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约会的历史 – 译学馆
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约会的历史

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Dating

当代的约会习惯让人感觉是一种天生就存在的事物
Our present dating habits can feel like a natural part of existence,
但是在现实生活中 约会的历史其实很短
but in reality, they’ve only been around for a very short time
并且我们预测 约会不会以其现有的形式持续存在多久
and we predict, won’t continue for too much longer in their current form.
当我们试图理清约会这一习俗中的看似自相矛盾 并且常令人困惑的重点时
Dating has a history, which it pays to try to understand
就会发现努力去理解约会的历史是值得的
as we navigate the ritual’s paradoxicaland often confusing priorities.
让我们有选择性地来回顾一下过去
Let’s take a selective look backwards
同时展望约会这一活动的历史和未来
as well as a peak forwards at the history and future of dating
1489年3月27日 在西班牙麦地那市
27 March 1489, Medina del Campo, Spain
英国与西班牙签订了一个条约
Spain In a treatise signed between England
令都铎王朝两岁的王子亚瑟
and Spain, the two-year-old Tudor
与亚拉贡的凯瑟琳订下婚约
prince Arthur is formally engaged to Catherine of Aragon
那时凯瑟琳只有三岁大
– who is at that point three years old.
在前现代时期
It’s an extreme example of what is an entirely normal practice all over the world
这是一种在全世界范围内都非常正常的行为
in the pre-modern era:
婚姻是家族间的一种战略交易
relationships are strategic transactions between families.
夫妇这两人本身的想法是无关紧要的
where the feelings of the couple themselves are of no importance whatsoever.
一个人如果认为自己可以爱上自己最终的伴侣
The idea that you might love,
如果那个人不是众所周知的怪人
let alone be physically attracted to,
都会被当成不负责的人
the person you end up with would be deemed profoundly irresponsible,
更不用说身体上的吸引了
if not plain peculiar.
1761年7月 荷兰 阿姆斯特丹
July 1761, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
法国浪漫主义哲学家简·雅客的小说《朱莉》出版
The publication of Julie, a novel by the French Romantic philosopher
并成为有史以来最为畅销的书籍
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, which becomes the fastest selling book ever written.
这本小说讲述了朱莉的故事
The novel tells the story of Julie,
她年轻漂亮 出身贵族
a beautiful young woman from an aristocratic family who is expected
家人希望她可以嫁给一个门当户对的人
to marry someone of her standing
但出人意料的是
–but, contrary to all the rules, falls in love
她与自己的初中老师圣·布莱由斯相爱了
with her middle-class teacher, Saint-Preux.
但是因为社会地位的差异
However, they cannot get married because of the differences
他们无法结婚
in their social status.
卢梭支持这对不幸的情侣
Rousseau is on the side of the unhappy couple – and his novel
他的小说就是对这一观点的首要论述
is the first major statement of the idea
他认为 婚姻本来就该是
that relationships should essentially be founded
以彼此之间的情感为基础
on the feelings that exist between people,
与阶级 血统以及家庭利益无关
and have nothing to do with class, lineage or family concerns.
但在那时
But as yet,
卢梭和他的小说并没有改变当时的社会秩序
Rousseau and his novel see no way of upturning the social order:
婚姻依旧必须依照父母之命媒妁之言
you still marry who your parents and society tell you,
但是至少
but now at least,
在卢梭的帮助下 人们开始在被包办婚姻时感觉到十分遗憾
with Rousseau’s help, you can feel very sorrythat you have to.
1855年3月 意大利 罗马
March 1855, Rome, Italy
在19世纪意大利的主流小说界
In the major Italian novel of the 19th century,
Federico di Roberto著作《I Viceré》中的两个角色
I Viceré by Federico di Roberto, two characters,
卢克雷齐娅和贝尔德托相爱了
Lucrezia and Benedetto, are in love
但是他们不能结婚
but can’t marry because Lucrezia’s mother refuses to give her permission
卢克雷齐娅的妈妈以社会规范为由拒绝了他们的请求
on the grounds of social propriety.
关键的是 这位母亲守旧老套而且思想狭隘
Crucially, the mother is shown to be old-fashioned and narrow-minded;
这位小说家表示 基于所谓‘理性’而结合的情侣
couples formed by ‘ reason’are, the novelist suggests,
远远没有因爱情而结合的情侣幸福
a lot less happy than those guided by instinct.
这本书有着热烈的浪漫主义设想
The book works with the growing Romantic assumption
认为婚姻应基于感情
that relationships should be based on sentiment and
认为找到一个能和我们愉快地共度余生的人的最好机会
that the best chances of finding someone we can get on well
不是看他们做什么工作
with over a lifetime is not to find out what their job is or whether
或者去看他们是否来自优质的家庭
they come from a good family,
而是要看
but whether we experience an overwhelming physical and
我们是否会因他们的存在而感到身心上的双重着迷
emotional attraction in their presence.
婚姻必须是情感奉献下的神圣结合
Marriage must be a union consecrated by feeling.
1892年 英国伦敦
1892 London England
这一年最成功的喜剧演出 是查理的姑妈
The most successful comic play of the year – Charley’s Aunt –
讲的是查理邀请凯蒂共进午餐
turns on the fact that Charley has invited Kitty to lunch
但是 在约定前的最后几分钟
on a date but, at the last minute,
他发现姑妈不能来和他们一起吃饭了
learns that his aunt won’t be able to join them.
这引起了两人的惊慌
This creates a panic because
因为当时情侣约会需要有个监督人陪同
a dating couple should have a chaperone,
这个监督人得是一位年长的女性
an older woman whose presence will ensure that
她的存在可以确保情侣间不会有亲密的言语与行为
nothing very intimate can be said or done.
查理想了一个解决办法
Charley’ssolution is to get a male friend to
就是让他的一位男性朋友穿上裙子 模仿他的姑妈
put on a dress and impersonate his relative.
这出戏营造的搞笑氛围表明
The comedic atmosphere of the play suggests that
关于约会的老规矩已经开始过时了
the old rules around dating are firmly on their way out
并且大家认为已经有腐朽的霉臭味了
and are accepted as having some of the fustiness of a maiden aunt.
观众们也认为
The audience is meant to agree
只有在情侣两人不受干涉时
that dating is for the best
约会才能发挥最佳作用
when couples are left on their own to discover how they feel;
如果一切顺利 约会结束时 两人甚至可以接一次吻
there should even be a kiss at the end if things go swimmingly.
1914年 在英国伊斯特本
1914 Eastbourne England
年轻的乔治·奥威尔在学校惹上了麻烦
The young George Orwell gets into trouble at school when he is caught
因为他在读康普顿·麦肯齐所著的《年轻的邂逅》时被抓到了
reading Youth’s Encounter by Compton Mackenzie:
这是在英国出版的
the first novel published in England that
第一部描写青少年在无人监督的情况下约会的书籍
describes unsupervised adolescent dating.
我们开始逐步突破奇怪的纯洁亲吻
We’re starting to move beyond the odd chaste kiss:
约会也开始与性相关了
dating starts to be about sex as well.
1960年6月23日 美国华盛顿
June 23, 1960, Washington DC, USA
美国联邦食品和药物管理局批准发售了首个女性口服避孕药
The US Food and Drug Administration approves the firstoral female contraceptive pill.
现在有一种
The idea that
认为约会可以愉快地 自然地导向性行为的看法
a date can happily and uncomplicatedly lead to
而不仅是在情感上发展
sex becomes not only an emotional but now
还在实际上成为了可能
also a practical possibility.
1988年 在洛杉矶诞生的闪电约会
Los Angeles,1998 Speed dating is invented and the romantic
以及浪漫喜剧《电子情书》
comedy You’ve Got Mail
第一部以网上约会为主题的电影
– the first major film based around online dating – is released.
都鼓励了一种想法
Both encourage the idea
那就是在广泛的搜寻之后再选择一位合适的伴侣很重要
that it’s important to search very widely before selecting a possible partner.
到目前为止 现代约会定义下需要包含的元素终于都到位了
By now all the elements of moderndating are finally in place: firstly, parents
第一 父母无权干涉
have nothing to do with it; secondly,
第二 认为所有对金钱和社会地位的考虑
all considerations of money and social status
都“不浪漫” 无足轻重
are deemed ‘ un-Romantic’and unimportant; thirdly,
第三 你应该能在情感上迅速地被某人吸引
you are meant to be swiftly emotionally
这样才能保证从长远来看
drawn to someone in order
你俩的这段关系可以合法可行
for a relationship to be deemed legitimate and viable in the
第四
long term; fourthly,
性被理解为是了解一个人的核心环节
sex is interpreted as a central part of getting to know someone
最后 在你和现代约会情境中的典型角色
– and lastly, you’re meant to have a lot of dates
即你的“唯一” 修成正果之前
and possibly meet quite a few horrors on the way
应该先大量的约会 在这一过程中很可能会遇到几个渣男或渣女
before finally and happily settling down with that archetypal figure of the modern dating scene: The One.
2009年3月 位于比利时首都布鲁塞尔的欧盟公开了一份报告
March 2009 Brussels BelgiumThe European Union releases a report
报告显示 欧盟所有国家中50%的已婚人士
that reveals that 50 % of married couples in countries
会在结婚15年后离婚
across the union end up divorced after fifteen years.
报道引出了一个问题
the report quietly raises
到底情感本能是否能够
the question of whether instinct is really
比过去的那些老式的社会规矩
any better guide to a good conjugal life than
带来更好的婚姻生活
the old parental or societal rules used to be
同时也在暗示
– as well as hinting at
当两人在一起时产生的强烈的身心幸福感
how much more miserable we can end up being
被当做婚姻的唯一正当理据
when the sole justification for relationships is understood to be
我们最后会变得多么痛苦
the intense emotional and sexual happiness of the two participants.
新加坡 2075年5月 人工智能终于实现了
Singapore May, 2075 Artificial Intelligence has finally arrived,
人类的天性终于被研究清楚了
human nature has at last accurately
同时我们所熟知的约会也消失了
been understood – and dating as we know it, dies.
现在机器会迅速地帮我们做出最优选择
Machines now swiftly find for us the optimal choice
为我们找出可以共度一生的理想伴侣
of partner for a lifetime together.
它们知道谁单身 知道谁有什么样的怪癖
They know who is available, what our quirks are,
谁最会取悦他们
and who out there can best compliment them.
并且 浪漫主义时期关于约会的繁文缛节都消失了
All the rigmarole of dating in the Romantic era is done away with:
我们恋爱不必再靠运气和偶然
we no longer have to rely on chance or random encounters
不必再去苦恼自己找到的是不是‘对的人’
we no longer have to wonder whether we have found the ‘ right’person
我们现在有多信任医生 就有多信任这种机器
a machine that we trust as much as we now trust doctors,
它会告诉我们什么时候可以遇到命中注定的那个人
tells us when we have located our destiny
情侣们虽然不会总是处在幸福的狂喜中
Couples are not always deliriously happy,
但是一切顺利的话
but they at least have the satisfaction of knowing
他们至少会产生一种满足感
that they are with the person they should,
因为知道自己正和那个对的人在一起
all things being equal, be with.
在当时的1489年
Way back in 1489,
亚瑟王子和亚拉贡的凯瑟琳别无选择
there wasn’t any choice for Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon
不过我们也没得选择
now there is no choice either,
因为在2075年
but in 2075, it is a psychological machine
是心理机器决定了我们的选择
that has determined the choice for us.
偶尔 人们也会怀念过去 好奇那些旧式的
Occasionally, people get a littlenostalgic and curious about the old-fashioned,
充满偶然的 有时还有些刺激的浪漫约会方式是什么样的
rather haphazard and sometimes thrilling Romantic way of dating.
他们中一些人也许会盛装
Some of them might dress up
重现这种仪式
and recreate the ritual,
就和现在的人们在周末找乐子
like people who nowadays have fun on weekends trying out
去尝试划旧船 住帐篷是什么感觉一样
what it was like to row in a long-boat or live in a wigwam
所有这些都应当让我们对
All of which should give us a humbling sense
当代独特而复杂的约会方式有一个谦卑的认识
of how particular and complicated contemporarydating truly is.
在一场沉闷而模棱两可的约会之后
We shouldn’t blame ourselves if
我们不应该为感觉自己需要一些指导
at the end of yet another barren or ambiguous date,
而责怪自己
we feel in need of a little guidance.
如果你想了解更多关于爱情的知识
If you want to learn more about love, try our cards that
可以尝试一下我们的卡片 它可以帮你解答最本质的问题
help answer that essensial question,
“我应该和什么人在一起?”
“who should i be with?”

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视频概述

现代人对约会这一概念已经习以为常,但是它的存在并不长,每个历史时期,每个国家的约会礼仪与习惯都不尽相同。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

__DenniChoi🌸

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ob14PcHtazQ

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