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思想的历史:爱 – 译学馆
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思想的历史:爱

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Love

历史

The strange thing about love is that
爱的奇妙之处在于
even though we experienced it in a deeply personal and apparently instinctive way,
尽管我们体验爱的方式是极其私密且本能的
it has a history.
但它仍有历史可究
In other words,
换句话说
people around the world haven’t always fallen in love the way they do now.
世界各地的人并不总像现在这般坠入爱河
The point of rehearsing a few of the telling moments in love’s history
回顾爱情史上一些重大时刻
is to remind ourselves that
在于提醒我们自己
there are different ways of arranging relationships
进入感情关系的方式有很多种
depending on what a given society happens to believe in.
它取决于特定社会的不同信仰
Love is a cultural invention,
爱是文明的产物
and we are not at the end of its evolution.
而我们还未抵达其进化尽头
We may, in fact, be still only at the early stages of the history of love.
实际上 我们可能仍处于爱的萌芽阶段
We’re still learning what we need,
仍在探索自己需要什么
and how we might get more successful at love.
以及学习如何在爱情中更为成功
Mari, Syria, 1775BC
毛伊岛 叙利亚 公元前1775年
King Zimri-Lim of the ancient city of Mari
古城马里位于幼发拉底河畔
on the banks of the Euphrates marries Shibtu,
其国王兹姆里·利姆迎娶了
the princess of the neighboring Kingdom of Yamhad.
邻国亚姆哈德的公主希布图
Far from being the outcome of love,
这场婚姻绝非两情相悦
this marriage, like that of many between powerful people in the ancient world,
而是和古代许多权贵间的婚姻一样
is purely transactional.
纯粹只是场交易
Mari occupies a critical position in the trade routes
马里在叙利亚和美索不达米亚之间的
between Syria and Mesopotamia.
贸易路线上占据着重要位置
And marrying Shibtu will allow Zimri-Lim
这场联姻可助兹姆里·利姆
to expand his wealth and power.
扩张财富和权力
Zimri-Lim’s attitude to marriage continues with his children.
兹姆里·利姆对其孩子婚姻的态度亦是如此
He marries off eight of his daughters to rulers of neighboring cities,
他把8个女儿都嫁给了邻城的统治者
forcing each of his new son-in-laws
并迫使每个女婿签署
to sign a document pledging themselves to him.
一份宣誓效忠他的文件
The people of Mari are in effect saying that
马里人以实际行动告诉我们
what gives a marriage meaning isn’t how much the couple happened to love one another
婚姻的意义不在于夫妻有多爱对方
but whether it’s beneficial in terms of trade connections and war.
而在于是否有益于贸易关系和战争
This is so alien to us.
这与我们的观念大相径庭
It’s worth reflecting on just how much we nowadays
值得深思的是 如今我们对待婚姻
refuse to entertain, at least in public,
仍强烈拒绝抱有功利性目的
any practical considerations when marrying.
至少当众会是如此
Feelings are meant to be our only lodestars.
情感应当是我们唯一的准则
And yet for thousands of years
然而几千年来
until only a minute ago on the historical clock,
直到一分钟前的历史时钟上
it was unambiguously meant to be only about land, power, and money.
婚姻仍明确地只意味着土地 权力和金钱
The notion that you should love your spouse
那种该和伴侣情投意合的观念
would’ve seemed plain laughable.
只会听起来很可笑
This may have created a collective trauma
这可能造成了一种集体性创伤
we’re still in flight from.
我们至今仍在与之对抗
Blaye, France, 1147AD.
布拉伊 法国 公元1147年
Jaufré Rudel, the Prince of Blaye, set sail for Tripoli
布拉伊王子若弗雷·鲁德尔启航前往黎波里
in modern-day northern Lebanon.
现位于黎巴嫩北部
He has off to see the Countess of Tripoli
去看望他深爱的
with whom he has fallen deeply in love.
黎波里伯爵夫人
Rudel is one of the earliest known
鲁德尔是已知最早的
troubadours or skilled court poets
吟游诗人或宫廷诗人之一
who rise to prominence in southern France in the 12th century
于12世纪在法国南部崭露头角
and write poetry on one subject exclusively: love.
他诗集的唯一主题便是:爱
Rudel has written many poems in honor of the countess.
鲁徳尔为歌颂伯爵夫人写了很多诗
and wants to write some more in her presence.
并期望能当面对伯爵夫人吟诗作赋
But Rudel’s idea of love is very particular.
但鲁德尔的爱情观非常特殊
and at that time dramatically new.
在当时尤为标新立异
It’s love that’s utterly divorce from practical considerations
那是完全脱离实际考虑的爱
that doesn’t involve children, money, dynasties
无关孩子 金钱 王朝
or even any kind of reciprocation.
甚至任何形式的回报
The troubadour poets never tried to have sex with the objects of their love,
吟游诗人从不试图和他们所爱的对象发生性关系
their focuses exclusively on what we would call the infatuation
他们只专注于我们所说的痴迷
or more colloquially the crush side of love.
或者更通俗的说 是爱的迷恋
Rudel has fallen in love with the countess without ever having set eyes on her.
鲁德尔从未见过伯爵夫人就爱上了她
Pining away for his lady from hundreds of miles away,
因思念数百英里外的爱人而日益消瘦
he composes and sets to music,
他创作并谱曲了
many songs expressing grief and joy.
许多歌曲表达他的悲伤与喜悦
Unfortunately he falls ill on route to his lady
不幸的是 他在去看爱人的路上病倒了
and has to be stretched into Tripoli
勉强撑到了黎波里
where the countess hears about him and visit him in his chamber.
伯爵夫人得知该消息 到房间看望了他
Rudel recovers momentarily before dying
鲁德尔死前清醒了片刻
finally, at peace, very chastely in her arms
最终平静且安详地躺在她的怀里逝去
The troubadours took love very seriously
吟游诗人对待爱情非常认真
only they didn’t see it is linked to marriage.
但不会把爱和婚姻联系在一起
Romantic love was something you fell for someone
浪漫的爱情应是那种
you were never going to do household chores with.
不会与爱人因家务琐事而烦恼
And that may be the secret of its intensity.
可能这就是爱意浓密的秘诀所在
This kind of love was spared too much contact with daily life.
这种爱不会接触过多的日常生活
Rudel could imagine how lovely the Countess of Tripoli was
鲁德尔可以遐想黎波里伯爵夫人有多可爱
without ever having to dispute with her about the right place to hang a tapestry
而不会与其争论壁毯该挂哪儿
would get frustrated if she didn’t particularly want to do
也不会因为她不愿配合
a special embarrassing thing for him in bed.
床笫之欢而感到失落
And love could remain pristine.
爱情得以保持最初的感觉
The troubadours show us a historical moment
吟游诗人给我们展现了一个历史性时刻
when the idea of love was not tied to the notion of moving in together
那时的爱情并不意味着同居
or to the intertwining of two practical economic and social lives.
两个独立的经济和社会个体无需交集
Using the same toilet, sharing utility bills
不用共用浴室 分摊水电费
and trying to go on camping holidays with your partner’s friends.
也不用和伴侣的朋友去野营度假
Versailles, France, 14th of September’s 1745
凡尔赛宫 法国 1745年9月14日
At six o’clock in the evening,
晚上六点
in a move engineered and planful wigs,
此时一位23岁的巴黎美人
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, a 23 year old beauty from Paris,
珍妮‧安托瓦妮特‧普瓦松戴着一顶精美的假发
Rouged powder and wearing a black off-the-shoulder dress,
妆容精致 身穿黑色露肩长裙
enters the Cabinet conseils,
优雅地踏进法国内阁
approaches King Louie the 15th and curtsy three times.
走近国王路易十五 并行了三次屈膝礼
This simple gesture makes it official.
以简单的礼节完成了正式仪式
Jeanne-Antoinette is the King’s maitresse déclaré
珍妮·安托瓦妮特是国王公开的情人
or chief mistress,
也就是首席情妇
and from now on she will be known as madame de pompadour
从那之后她便获封庞巴杜侯爵夫人
and reside at court with the King.
并与国王同住在宫中
The king has by this point been married for 20 years
尽管路易十五已经结婚20年
but marriage doesn’t mean fidelity.
但婚姻并不代表忠贞
You marry for reasons of State
国王为国家安定而结婚
and you have mistresses on the side,
且有情妇常伴左右
no one gets upset, that’s just what happens.
没人会对此失望 这已是理所当然
Louie the 15th has several mistresses
路易十五有许多情妇
including 14 year-old Mary Louise O’ Murphy
其中包括14岁的玛丽·路易斯·欧墨菲
who is painted in a famous semi pornographic
她就是弗朗索瓦·鲍彻的
painting by Francois Boucher.
著名半色情画像中的人物
At Versailles in the 18th century,
在18世纪的凡尔赛宫
there was an acceptance of the imperfect fit between marriage and love.
人们认定婚姻和爱情无需契合
It was understood that there would always be a tension between the two.
众所周知 这两者之间总会存在冲突
Marriage was for children, practicality and continuity.
婚姻是为了孩子 现实和延续
Love was for excitement, drama and sex.
爱情是为了激情 戏剧性和性欲
One should never try to blend of the two.
永远不要把两者混为一谈
Rather than be underhand or deceitful like many people are today,
路易十五并不像如今偷情者这般欺上瞒下
the King of France simply split love for marriage.
而是简单地把爱情从婚姻中分离出来
And without shame or guilt,
他并不感到羞耻与愧疚
made his romantic attachments,
一边和情妇幽会
and organized and public part of his life with his wife.
一边和妻子共同处理公共事务
Gretna Green, Scotland, 1st of January 1812
格雷特纳格林 苏格兰 1812年1月1日
A couple has just got married in a secret ceremony,
一对夫妻刚刚秘密地举行了婚礼
John Lambton, the first Earl of Durham,
男方是达勒姆第一伯爵约翰·兰普顿
who is portioned, has land and responsibilities.
享有分配制土地和权益
and Harriet, the illegitimate daughter of the Earl of Cholmondeley
女方是约翰·达利伯爵的私生女哈里特
who has no money and little social status but is very pretty,
虽有美貌 却没有财富和社会地位
are now man and wife.
两人结为了夫妻
Their families are furious and have tried desperately to stop the wedding.
他们的家人对此非常愤怒且极力反对
But the couple are modern which means that
但这对夫妻有着超前的思想
they believe that in marriage love should come first
他们相信在婚姻里 爱应该是第一位
and practical considerations second.
功名利禄排在第二位
They’ve gone to Gretna Green, a village just inside Scotland
他们私奔到了苏格兰境内的格雷特纳格林村庄
to escape English law.
以逃离英国法律
And they are exemplars of a new philosophy of romanticism,
他们也是浪漫主义新哲学的典范
which privileges feeling over reason
该哲学强调感性超越理性
and impulse over tradition.
冲动超越传统理念
Romanticism transforms love;
浪漫主义让爱情发生了蜕变
the old system of marrying for political or economic advantage,
为政治或经济利益而结婚的旧制度
slowly crumbles around the world.
在世界各地慢慢瓦解
The village of Gretna Green become synonymous with illicit marriages.
格雷特纳格林村庄变成了私奔婚姻的代名词
And John and Harriet are among
在18世纪末和19世纪
hundreds of English couples in the late 18th and 19th centuries who eloped there.
数百对英国夫妇私奔至此 约翰和哈里特就在其中
The public appetite for stories of romantic descent is such that
人们对当时的浪漫故事兴致盎然
the local priest publishes some best-selling memoirs of his time there,
使得当地牧师出版的时代回忆录尤为畅销
full of daring coach rides across the border
书中满是大胆乘坐马车穿越边境的故事
and the wrath of unconsulted fathers
以及那些未经协商的父亲们满是怒火
who reached the runaway children just too late.
当找到私奔的孩子时 已为时已晚
Gretna Green becomes an important place
格雷特纳格林成为了爱情圣地
because there’s a growing belief that
因为人们越来越相信
marriage should be the consequence of love.
婚姻应该是爱情的结果
And that if two people love each other, that alone is what matters.
两人彼此相爱 这才是最重要的
Income, the standing of the wider family, career
收入 家庭地位 职业
and how the parent’s indoor might get on seems irrelevant.
以及父母的家庭生活似乎都无关紧要
And more than that they begin to be cast not as wise, serious matters
不仅如此 这些开始不被视为明智和严肃的问题
which really ought to be taken into account.
然而这本应当是需要权衡的
But as things that could only seem relevant to gouty father,
但这些事情似乎只与痛风的父亲
snobbish aunts and dried up conventional people
势力的姑妈们和迂腐俗人有关
with no care for the happiness of a couple.
他们都毫不关心夫妻间的幸福
Mostly when we want to do something
大多数情况下 当我们想做某件事时
we take advice if we can from people who’ve done it before.
我们会听取过来人的经验
Gretna Green stands for a remarkable shift
格雷特纳格林标志着人们对
in thinking around relationships
恋爱关系的看法有重大转变
which is still powerful today
且影响至今
The assumption that people who have already had marriages
人们认为已婚人士可能并不能
are likely to be very poor advisors and guides to the young.
为年轻人提供很好的爱情建议和指导
Love is understood to be an enthusiasm, not a skill.
爱应当是一种热忱 而不是技巧
London, England, 1813
英国 伦敦 1813年
Readers of Jane Austen’s latest novel are on the edge of their seats.
简·奥斯汀最新小说的书迷们正兴奋不已
As Fitzwilliam Darcy stumbled his way through
因为书中菲茨威廉·达西终于艰难地
proposal to Elizabeth Bennet.
向伊丽莎白·班纳特求婚了
His offer of marriage promises to fix all her problems,
他的求婚承诺能解决她所有的问题
not only he is handsome but he’s rich
这个男人帅气又富有
and Elizabeth family with four unmarried daughters to support,
而且伊丽莎白家有四个未婚女儿要养活
badly needs all the cash they can get.
急需达西给出的这笔礼金
But Elizabeth says no.
但伊丽莎白拒绝了
Darcy for all his gifts is also arrogant and a snob.
达西虽有天赋 但也傲慢自大和势利
Pride and Prejudice may suggest
《傲慢与偏见》可能暗示着
women marry for money,
女性会为钱而结婚
but Elizabeth actions reveal
但伊丽莎白的行为揭示了
a new and subversive belief
一种新的颠覆性的信仰
rapidly gaining currency in English society,
该信仰随即在英国社会迅速流行起来
that they should love the man they betroth themselves to.
即女人应该与所爱之人订婚
It’s an idea Austin support strongly.
这也是奥斯汀强烈支持的观点
11 years earlier, she had herself rejected a proposal of marriage,
11年前 她也曾拒绝过一次求婚
claiming “anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without affection”
并宣称“什么都可将就 除了无爱的婚姻”
In her greatest novel however, things turn out for the best.
然而她的这本杰作依然描绘了一个美好结局
Eventually after many twists and turns,
最终在经历了许多波折之后
and despite her lack of standing and money,
尽管伊丽莎白没有地位和金钱
Elizabeth and Darcy marry.
她还是和达西结婚了
What continues to strike readers today
时至今日 仍让读者印象深刻的
is that Jane Austen is deeply concerned about romance and about money.
是简·奥斯汀对爱和金钱的深切思考
To marry only for money is she argues a disaster
她认为只为钱而结婚会是一场灾难
but equally she holds that to marry only for love is a terrible folly, too.
但同样地 只为爱而结婚也是极其愚蠢的
In Austin’s eyes,
在奥斯汀看来
a good marriage requires warmth and tenderness of heart
美好的婚姻需要发自内心的温暖和柔情
and a strong, practical worldly managerial competence.
且要具有强大的实际生活管理能力
And from this, Austin draws the conclusion
奥斯汀由此得出结论
that few people are actually that well suited for marriage.
很少有人真正适合婚姻
She’s unsurprised that many marriages are a little hollow or a little grim.
她并不讶异很多婚姻都有点空虚或残酷
Austen’s novels to pick numerous unsatisfactory relationships
奥斯汀的小说描绘了许多不完美的感情关系
and only a few very happy ones.
只有少数是完美结局
In the early years of the 19th century
在19世纪早期
Jane Austen is defining the wise ideal of modern love,
简·奥斯汀定义了现代爱情的理想模式
she sees marriage as a hybrid enterprise.
她认为婚姻是一种合营企业
In some respects, it’s like running a small business
在某些方面 这就像经营一家小公司
or organizing a village fete.
或举办一场乡村庆典
If you don’t keep track of the practical details
如果你不掌握具体的细节
and don’t have quite an efficient turn for administration
没有一个很有效的管理方法
things are going to go badly wrong.
事情将会变得非常糟糕
But at the same time
但同时
marriage is a profoundly complex emotional encounter.
婚姻是一种极其复杂的情感邂逅
And to thrive in it, one needs emotional maturity,
要想其茁壮成长 你需要情绪成熟
affection, playfulness and warmth.
关爱 嬉闹和温暖
Through her novels, Jane Austen is trying to
简·奥斯汀试图通过小说
present the reader with an education,
以纯粹古典的方式
in a truly classical way,
教给读者们一个道理
she believes we can do a few things well
她认为 如果我们把一切交给
if we leave our performance to nature, luck and chance.
天意 运气和巧合的话 那我们很少会把事情做好
Happy relationship depends on the maturity of both parties.
幸福的关系取决于双方的成熟
In Pride and Prejudice,
在《傲慢和偏见》里
both Elizabeth Bennet and Darcy have to be improved.
伊丽莎白·本纳特和达西都需要变得更好
He has to lose his pride and she has to shed her prejudice
达西必须丢掉骄傲 而伊丽莎白则要摆脱偏见
if they’re to be capable of living well together.
这样他们才能好好生活在一起
Love is something we need to learn.
爱是需要学习的
London, 24th of November 1859
1859年11月24日 伦敦
It’s the day Charles Darwin publishes 这是查尔斯·达尔文发表《物种起源》的那天
There is a huge initial resistance
一开始该书遭到了强烈抵制
but eventually much of the world is convinced by his arguments.
但最终大部分人都被他的论证说服
Human beings are descended from the primates
人类是灵长类动物的后代
and that means that we’ve inherited not just a skeletal structure
这意味着我们不仅继承了灵长类的骨骼结构
but also a lot of their drives and basic psychology.
还继承了它们的欲望和基本心理
Darwin’s detractors are aghast at the implied humiliation
达尔文的诋毁者们对这种含蓄的羞辱感到震惊
but that’s consolation in Darwin too.
但达尔文却视作为一种慰藉
Because he suggests that our inability to live up to our ideals
因为他认为我们无法实现自己的理想
is not wholly our own fault.
并不完全是我们自己的错
We are anytime half apes.
毕竟我们只是个半猿
And for apes to aim for
而要猿类去维系一段
faithful, lifelong, passionate, egalitarians relationships
忠诚 终身 激情和平等的感情关系
is to attempt to pull off something hugely difficult,
简直就是在非常不乐观的前提下
starting from a very unpromising base.
去完成极其困难的事情
No wonder we often fail.
也难怪我们经常失败
Without particularly intending to,
达尔文并没有特别的意图
Darwin ushers in a strategic and
而是传达了一种关于情感关系的
useful pessimism about relationships.
战略性悲观主义观点
Rather than being for instance essentially monogamous,
他表示人类本质上并不是一夫一妻制
he implies that human beings might by nature at least be predisposed to,
而可能天性上 至少会倾向于许多半猿类那样
as many apes are polygamy opportunistic sex,
具有一夫多妻的机会主义性行为
and the dumping of one mate for another
抛弃旧爱寻新欢的理由
on the basis of nothing more than a breeding potential
只不过是基于繁殖本能
signal by such an edifying and spiritual characteristics
求爱信号也十分具有启迪性和灵性特征
is how big their breasts are.
即寻求胸大的当老婆
Aquatic park, San Francisco, United States, August 1965
水上公园 旧金山 美国 1965年8月
Jefferson Poland, wearing a flower behind his ear,
杰斐•逊波兰 耳上戴着一朵黄花
strips off his swimming trunks and waves naked into the sea.
脱下泳裤 赤身裸体地走向海中
Poland is one of the world’s first hippies.
波兰是世界上最早的嬉皮士之一
He wears his hair long and rejects the sophistication of modern life
他留着长发 拒绝现代社会的复杂生活
for a romantic notion of getting back to a natural state of grace.
而以一种浪漫情怀回归优雅的自然状态
Behind him and three other protesters braving the icy cold ocean water
他和其他三名抗议者裸身走入冰冷的海水
is a cheering crowd of beatniks and anarchists
身后是一群欢呼着的无政府主义披头士族
who hold up signs and chant the phrase
正举着标语并高喊着
“sex is clean, law is obscene”
“性是纯净的 法律是淫秽的”
in front of the hastily assembled group of reporters.
人群后则是匆忙聚集的记者们
This event is one of many organized by groups
此次抗议是20世纪60年代
advocating free love in the 1960s in America.
美国许多倡导自由恋爱的团体组织的活动之一
They argue that society’s rules against nudity, same-sex relationships
他们反对社会对裸体 同性关系
and sex before marriage, or all forms of sexual repression.
婚前性行为以及各种压抑性的规定
Soon monogamy itself is being questioned.
一夫一妻制也很快受到质疑
And in an enlightened world, they argue
他们辩称 在一个开明的世界里
sexually liberated men and women should just give up on marriage
性解放的男人和女人应该放弃婚姻
and along with it jealousy, adultery and divorce.
同时不应嫉妒 出轨和离婚
It’s a beautiful, deeply romantic idea of what love could be
这是一个关于爱的美好而又浪漫的想法
and it eventually collapses into a disaster.
但最终却变成了一场灾难
Belgium, 2015
比利时 2015年
The country achieved a notorious distinction.
该国有着一个不那么光荣的名誉
It is the nation with the highest rate of divorce in the developed world.
它是发达国家中离婚率最高的国家
An astonishing 71 percent of couples will split up here.
令人震惊的是其离婚率高达71%
A newspaper in the country asks why and the answer comes back clearly.
比利时有家报社想调查原因 其实答案很清楚
Initial expectations were not met.
婚前期望得不到满足
Other countries are not far behind.
其他国家也不甘落后
In the UK, the divorce rate is 42 percent; in the US, 53 percent.
英国离婚率是42% 美国为53%
In Hungary 67 percent and in Portugal 68 percent.
匈牙利为67% 葡萄牙为68%
Part of the reason lies in the disappointment people feel
部分原因在于人们对爱的失落感
with what had apparently been promised to them by the freewheeling 1960s
失望于20世纪60年代宣扬的自由主义
and before that by 19th century romanticism.
和失望于20世纪之前的浪漫主义
The dream of love survives but it disappoints constantly.
人对爱的幻想一直存在 但它总令人失望
At dinner tables around the world
在世界各地的餐桌上
otherwise intelligent people complain that they simply can’t understand
即使是聪明人 也在抱怨无法理解
the strange and tricky subject of love.
爱情这个古怪而又棘手的话题
The future hope for love lies in the notion of sacrifice.
爱情未来的希望在于牺牲
That is in accepting that we won’t get everything we want
也就是说 在爱 情感关系和婚姻中
from love, relationships or marriage.
我们要接受无法得到所有
We’re trying to do something highly ambitious
我们试图在现代理想的关系中
in our modern ideals of relationships.
做一些雄心勃勃的事
Unite sex, affection, the raising of a family,
我们想完美整合性 感情 家庭抚养
a career and adequate material security.
事业和足够的物质保障
We will by necessity failed to get all of these.
但我们必然不能兼顾
The idea of sacrifice though, helps us if we considered
学会牺牲 可帮助我们得到一半
getting half of what we really want and need
真正想要和需要的东西
might still be quite a lot, in comparison with what it would be like
相较于如果我们回避爱情关系的情况下
if we avoided relationships altogether.
得到的这一半或许已经很足够了
Clearly, solitary life can work out really well for a few people
的确 独居生活对少数人来说是很好的
but mostly, we hate living alone.
但我们大部分都是讨厌孤独的
The question should not be
问题不在于
so much whether relationships live up to our ideal hopes of mutual happiness,
情感关系是否符合我们对彼此幸福的理想期望
but whether they are better if only a little
而在于 哪怕只有一点爱
than not having relationships at all.
有总比没有好
The future of love needs us to get interested in ambivalence
未来的爱情需要我们关注其矛盾性
that is in the capacity to keep on thinking
也就是 我们仍要继续相信
that something is quite good,
爱情是十分美好的
even while we’re painfully conscious of
即使每天我们都会痛苦地感受到
its many and striking day-to-day imperfections.
爱的不完美之处

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译制信息
视频概述

人类的爱情具有悠久的历史,每个时代对爱的理解和方式都有所不同。婚姻和爱情究竟是怎么的关系,爱对于人类来说又是什么,我们要如何学习爱情,让我们来回顾历史进行解答。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lancy

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fK2IJ43ppd0

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