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思想的历史 - 资本主义

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Capitalism

历史
资本主义
Today, pretty much every economy in the world
当今 几乎世界上的所有经济体
is organized along capitalist lines,
都是按照资本主义模式建立起来的
but at the same time, capitalism is almost everywhere
但与此同时 几乎在所有地方
regarded with disappointment, frustration and suspicion.
人们对资本主义的态度都是失望 沮丧 怀疑的
Interestingly, none of the criticisms are new.
有意思的是 这些批评都不是最近才出现的
They’ve been dogging capitalism since its inception.
资本主义出现后一直受到这样的批评
So let’s look back in time
我们来回顾历史
to figure out how capitalism got its bad name
探寻资本主义的坏名声是怎么来的
and what might be done to improve it.
我们能做点什么来挽救一下
Padua, Italy, 1304.
帕度亚 意大利 1304年
On the wall of a church in Padua near Venice,
在威尼斯附近的帕多瓦 有一座教堂
the painter Giotto makes a fresco:
画家乔托在教堂的墙壁上画了幅壁画:
Jesus and the Money Lenders.
《耶稣与放贷人》
It restates for his own times an idea
在他的时代 这幅画所重申的观念
that had by then already been well established for centuries in the West:
在西方已经流传了好几个世纪:
the notion that a good spiritual life
美好的精神生活
and the pursuit of business and money
与做生意 追求财富
are sworn enemies.
是完全相悖的
Jesus goes to the temple in Jerusalem,
耶稣来到耶路撒冷的一座圣殿
sees merchants and small-time bankers crowding the forecourt and gets furious.
看到前院里全是商人和小银行老板时 勃然大怒
This sacred place is not a fitting arena
这个神圣的地方不适合
for the polluting activities of buying and selling.
做买卖这种乌烟瘴气的事
The Christian attack on the immorality of money is deeply influential
基督教抨击金钱是不道德的 这一观念影响广泛
and severely holds back the development of capitalism for centuries.
也使资本主义在好几个世纪里没能得到发展
Venice, 1450.
威尼斯 1450年
A Franciscan friar, Luca Pacioli,
圣方济各会教士Luca Pacioli
publishes the first ever book on accounting:
出版了第一本关于财务的书:
Summa de arithmetica.
《算术书》
It’s the single most important capitalist invention
在股份有限公司和现代工厂出现前
until the birth of the joint stock company and the modern factory.
这是资本主义最重要的一项发明
In the book Pacioli introduces the principle of double-entry bookkeeping
在书中 Pacioli提出了复式记账原则
which gradually become standard practice in all companies.
该原则逐渐成为所有公司通用的记账方法
Pacioli’s textbook proposes that
Pacioli在这本教科书中指出
dealing well with money doesn’t depend on fate anymore.
我们不再需要依靠命运来处理钱财
Money isn’t a divine punishment or reward;
钱不是上帝的惩罚或奖赏
it’s a kind of science
而是一门科学
that can be learnt through patience, reason and hard work.
你只要有耐心 有理性 够努力就能学会
Geneva, 1555.
日内瓦 1555年
In powerful sermons to his congregations in Geneva,
新教神学家约翰·加尔文的布道影响广泛
the Protestant theologian John Calvin emphasizes to his Swiss audiences
他在日内瓦向瑞士教徒们强调
the importance of what have become known as the Protestant virtues:
这些美德(后称为新教美德)是很重要的:
hard work, self-denial, patience, honesty and duty.
勤奋克己 耐心诚信 有责任感
These will turn out to be extremely
后来人们发现 这些美德
useful qualities for capitalism.
在发展资本主义时能派上很大的用场
Calvin along with many other preachers who share his outlook
加尔文和其他很多志同道合的传教士
explains that you must never indulge yourself
解释道 你不能纵容自己
not spend money having a lavish life.
不能恣意挥霍
You must simply put any surplus income
你得把所有剩余的钱
back into your business as an investment.
再投资到自己的生意里
Calvin adds that being good at business is far more pleasing in the sight of God
加尔文还说 比起做贵族武士或是僧侣
than being an aristocratic warrior or even a monk.
上帝更希望你能善于经商
Perhaps more than technology,
或许不是科技进步
it’s this new mindset that will accelerate the progress of capitalism.
而是这个新思想加速了资本主义的发展
1670, Delft, Dutch Republic.
1670年 代夫尔特 荷兰共和国
The newly independent Dutch Republic
新生的独立荷兰共和国
is the world’s first explicitly capitalist nation
是世界上第一个资本主义国家
where lazy aristocrats are looked down upon
在这里 人们看不起懒散的贵族
and hard-working merchants revered.
崇敬勤奋上进的商人
In the churches, Protestant sermons about thrift and hard work are heard.
在教堂里 新教的布道会宣扬节俭和勤奋
In the arts outgo glorifications of kings and queens.
艺术作品不再呈现国王和皇后的荣光
Johannes Vermeer finishes painting The Lacemaker,
约翰内斯·维米尔完成了画作《花边女工》
a depiction of the intricate careful and
这幅画呈现出做花边这一朴素的工作
homely tasks of manufacturing lace.
也是很复杂的 需要耐心细致地去做
In his painting The Little Street,
他的画作《小巷》
the suggestion is that living peacefully and quietly in your own home running a business
向我们表达了平和地待在家里做点生意
is far more glamorous and noble than fighting in a war or going to a monastery.
比打仗或是修行要光荣高贵得多
1776. 141, the Strand, London.
1776年 斯特兰德大街141号 伦敦
These are the offices and shops of Strain & Cable,
Strain & Cable的办公室与店铺坐落于此
publishers who have a big success with a new book:
这是一家出版商 靠着一本新书大赚了一笔
an inquiry into the nature and causes of The Wealth of Nations
即《国民财富的性质和原因的研究》(《国富论》)
written by a Scottish philosopher called Adam Smith.
作者是苏格兰哲学家亚当·斯密
Smith demystifies wealth creation
斯密通过解释资本主义经济的发展模式
by explaining how capitalist economies grow.
揭秘了创造财富的方式
He reaches several important conclusions.
他得出了一些很重要的结论
Slavery is remarkably inefficient.
比如 奴隶制十分低效
Violence is less of an incentive than money for a worker
对工人来说 比起暴力 钱能让他们更有动力
and the cost of buying and maintaining slaves far exceeds the cost of wages.
而买奴 蓄奴的成本比发放工资高太多
Capitalists will make far more money by treating their workers
资本家如果遵循法律 人性化地对待工人
legally and humanely.
能赚更多的钱
It’s by specializing that economies grow, says Smith.
斯密说 专业化生产能促进经济发展
Smith focuses on the pin making industry
他观察钢钉制造业
and concludes that while one worker could make up to 20 pins a day,
得出结论 一位工人一天能做20枚钢钉
a team of 10 workers well arranged
以组织好的10位工人为一组
could make not 200 but 48,000 pins,
一天不会只制造200枚 而能制造48000枚钢钉
thanks to what Smith terms the Division of Labour.
这得益于亚当·斯密所说的“劳动分工”
Smith also tells us that capitalism is guided by an invisible hand.
斯密还告诉我们资本主义背后有一只看不见的手
By maximizing one’s own profit,
一个人在追求利益最大化时
individuals inadvertently benefit society
会在无意间造福社会
providing goods that people want and need.
为人们提供想要和需要的东西
As Smith puts it: “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher,
斯密说:“我们能吃上晚饭
the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner,
靠的不是屠夫 酿酒工人或是面包师心怀善意
but from their regard to their own self-interest.”
靠的是他们对自身利益的追求”
These ideas further remove the moral suspicion that once surrounds capitalism.
这些思想进一步消除了人们对资本主义的道德顾虑
But not all will be won over.
但局势不会一边倒
1854, London.
1854年 伦敦
The British economy is now the largest in the world
英国在这时候是世界上最大的经济体
thanks to its enormous industries of cotton, shipbuilding, steel and coal.
这得益于英国庞大的棉花 造船 钢铁与煤炭工业
Vast cities have chewed up the countryside of the Midlands and northern England.
庞大的城市蚕食了英格兰中部和北部乡村
Merchants and the newly rich capitalist class have triumphed.
商人和新兴的富有资本主义阶层大获全胜
But many are furious.
但也有很多人对此充满愤怒
Charles Dickens, one of Victoria England’s
维多利亚时代英国的查尔斯·狄更斯
most passionate critics of unrestrained capitalism
愤恨地对脱缰的资本主义进行批判
publishes a novel: Hard Times.
他出版了一本小说:《艰难时世》
Set in the fictional town of Coketown, a version of Manchester,
小说设定在虚构的焦煤镇 以曼彻斯特为原型
it takes aim at heartless capitalists like Mr. Gradgrind
将矛头对准葛莱恩这样的冷漠资本家
who abuse their workers, exploit young children in mines and chimneys
他们虐待工人 让童工在矿厂和窄缝里受剥削
and use their relentless capitalist logic
然后用他们无情的资本主义逻辑
to blind them to their desecration of nature and human life.
亵渎人类生命和自然 还对此孰若无睹
Here is Dickens’ writing on Coketown:
狄更斯对焦煤镇的描述如下:
“It was a town of red brick, or a brick that would have been red
“镇上都是红砖房 如果不是因为有烟尘的话
if the smoke and ashes had allowed it;
这些砖应该会是红色的
but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black
但眼下焦煤镇看上去是不自然的红黑色
like the painted face of a savage.”
像是野蛮人涂花的脸”
Dickens argues that capitalism is evil
狄更斯认为资本主义是邪恶的
because it encourages appalling conditions for the producers.
因为它鼓励资本家为生产者提供低劣的条件
Under the sway of capitalist logic
在资本主义逻辑的蛊惑下
otherwise quite nice people will keep coming up with reasons
那些本来很善良的人总能找到借口
why it’s okay to employ a child in a factory
心安理得地给工厂雇童工
or to let poor people starve once they’ve reached the end of their working lives.
或是在穷人做不了工之后任由他们饿死
1860, London.
1860年 伦敦
The English reformer John Ruskin publishes Unto This Last,
英国改革家约翰·拉斯金出版了《给后来者言》
a furious track against capitalism that takes aim
愤怒的他对资本主义进行了一系列反思
not so much at the production side of capitalism
就资本主义而言 他关注的不是生产
as the area of consumption.
而是消费
Like Dickens, Ruskin is incensed that
和狄更斯一样 拉斯金也充满愤怒
people are being exploited and the environment ruined.
因为人们受到剥削 环境遭到破坏
But he asks a further question:
但他进一步提出:
In the name of what?
这么做都是为了什么?
Ruskin notes that large capitalist fortunes
拉斯金指出 买卖荒唐可笑的东西
are built up on selling people absurd things:
使得资本家积攒了大量财富:
knick-knacks, fancy plates, embroidered napkins, bonnets, carved sideboards.
小摆设 花哨的盘子 刺绣餐巾 软帽 花式橱柜
The whole of the suffering of the cotton factories of Manchester
工人们在曼彻斯特的棉纺织厂里受苦受难
are being fed by our appetite for very cheap shirts with delicate collars.
只因为我们想得到有精巧花领的廉价衬衫
We are ruining our lives for trinkets,
就为了一些小饰物 我们毁了自己的生活
whereas for Ruskin, money shouldn’t only be made morally,
而拉斯金觉得 不仅是赚钱要遵循道德
it should be spent morally
用钱也要遵循道德
on the truly noble and beautiful things that humans need.
要把钱花在真正有用 高质量 美丽的东西上
He contrast the beauty of Venice with the ugliness of modern Britain
他将美丽的威尼斯与丑陋的近代英国进行对比
to make his point.
以证明他的观点
Berlin, 1963.
柏林 1963年
The leader of communist East Germany, Walter Ulbricht
东德共产党领袖Walter Ulbricht
launches an ambitious new scheme:
提出了一个宏伟的新体系:
the Neues Ökonomische System or NÖS.
新经济体系
It aims to solve for East Germans
他认为资本主义有两大问题
the two major failings of capitalism in his eyes.
而新经济体系的目标就是解决这两大问题
One: It will guarantee workers good conditions
一 保证工人有良好的工作条件
with a huge expansion in the state schools, housing blocks and holiday camps.
多建公立学校 住宅区以及度假营
And secondly: It will focus not on the fripperies of capitalist production
二 不集中产出资本主义中那些俗气的东西
like blue jeans and pop music;
比如蓝色牛仔裤和流行乐
it will give people the works of Plato and Marx
而向人们分享柏拉图和马克思的著作
and uplifting television programs about track to production.
以及鼓舞人心的种地节目
1976, Dresden, East Germany.
1976年 德勒斯登 东德
The fatal flaws of communism come to a head in January
一月 共产主义的致命缺陷全然暴露
with a massive riot about the unavailability of coffee.
出现了大规模暴乱 原因是买不到咖啡
East Germans love drinking coffee
东德人很喜欢喝咖啡
but a huge rise in global prices means that
但全球咖啡价格上涨
the German Democratic Republic can no longer afford
德意志民主共和国不再能够负担
to import it in the necessary quantities.
进口足量的咖啡
The Politburo decides to remove all coffee from shops
中央政治局决定在商店下架所有咖啡
and replaces it with “mich Kaffee”, mix coffee
以“混合咖啡”作为替代品
which is 51 percent coffee and 49 percent a range of fillers
这里面只有51%是咖啡 剩下49%是各种填料
including chicory, rye and sugar beet.
包括菊苣 黑麦和甜菜
Dissatisfaction with this eventually has to be quelled with the use the Stasi or secret police.
最后史塔西(秘密警察)镇压了不满的群众
It’s an inadvertent tribute to capitalism
资本主义无意中呈现了一大优势
which is especially good at providing us with life’s little luxuries.
它很善于向我们提供一些生活中的小奢侈品
Edeka hypermarket near Hamburg, November, 1989.
汉堡附近的艾德卡特大超市 1989年11月
East Germans who have recently breached the wall
刚跨越柏林墙的东德人
head straight for West German supermarkets like Edeka near Hamburg.
径直奔向西德的超市 比如汉堡附近的艾德卡
They marvel at the productive capacities of capitalism
他们惊叹于资本主义的生产与供货能力
and the ability that it has to provide such modest but very important things
它能提供这么些不起眼但不可或缺的货物
as olive oil, party hats, ice buns and coffee.
比如橄榄油 派对帽 冰激淋面包 还有咖啡
The old East German elite who had believed that
那些老东德精英觉得
the people could be satisfied with philosophy, athletics,
人们会满足于哲学 运动
sauerkraut and TV programs about farming
泡菜 还有关于种地的电视节目
are hounded out of office.
然后就全都下台了
1999, Seattle, USA.
1999年 西雅图 美国
The World Trade Organization,
世贸组织
a capitalist body
一个资本主义组织
dedicated to removing protection from industry and liberalizing markets
旨在移除行业保护 实现市场自由化
gets together for its next round of talks,
组织成员聚集在一起开启下一轮谈话
10 years since the fall of communism
这时候苏共解体已近10年
and after a decade of unprecedented economic growth.
经济也前所未有地飞速发展了10年
But though the mood of politicians is upbeat,
虽然政治家们情绪高涨
out in the streets hundreds of thousands of anti-capitalist protesters
楼外的街道上 成百上千名反对资本主义的抗议者
have gathered to call an end to the iniquities of global capitalism.
聚集起来 要求终结不平等的全球资本主义
The complaints are strikingly similar to those made by Jesus Christ.
这些控诉跟耶稣曾经的控诉惊人地相似
Capitalism doesn’t look after the producers
资本主义没有好好对待生产者
and capitalism downgrades the important spiritual ends of life
贬低了精神生活的重要意义
for the sake of hamburgers, unsustainably cheap clothes
只为了一些汉堡 不经穿的廉价衣服
and garish distracting mass media.
以及分散注意力的媚俗大众媒体
With their beards and gaunt figures
很多抗议者满脸胡子 身形消瘦
many of the protesters look a little like Renaissance’s renditions of Jesus.
看起来还挺像文艺复兴时期耶稣的翻版
The police take a very heavy hand, fired tear gas into the crowds,
警察采取了高压手段 向人群投掷催泪瓦斯
arrest 2000 and call in the National Guard.
逮捕了2000名抗议者 动用了国民警卫队
The protest remind the world that besides the winners of capitalism
这次抗议是在提醒世界 除了资本主义的赢家
there is an enormous army of the disenfranchised and the angry
还有一大群愤怒的人权利被剥夺
who see more sense in Jesus, Dickens and Ruskin
这些人觉得耶稣 狄更斯和拉斯金的思想
than in Adam Smith and Bill Clinton.
比亚当·斯密和比尔·克林顿的观念更有道理
2015, Cupertino, California.
2015年 库比蒂诺 加利福尼亚州
Apple Computers officially becomes the largest corporation in the world.
苹果公司正式成为世界上规模最大的一家企业
It’s a giant success story.
这是一个伟大的成功故事
But the very same challenges remain.
但同样的挑战仍旧存在
It turns out that Apple are indirectly responsible for
原来苹果公司间接造成
the suffering and abusive of workers in the supply chain in China
中国生产线工人在富士康企业
via the Foxconn corporation
遭受虐待
and with the launch of the Apple watch,
随着苹果手表的发布
a gadget that seems to have no particularly urgent purpose,
(苹果手表是一个小装置 不算必需品)
questions are once again raised about
一些问题再次浮现
why we are exhausting ourselves and the planet
比如为什么我们要消耗自己和地球资源
for ends that are so out of proportion with the costs they impose on all of us.
付这么大的代价制造这么没必要的东西
To generalize: Capitalism is amazingly productive
总的来说 资本主义生产力很高
but it has two big flaws.
但有两大缺陷
Firstly, it systematically inclines to ignore the sufferings of workers
一 资本主义体系本身倾向于忽视工人遭受的苦难
unless regularly prodded not to.
除非定期施压
And the wealth of companies is often built up on satisfying
满足人类可有可无的需求
what are not the essential needs of human beings.
是企业财富的来源
Fortunes are made on making unhealthy food or bad television programs.
比如通过制造垃圾食品和滥俗电视节目创造财富
The challenge for the future is how we might be able to make money humanely
未来的挑战是如何用人性化的方式
by treating people and the earth well
在善待人类和地球的同时也能赚钱
and also make money through activities which address
同时通过满足人类更高尚的需求
the more noble end of human needs.
来创造财富
Till then, the rage of Jesus in the temple
在那之前 耶稣在圣殿前发怒的场景
will periodically always go on.
会不断重现

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视频概述

介绍了从古至今有关资本主义的观念。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIuaW9YWqEU

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