Cassino, Italy, 529 AD,
意大利蒙特卡西诺 公元529年
Inspired by the example of Epicurus,
受伊比鸠鲁的启发
Saint Benedict establishes his first monastery
圣本迪尼克特建了他的第一座修道院
halfway between Rome and Naples.
在罗马和那不勒斯之间
It’s still there,
它仍在那里
although it had to be heavily rebuilt after it was damaged by allied bombing in 1944.
尽管1944年盟军轰炸后必须大量重建
Benedict writes an instruction manual for his followers
圣本尼迪克特给追随者写了一本指导手册
with a simple and emphatic title,
标题简洁有力
“The Rule.”
《规则》
In his book, Benedict lays out strict regulations about how to run a monastery; he details:
他在书中列出了管理修道院的一系列严格规定
what to eat, when it’s OK to talk and when you have to be silent,
吃什么 什么时候应该说话或保持沉默
who has to do the cooking, washing up and gardening
谁应该烹饪洗衣整理花园
Everyone has to take turns:
每个人必须轮流劳作
when to go to bed and went to get up,
对日常作息
what sorts of clothes to wear and what kind of haircut to have.
着装和发型 都有相应的规定
The list can seem like a huge denial of individual liberty,
这列表看来像极大地否定了个人自由
but Benedict’s contributions to the history of monasticism
但圣本尼迪克特对修道院历史的贡献是
is his faith in the benefit of extensive, explicit and detailed rules
他相信广泛明确详细的规则会带来好处
to which members voluntarily agree.
这获得了成员的自愿赞同
Benedict believes that only under regulated conditions
圣本迪尼克特认为只有在规定的条件下
can the best potential of people be harnessed.
人的潜力才能发挥到最佳程度
He works on the idea that although high level of personal freedom sounds like a lovely idea,
他认为尽管高度的个人自由听起来很好
it’s not in fact an optimum condition for most of us
事实上对大多数人而言并不是最佳条件
because we have a fatal tendency to veer towards dissipation, distraction,
因为人类的致命倾向就是分散注意力
and wasting our time.
和浪费时间
North Yorkshire, England, 657 AD;
公元657年 英国北约克郡
St. Hilda of Whitby,
惠特比的圣希尔达
one of the most powerful and accomplished women in the early history of England,
英格兰早期最具影响力和成就的女性之一
founds a monestary.
她建立了一座修道院
In her role as the head of the monastery of Whitby, she becomes a very senior administrator,
她是惠特比修道院的负责人和高级管理者
runs a large cultural enterprise,
经营了一个大型文化企业
is a management consultant to visiting kings and princes,
是到访国王和王子的管理顾问
and has an impact as a leading educationalist.
而且是一位颇有影响力的教育家
And she does all this while being noted for her good temper.
同时是出了名的好脾气
Of course, she’s unmarried.
当然 她没有结婚
It’s not that because she’s a nun,
并非因为她是修女
she isn’t allowed to get married,
不允许结婚
and so has to make the best of her work opportunities without a supportive home-life–
没有家庭支持的情况下只能利用工作机会
the line of thought runs the other way around.
恰恰相反
She’s able to have a stellar career and achieve so much for the community
她之所以能在事业和社区获得巨大成功
because she’s free of the demands of relationships and domestic life.
是因为摆脱了对关系和家庭的需要
Being a nun means she’s supplied with meals, laundry, and heating
作为修女她能享受食物 洗衣服务和暖气
without having to organize everything for herself.
无须自己打理一切
She can be astonishingly productive.
因此可以极富成效
We tend to associate monastic life with religious devotion,
我们会认为修道院生活和宗教奉献相关
but people like Hilda suggest that there are many benefits of monasteries,
但是希尔达这些人指出修道院的许多好处
which are not really tied to religion at all.
并非和宗教相关
Most crucially, the monastery removes the problem of finding a work-life balance.
最关键的是修道院没有工作生活平衡问题
Within the monastery, work and life are not really two separate things–
在修道院 工作和生活不是两件独立的事
you’re always at work.
你一直在工作
It’s an attitude summed up by the followers of Saint Benedict
圣本迪尼克特的追随者
in one of their key mottoes,
对一条关键座右铭作了总结
“Laborare est orare:
工作即祈祷
to work is to pray.”
工作就是祈祷
That is, what you’re doing when you’re digging the fields,
就是说 你做的这些事情
administering the accounts, deliberating policy, or involved in contemplation
诸如挖地 管理账户 制定政策 或者沉思冥想
are not opposed activities to be weighed up against each other.
这些不是相互对立需要权衡的活动
You can fully immerse yourself in your work,
你可以让自己完全沉浸在工作中
which when it’s meaningful, can be the highest of pleasures.
工作的意义会带来最大的乐趣
Kingdom of Bhutan, 1692:
1692年的不丹王国
the establishment of the Takstang Palphug Buddhist monastery.
虎穴寺建立
Like Christianity, Buddhism has a long standing interest in communal living.
和基督教一样 佛教对集体生活的兴趣由来以久
The lofty and rather inaccessible location isn’t an accident.
崇山中人迹罕至的选址并非偶然
The point of going to a monastery
人们去寺院的目的
is to avoid the distractions that might take one’s attention away from what’s really important.
是避免分心造成无法关注到真正重要的事
The Buddhists are acutely aware of the problems of distraction;
佛教徒敏锐意识到了注意力分散的问题
what they call, “The Monkey Mind.”
他们称之为 “猴子的思维”
This is one of the recurrent themes around monasteries,
这是寺院中反复提及的主题之一
so locating the monastery far away from the city,
因此 远离城市
and in a setting where nature appears at its most impressive,
在最为壮阔的自然之地建造寺院
is a careful, strategic ploy.
是出于谨慎的策略
It’s using geography and architecture in a struggle to get us to focus on the right things.
它利用地理和建筑让我们专注于正确的事
Monasticism knows that human beings are pathetically prone to distraction.
修道主义了解人的可悲之处是容易分心
It’s almost comically easy to get us to stop concentrating on anything serious,
我们很容易从严肃的事情上分神
or even a tiny bit challenging.
哪怕是个小挑战
But collectively, we’ve been very reluctant to take serious steps to address this mania for distraction.
但作为群体 我们很不情愿认真对待分神问题
It’s almost shocking to imagine
这几乎让人震惊 若设想
what one might be able to do
如果注意力不涣散的话
where our attention’s not always wandering off.
一个人或能做到什么
Buddhism’s leading figures are prepared to accept that asking for prolonged,
佛教的领袖们接受这一点 让注意力持久
non-distracted attention
而不分心
means making huge and specific adjustments.
需要进行大而具体的调整
That’s what monasticism is for.
这是修道主义的目的
Trinity college, Cambridge, England, October 1911.
1911年10月 英国剑桥三一学院
The philosopher, Ludwig Littgenstein, enrolls as a student at Trinity College, Cambridge
哲学家 路德维希·维特根斯坦 在该学院
to study under the great and eminent professor, Bertrand Russell.
是著名教授 伯特兰·罗素的学生
Trinity College is, like most of the Oxford and Cambridge colleges,
三一学院 像大多数牛津剑桥的学院
founded on the plan of a medieval monastery.
根据中世纪修道院平面图建造
It isn’t centered around a relationship with God,
它不以与上帝的关联为核心
but it does have a belief system.
但确实有一个信仰系统
One focused on the idea of academic work.
专注于学术工作
Fellows of the college, such as Russell,
学院研究员 比如罗素
lived a communal life and they have to be unmarried in order to admitted inside the community;
过着社区生活 未婚的人才能融入社区
married academics lived elsewhere in Cambridge.
已婚的生活在剑桥其他地方
The arrangements are an admission
这种安排承认了
that certain kinds of jobs, especially intellectual and creative ones,
某些工作 特别是智力和创造性工作
are not well-aligned with the demands of family life or even of running your own household.
与家庭生活甚至是经营家庭的需求不一致
This academic monastery
身处学术性修道院
means you can socialize mainly with people who are involved in the same kind of work as you–
意味着你主要和做同类工作的人交往
who can offer you sympathy, help and advice
他们给你赞同 帮助 建议
and will never nag you about the laundry.
而且永远不会催你洗衣服
The sneaking suspicion that someone who does your job
你会暗自怀疑 你的那些同行
might be harming their talents by emptying the bins or making the beds ,
其才能可能会被倒垃圾或整理床铺而糟蹋
might the college system argues, just be true.
大学系统认为这是真的
Russell and Wittgenstein weld together revolutionized 20th century philosophy.
罗素和维特根斯坦改变了20世纪的哲学
San Francisco, 1966.
1966年 洛杉矶
The first hippy communes spring up in the Haight-Ashbury district of the city.
第一个嬉皮公社出现在海特-阿什伯里区
The hippies go in for a very particular style of communal living, involving:
嬉皮士们过着非常特别的社区生活 包括
beards, lentils, chanting, free-wheeling attitudes to sex, suspicion of technology,
留胡子 吃小扁豆 吟唱 性开放 对技术抱持怀疑
and dislike of tidiness.
以及讨厌整洁
They so gripped the public imagination
他们俘获了公众的想象力
that their way of doing things
以至于大多数人一想到公社生活
becomes what living together looks like to most people
他们对于集体生活的想象
when they think of what it might mean to live in a commune.
就是嬉皮士的生活方式
Almost by chance, it comes to seem as if
人们几乎是不经意地认为
being interested in shared property, collective responsibility, and mutual assistance with your work
若你对共享财产责任协作感兴趣

means you also have to be interested in
意味着你也要对这些感兴趣:
dancing naked and sitting cross-legged on the floor with large a beard.
裸舞 盘腿坐在地上 留着大胡子
It hence becomes hard to imagine a secular monastery with non-hippy values.
因此非嬉皮士的修道院是难以想象的
For example, a commune devoted to entrepreneurship, traditional manners,
比如 一个致力于创业 传统礼节
or a strong enthusiasm for clean design and modernist architecture.
或对简洁设计现代建筑有强烈热情的公社
Many options for communal living still lie before us.
我们仍有很多种社区生活可以选择
Monasteries and communes have not exhausted the possibilities,
除了修道院和公社还有其他可能
even if their examples can act as sources of ongoing inspiration.
即使这些例子可以激发灵感
When we try to live together with just one special other person,
当我们试着只和某个特别的人一起生活
the experiment often runs aground.
——这种试验经常发生
We get bored, sexually frustrated or constrained.
我们会感到无聊 性枯竭或约束
We often blame the other person for this,
我们常常因此责怪另一方
and rush off to repeat the experiment with someone else.
然后急着和另一个人再做这个试验
We’d be wise to see that the institution of romantic marriage
我们明智得看到婚姻制度
can place some intolerable burdens on otherwise very good people,
会给一些原本优秀的人带来无法忍受的负担
who would hugely benefit from other ways of structuring their time
他们若能调整时间和家务分配
and their laundry responsibilities.
必将受益更多
As an alternative to the dispiriting domestic bickering of certain couples,
为了摆脱夫妻之间让人沮丧的争吵
it may be time to revisit the fascinating examples
也许是时候重温那些令人神往的
of early modes of monastic and communal life.
传统僧侣和集体生活了
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该视频介绍了修道主义的历史背景和其对当代生活的借鉴

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtU5hzfHvd0

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