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思想的历史 – 艺术的观念 – 译学馆
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思想的历史 - 艺术的观念

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Art

艺术在现代社会里有着非凡的地位
Art has a very high status in modern societies:
人们对博物馆趋之若鹜
People flock to museums
而艺术作品则待价而沽
and art works fetch record prices.
然而在当今时代 奇怪的是 人们怎么也讲不清楚艺术究竟是为什么而存在
But our age is also oddly reluctant to say in clear terms what art might actually be for.
艺术被笼上神秘的面纱 扑朔迷离很多人会有这样的感觉 尤其是
And odd mystique surrounds it, epitomized by the puzzlement. Many of us feel
在现代博物馆里 当我们在欣赏那些光怪陆离的现代艺术作品时
as we look at yet another odd looking, modern work of art in a contemporary museum.
我们经常沉默静思 心怀敬意思考这些东西究竟有什么意义
We’re often left quietly and politely wondering what is it all meant to be about.
而在大多数历史时期 人们却很少有这样的疑问 因为人们十分清楚地知道艺术的目的
For most of history, this kind of question didn’t arise, because it was abundantly clear what art was for.
这个关于艺术本身的目的的困惑是现代才有的 所以让我们回顾过去
The question mark over the purpose of art is really a modern one, so let’s go back in time
找到更多选择 或许我们能够从中得到启发
and find out about a wider range of options that we might be able to draw on fruitfully today.
罗马 公元前290年
Rome, 290 AD
深入罗马帝国城市 那些充满信仰色彩的作品就秘密地聚集在地下陵墓
Deep below the imperial Roman city, the faithful secretly gather in catacombs,
或者陪葬的墓室 均出于赞美新潮宗教人物耶稣基督的目的
or burial chambers, to celebrate new religious figure, Jesus Christ.
尽管基督教仍处于萌芽状态且备受罗马当局残忍迫害但它却迅速地深入人心
Christianity, though still in its infancy and ruthlessly persecuted by the Roman authorities, is rapidly gaining ground.
如同许多在它之前和在它之后的宗教 基督教早已涉及到艺术创作领域
Like so many religions before it and since, Christianity has become involved with the making of art.
这儿 一位名不见经传的 资质平庸的艺术家再现了耶稣治疗一名流血的妇女的画面
Here, an unnamed and not especially talented artists represents Jesus healing of a bleeding woman,
题材来源于新约里面的记载
an incident recorded in the New Testament.
和所有的宗教都一样 基督教利用艺术以达到阐明和便于人们理解的目的
Like all religions, Christianity is using art for a clear and understandable purpose:
使它传递的信息掷地有声 让人感同身受并且一呼百应
to make its message more resonant, emotionally attractive, and popularly appealing.
艺术就像是一种广告 用以宣扬它的教旨
Art is like a kind of advertising for its ideas.
基督教的艺术家们很快主导了欧洲
Soon Christian artists are going to dominate Europe.
在将近一千多年的时间里 所有的产自欧洲的艺术作品几乎千篇一律 基本上都是基督教题材的艺术
For almost a thousand years almost all art produced in Europe will simply be Christian art.
从简陋的地下秘密祈祷室开始
From humble beginnings in a subterranean prayer room,
基督教艺术继而出现在金碧辉煌的教堂 绘画作品
Christian art will go on to produce extraordinary cathedrals, paintings
雕塑 和宗教仪式里 使得基督教威名远播
sculptures and celebrating and enhancing the prestige of its messages.
泰国 15世纪
Thailand, 15th century
一位不知名的工匠打造了一尊佛像
An unknown craftsman finishes a statue of the Buddha.
东南亚地区,几百尊,几千尊佛像中的其中一个
One of many hundreds of thousands of such statues produced over the
它们在几个世纪的时间里陆陆续续被创造出来
centuries in Southeast Asia.
这类艺术作品的目的极其明确
The purpose of such art is extremely clear:
当你看着佛像的时就会从中得到暗示 仿佛离他更近了
You’re meant to look at the Buddha and take inspiration, becoming a little more as he is.
这些塑像引导人去沉思和冥想
The sculpture is an invitation to calm and contemplation.
东方艺术与西方艺术的功能一样显而易见
In the East as in the West arts function is evident:
就是为了支撑宗教所言之事实
to support the truths set down by religions,
使教义易于烂熟于心
to make ideas more easily digestible.
巴黎 1801年1月
Paris, January 1801
法国艺术家 雅克•路易 •大卫 完成了‘拿破仑穿越阿尔卑斯山’
The French artist Jacques-Louis David finishes “Napoleon crossing the Alps”.
它记录了一个历史时刻 数年前 当时拿破仑还只有
It commemorates a moment when a couple of years before, Napoleon still in his
20多岁 他对意大利北部国家发起闪电式突击 并且战功显赫的时期
twenties launched a lightning raid on the North Italian states, winning a series of astonishing victories.
在这副画里 拿破仑驾着一匹白色战马
In the picture, Napoleon masters a white warhorse
尽管事实上他跨越这座山峰时骑的是较为耐劳的骡
though he actually cross the mountains on a more serviceable mule.
在这 艺术做的是与历史所做之事并无区别
Here, art is doing something it has done throughout history as well:
都是为政治目的大肆宣传
acting as propaganda for a political cause.
拿破仑是在效法他的偶像 法国国王路易十四
Napoleon is looking back to the example of Louis XIV of France who
路易十四做了许多以艺术之名宣扬其志的事情
did a lot of propagandizing with art.
这也成了拿破仑整个执政生涯的惯例
It was a habit he got into throughout his rule.
巴黎 1833年
Paris, 1833
诗人 小说家 评论家戈蒂耶发表了一篇关于艺术的文章
The poet, novelist and critique Théophile Gautier publishes an essay about art,
文章指出艺术必须从宗教和政府的荼毒中解放出来
which argues that art must free itself from the poisonous agendas of religions and governments.
它认为好的艺术作品应该正好出于艺术的目的
The point of good art is always to be just for its own sake
正如他用法语写的那样 即艺术出于艺术的目的
as he put it in French, “l’art pour l’art”, art for art’s sake.
这个以艺术之名主义成为新一代浪漫主义艺术家的座右铭
This doctrine of art for art’s sake becomes the motto of the new generation of romantic artists
这些艺术家们反对艺术应该服务于宗教 权贵和国家的旧思想
who set themselves against the old ideal that art should serve religion or powerful rulers or nations.
那些都是胡扯 戈蒂耶说 艺术应当不为任何事物而折腰
Nonsense, says Gautier, true art must serve nothing at all.
艺术只服务于艺术本身 而不试图改变或为某些事物代言
it is an end in itself and doesn’t try to change or do or speak about anything.
艺术家们不应该与世俗同流合污
Artists set themselves apart from the bourgeois commercial society growing up all around,
世俗的人总想把他们的思想强加于人们身上
which is always trying to sell people things.
艺术应该委身于崇高理想 一个更为抽象领域
Art should try to inhabit a loftier, more abstract realm.
纽约 1917年
New York, 1917
艺术家 马歇• 杜尚为一个由独立派艺术家圈子发起的展览会筹展他的最新画作
The artist Marcel Duchamp prepares to exhibit his latest work at a show by the Society of Independent
Artists.
一个小便斗 命名为喷泉 十分出人意料
It is surprisingly a urinal titled simply Fountain.
杜尚反对各家关于艺术的言说
Duchamp is a rebellion against many notions of what art is,
那些学说宣称艺术应该简单易懂 赋予意义 对某事物进行升华
that it should be easy to understand, that it should make sense, that it should promote something.
但是 真正的艺术家 杜尚说道 应该捍卫自己 抵抗种种来自
The true artist, argues Duchamp must defend himself against any confusion
广告 大众媒体 政府宣传或者宗教教义的困扰
with advertising, mass media, government propaganda or religious indoctrination,
艺术的真正目的是超然于主流文化 创造
that true purpose of the artist is to stand outside the mainstream and create
高深莫测的 神秘的 带有启发性的以及更为静默的作品
works that are enigmatic, mysteriously provocative and rather silent.
纽约 1949年
New York, 1949
一名俄罗斯流亡艺术家 马库斯 为了躲避反犹太运动改名为马克•罗思科
A russian émigré artist, Marcus Ravkovic who has renamed himself Mark Rothko to escape anti-semitism
在曼哈顿 贝蒂•帕森斯画廊展览了一组新派的作品
exhibits a new range of works at the Betty Parsons gallery in Manhattan.
它们是一种反抗 在于这些作品看似言无他物
They are a revelation, in that they seem not to be about anything.
它们仅由纯色块构成 看起来跟音乐一样抽象
They are about pure color fields and are as abstract as music.
然而 对某些人来说 这些作品却是20世纪最伟大的作品 一时之间价值连城
For some, they are the greatest works of the 20th century and soon fetch enormous prices.
当代艺术博物馆与世界其他国家博物馆一样收录了一套罗思科的重要作品
The Museum of Modern Art acquires a major set of Rothko’s as do other national museums around the world.
罗思科成为了20世纪抽象派艺术的代表
Rothko becomes representative of the more obscure direction of 20th century art,
强烈吸引了那些经常在艺术作品上豪掷千金的精英阶级
highly appealing to an elite who will often pay enormous incomprehensible prices for works
却常让公众感到困惑不已
but puzzling for the wider public.
威尼斯 2005年6月
Venice, June 2005
世界上最负盛名的艺术品交易会 威尼斯双年展 开办于焕然一新的威尼斯兵工厂
The world’s most prestigious art fair, The Venice Biennale opens at the newly restored spaces of the Arsenale.
这是第一次由两位女性策展人珂芮尓和玛汀妮兹担任馆长
It has been curated for the first time by two women, María de Corral and Rosa Martinez.
展示了来自全球41位艺术家的作品
41 artist’s are shown from all over the world.
附近的马可波罗机场云集了来自全球的亿万富翁的私人飞机
The nearby Marco Polo airport is filled with the private jets of the world’s billionaires,
他们当中有很多是骨灰级的艺术爱好者
many of whom profess to love art.
精心安排的鸡尾酒派对深夜举行
Elaborate cocktail parties are held late into the night.
艺术聚会已经变成了超级富豪的地下乐园
Art has become a playground for the super rich
也是长途跋涉的旅人心目中一定要到达的远方
as well as an obligatory tourist destination for weary travelers.
艺术,备受推崇却仍让人琢磨不透
Art is both hugely revered and yet somehow still in question.
在艺术的历史进程中,它们大多数被赋予使命
For most of its history art has been saddled with a mission:
为宗教歌功颂德或是为国家粉饰太平
to glorify religion or to speak well of the state.
现代艺术 出于极其显而易见的原因将它自身从传统日程中突然转向
Modern art was the result of a swerve away from these agendas for extremely understandable reasons.
而现今如果艺术想重回它在现实中的中心地位
Yet if art is to regain its true centre reality
它就应该克服对它自身存在目的的疑虑以及阐明今后发展的方向
it should overcome it hesitation about stating what it’s really for and is trying to do.
使它真正成为一个精巧的工具
It is really and has always been a sophisticated tool,
这个工具帮助我们去处好与孤独的关系 诸如此类
a tool that can help us to cope with things like loneliness,
让我们充满希望
that can fill us with hope,
帮助我们与我们的内在世界交流
that can help us to communicate our inner world,
勇于质问权贵 不断改善政治体系
that questions power and aims to improve political systems.
让艺术服务于我们
It is never an insult to ask art to do things for us,
成为我们日常生活实用的一部分
to be a practical part of our daily lives.
我们对艺术冠以敬意 委以重任
We honor art most when we give it the highest task of all:
帮助我们过上更好的生活
to help us to lead better lives.
如果你喜欢我们的小视频的话 可以浏览我们的商店
If you like our films take a look at our shop.
就在屏幕下方的网址
the school of life.com/shop
你会发现大量有思想深度的书籍 游戏 文具以及其他更多东西
You’ll find lots of thoughtful books, games, stationery and more.

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视频概述

艺术与宗教,与国家一样,由来已久,艺术来源于生活,其价值不容小觑,当它突然上升到了一定的高度,我们是否会迷失在它的光环之下,该视频提供了一种视角,借由在历史帮助我们审视艺术,了解艺术,无惧艺术。

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