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思想的历史:古希腊

HISTORY OF IDEAS - Ancient Greece

历史
古希腊
The modern world is deeply attracted to ancient Greece.
现代人深深地被古希腊吸引着
Every year around one million people visit the Parthenon
每年约有一百万游客前往帕特农神庙参观
and wander around the ruins.
并在断壁残垣中四处闲逛
Because they’re sure the place and the culture of which
因为他们确信 神庙及其文化
(its supreme embodiment)
(神庙至高无上的代表)
has something important to say to them.
有一些重要的事情要向他们诉说
But it’s often not quite clear what.
但话语内容通常不大清晰
What can ancient Greece do for us?
古希腊能给予我们什么呢?
It’s a big, vulgar but central question.
这是一个普通而重要的大问题
There are perhaps five big ideas we can take away from ancient Greece.
我们能借鉴的古希腊伟大思想大概有5种
Tragedy
悲剧
The Greeks thought it was extremely important
希腊人认为 定期去观看
for everyone regularly to witness a certain sort of gory tale
一种被他们称为悲剧的悲惨故事表演
they called a tragedy.
对每个人来说 都是极为重要的
Festivals existed to honor these tragedies and
某些节日专为赞颂悲剧而设立
governments close civic buildings businesses and law courts
政府还关闭了市政公共建筑和法院
to enable citizens to go and see them.
让市民们不受阻碍地去看悲剧
Some festivals such as the festival of Dionysus in Athens
比如 自公元前508年开始举办的
which began in 508 BC
雅典酒神节
would last a week and involve up to 17 plays.
将持续一周 其时上演的戏剧多达17部
Famous plays included
其中著名的戏剧有
Aeschylus’ The Oresteia
埃斯库罗斯《奥瑞斯提亚》
Sophocles’ Ajax, Oedipus the king and Electra
索福克勒斯《埃阿斯》《俄狄浦斯王》《厄勒克特拉》
and Eurípedes’ Medeia.
欧里庇得斯《美狄亚》
In these tragedies people were seen to break a minor law
我们看到 悲剧中的人物要么触犯了微小法律
or make a hasty decision or sleep with the wrong person
要么作了一个草率决定或睡了不该睡的人
and the result was ignominy and death.
却招致了身败名裂和一命呜呼的结局
Yet what happened was shown to be to a large extent in the hands of
看起来 这些事很大程度上掌控在
what the Greeks called fate or the gods.
希腊人所称的“命运”或“神”手中
It was the Greeks’ poetic way of saying
这是希腊人对以下思想的诗意表达
the things often work out in random ways
由于 让世界运转的动力
according to dynamics that simply don’t reflect
偏偏不关心常人在意的天理
the merits of the individuals concerned.
因此 事情常常以随机的方式收尾
In the Poetics,
在《诗学》中
the philosopher Aristotle defined the key ingredients of tragedy:
哲学家亚里士多德明确了构成悲剧的要素
The hero of the tragedy should be a decent person,
悲剧的主角应当是一个体面人
better than average often highborn
卓尔不凡 通常还出身高贵
but prone to making small mistakes as we all do.
但是像我们所有人一样易犯小错
At the start it may not be obvious that it is an error they are making
开始时 他们看起来并没有真的“犯了错”
but by an unfortunate chain of events
而是一系列不幸的事件
for which they are not wholly to blame
使得这一小错酿成灾难性后果
this small mistake leads to a catastrophe.
并且这一系列事不能全怪他们
Tragedy is the sympathetic
悲剧就是以同情的眼光
morally complex account of how good people can end up
描述这类具有道德复杂性的事件:
in disaster situations.
善人是怎么得到不幸下场的
It’s the very opposite of today’s tabloid newspaper
这与今天的新闻小报和社交媒体
or social media sphere with a mob rushes to make judgments
迫不及待地对一时失足者横加批判的态度
on those who slipped up.
截然相反
Aristotle thought it was extremely important that people see tragic works
亚里士多德认为 人们定期观看悲剧
on a regular basis to counter their otherwise strong inclinations to
来对抗他们评判和从道德上教化他人的冲动
judge and moralize.
是极其重要的
Tragedy is meant to be a corrective too easy judgment.
悲剧的意义在于纠正草率的评判行为
Without the idea of tragedy
如果没有悲剧思想
we can make existence for everyone far crueler
每个人的存在都会变得更为残忍
and far more judgmental than it really need be.
更爱评判他人 这远远超过它们应达到的
We should look back to the Greeks to recover
我们应通过回顾古希腊历史
an extremely important idea.
来找回一个极重要的思想
Philosophy
哲学
Athens was the cradle of philosophy.
雅典不仅是哲学的摇篮
Home of the three greatest philosophers:
还是三位最伟大哲学家的故乡
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
他们是苏格拉底 柏拉图和亚里士多德
What unites the Greek philosophers is
让希腊哲学家们相联合的
a search for what they termed eudaimonia.
是对他们所称的“幸福“的追寻
Which translates happiness or fulfillment.
它可译作“快乐”或“满足”
They saw philosophy as a hugely practical subject
他们认为哲学是一门极实用的学科
that could help people find their way through the dilemmas of life.
它能帮助人们在生活的困境中找到出路
The approach was already contained in the word philosophy itself:
“出路“就隐藏在“哲学”一词中
in Greek, Philo means love or devotion
希腊语中的“philo”意为“爱”或“奉献”
and Sophia means wisdom.
“sophia”意为“智慧”
Philosophers were people devoted to wisdom.
哲学家就是为哲学献身的人
That would be abstract the concept of wisdom isn’t mysterious.
有些叫人费解的是 智慧这一概念毫不神秘
Being wise means attempting to live and die well,
有智慧意味着试图活得好也死得好
leading as good a life as possible
在动乱不安的世界中
within the troubled conditions of existence.
尽可能地把生活过得好些
What we call the history of Greek philosophy is made up of repeated attempts
古希腊哲学史是由哲学家的尝试构成的:
over the centuries to address ways in which we are unwise.
试图改良人们愚蠢处事方式的不断尝试
So for example Socrates paid special attention to
比如 苏格拉底特别关注这一问题:
the problem of how people get confused in their minds.
人们是怎么连自己脑中思想都弄不清的?
He was struck that people didn’t quite know
他很惊奇 即便是
what they meant by key ideas like courage or justice or success
当人们说出这类描述自己生活的关键概念
even though these were the main ideas
如“勇气 公正 成功”时
they used when talking about their own lives.
他们仍不清楚这些词的确切含义
Socrates developed a method which still bears his name
苏格拉底完善了一种以他为名的思想方法
by which you can learn to get clearer about what you mean
即我们能通过跟任一主张唱反调
by playing devil’s advocate with any idea.
来学会如何弄清概念的确切含义
The aim isn’t necessarily to change your mind
这样做并不是要改变我们的想法
it’s to test whether the ideas guiding your life are sound.
而是要检验指引着我们生活的思想是否可靠
A few decades later, the philosopher Aristotle
几十年后 哲学家亚里士多德
tried to make us more confident around big questions.
试图使我们在“大问题“上更为自信
He thought the best questions
他认为 关于这些问题
with those that ask what something is for.
最好的提问法是询问某物的用处
He did this a lot and over many books asking
他多次这样提问 并在书中问道:
what is government for?
政府有何用处?
What is the economy for?
经济有何用处?
What’s money for?
钱有什么用处?
What’s art for?
艺术有何用处?
Today he might be encouraging us to ask questions like:
今天 在他的鼓励下我们可以问:
What’s the news media for?
新闻媒体有什么用处?
What is marriage for?
婚姻有什么用?
What is pornography for?
色情作品有何用?
Also active in ancient Greece was the stoic philosophers
关注“恐慌”的斯多噶派哲学家
who were interested in panic.
在古希腊也同样活跃
The Stoics noticed the really central feature of panic:
斯多噶派哲学家注意到“恐慌”的核心特征:
We panic not just when something bad occurs
让我们恐慌的不是发生的糟糕事
but when it does so unexpectedly,
而是 糟糕事来得猝不及防
when we are assuming that everything was going to go rather well.
当时我们还满以为一切都进行得挺顺利呢
So they suggested that we should arm ourselves against panic
他们建议说 我们可以通过接受以下观点
by getting used to the idea
来使自己免受恐慌之苦
that danger, trouble and difficulty are very likely to occur at every turn.
即危险 麻烦和困难随时随地都极可能出现
The overall task of studying Greek philosophy
汲取这些经验以及此外的许多经验
is to absorb these and many other lessons
并在当今世界中实际运用它们
and put them to work in the world today.
就是学习希腊哲学的总目标
The point isn’t just to know
重点不是仅仅知道
what this or that philosopher happened to say
这个或那个哲学家偶然说过的话
but to aim to exercise wisdom at an individual and societal level,
而是从现在开始 在个人和社会层面上
starting now.
运用智慧
Democracy
民主
Athens is known as the home of democracy.
雅典作为民主的发源地而闻名
Democracy was developed in the fifth century BC
在公元前5世纪 雅典民主得以发展
first under Solon
首先是在梭伦治下
then Cleisthenes and Ephialtes.
其后是克里斯提尼 再后是厄菲阿尔特
However, democracy came under threat in the later stages
但在公元前5世纪的晚些时期
of the fifth century BC,
雅典民主遭到威胁
When Athene was in the midst of fighting a lengthy war
此时雅典及其宿敌斯巴达正在进行
with its nemesis Sparta,
一场旷日持久的战争
the Peloponnesian War.
即伯罗奔尼撒战争
So to remind Athenians of their importance within a democracy,
为了提醒雅典人采用民主政体的重要性
the great general Pericles
伯利克里这位伟大将领
delivered a rousing speech at the annual Funeral Oration
在公元前430年年度殉国战士葬礼演说上
to mark the dead of the war in 430 BC.
发表了一番慷慨激昂的演讲
What makes Pericles’s famous speech so striking
让伯利克里的著名演讲变得如此激动人心的
is that he isn’t defending democracy just as a way of running the state.
是他没有把民主当成管理国家的一种方式来捍卫
He’s defending what we might call the democratic spirit,
他捍卫我们可以称为“民主精神”的东西
a spirit of equality, community and comradeship
即平等 社群以及同志精神
that can develop in societies
它们能在社会中得以滋长
where members more or less feel themselves
其成员或多或少地感到
to be equal to one another.
自己和他人是平等的
The voting system is a root to something much deeper
我们所称的“同情”的根源在于选举制
that we might term “fellow feeling”.
这种情感比那些精神深刻得多
An emotion the Greeks discovered for Humanity.
这是希腊人关于人性的一次发现
Pericles declared:
伯利克里演讲道:
the administration of Athens favors the many
雅典的制度被称为民主政治的原因在于
instead of the few;
掌握雅典政权的
this is why it’s called a democracy.
是多数人而非少数人
If we look to the laws,
我们把目光投向法律:
they afford equal justice
它在解决私人争端时
to all in their private differences;
给予所有人同等的公正
if there is no social standing,
即使一个人没有社会地位
advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity,
也可因才干的卓著声名而得到官位的升迁
class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit.
一个人的才德绝不会因阶层的高低而有所增减
Nor again does poverty bar the way
贫穷不再是政治生涯中的障碍
if a man is able to serve the state,
如果一个人有服务国家的能力
he has never hindered by the obscurity of his condition.
就绝不会因穷困潦倒的生活而受到阻碍
Against the brutality of the Spartans,
伯利克里反对斯巴达人的残忍暴力
Pericles celebrates the generosity,
推崇慷慨大度 博学多闻
erudition, openness,
宽容开明的精神
public spiritedness and dignity
以及雅典民主生活中的
of Athenian democratic life.
奉献社会的精神和尊严
These values Pericles says
伯利克里提出的价值观念
enables Athens to provide a shining beacon of
令雅典能为古希腊和当今世界的
freedom and decency to the Greek world and now to our own times too.
自由和文明 点亮一座闪耀的灯塔
Architecture
建筑
The Greeks were architects par excellence.
古希腊人是杰出的建筑家
They were involved in the construction of five
古代世界的七大奇迹中
of the seven wonders of the ancient world:
他们的作品就占了五大:
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus,
以弗所的阿尔特弥斯神庙
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia,
奥林匹亚宙斯神像
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus,
哈利卡那索斯的摩索拉斯王陵墓
The Colossus of Rhodes,
罗德岛太阳神巨像
and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
亚历山德里亚灯塔
But the most common and inspiring buildings
最平常也最鼓舞人心的
were their ordinary temples.
是希腊的普通神庙
Magnificent structures typically made of limestone
壮丽宏大的建筑通常由石灰石建造
and scattered all across Greece and its islands.
它们在整个希腊及其岛屿都有分布
Aside from the temples on the Acropolis,
除了雅典卫城的神庙之外
other great structures include
伟大希腊建筑还包括
the Temple of Apollo at Corinth,
科林斯的阿波罗神庙
the Temple of Zeus at Olympia,
奥林匹亚的宙斯神庙
and the Temple of Poseidon at Sounion.
苏尼翁的波塞冬神庙
The architectural language of these temples has spread around the world
当这些神庙的特定宗教用途已被弃之不用时
even when their specific religious uses are fallen by the wayside.
它们的建筑语言仍在世界范围内传播
Because they suggest values which humanity will always find impressive:
因为 它们所传达的价值将永远震撼着人类
harmony, dignity, calm, reason.
和谐 高贵 宁静和理性
The Greeks taught the West how to build in such a way
希腊人教给西方人的建筑方式
that would externalize some of the noblest ideals of human beings.
将外化某些属于人类的高贵典范
Sport
体育
While earlier civilizations such as the Egyptians,
较早期文明中的人类如古埃及人
Persians, Assyrians found nakedness shameful,
波斯人和亚述人认为裸体是可耻的
The Greeks celebrated the naked body of both gods and citizens.
希腊人赞赏裸体 无论是神的还是公民的
Works such as Zeus or Poseidon of Artemision
雕塑作品如《亚底米的宙斯(或波塞冬)》
shows the statue, power and physical prowess of a nude Greek god.
展现了一座希腊裸神像的力量与强健的体魄
Discobolus
《掷铁饼者》
shows the action of a naked discus throw mid motion
展现了掷铁饼者正欲掷出铁饼的状态
again the sculpture celebrates the poise and physical beauty of an athlete.
此雕塑又一次赞颂了运动员的静止与体态之美
His muscles perfectly toned.
他的肌肉完美地凸起
The Greeks loved physical exercise.
希腊人钟爱体育锻炼
There was at least one major national athletic competition every year.
每年都至少举办一次全国运动会
The most famous sporting event was the Olympic Games
最著名的体育赛事是奥林匹克运动会
held every four years from 776 BC.
从公元前776年开始 每四年举办一届
But what’s distinctive in the Greek approach
希腊人与众不同的想法是
is that they didn’t want athletes merely to be athletes.
他们并不希望只有运动员是运动员
The idea was that everyone should train both mind and body.
他们认为 每个人都应该接受心灵和身体的锻炼
It’s a telling that Milo of Croton,
据说 克罗托的米罗
a celebrated wrestler of the sixth century BC
是公元前6世纪一位著名的摔跤手
was also an associate of a great mathematician Pythagoras.
同时也是著名数学家毕达哥拉斯的朋友
One of the important Greek mantras
古希腊的重要俗语之一
was that a healthy mind could only dwell in a healthy body.
是“健康的灵魂仅寓于健康的体魄中”
The Greeks thought exercise condition discipline in people
希腊人认为 锻炼能使人们接受训导
which would enable them to be diligent
这将令他们变成勤勉努力
and virtuous democratic citizens in Athens
正直善良而有民主精神的雅典公民
or devoted and controlled warriors in Sparta.
或者尽忠竭力而训练有素的斯巴达战士
Ancient Greek gyms were nothing like the mindless body pumping places
古希腊健身房与我们今天的无脑锻炼场所
of our own times.
绝无相似之处
They were both public centers for physical training
它们不仅是体育训练的公共中心
and intellectual hubs.
还是知识分子聚集地
Gymnasia and schools were simply the same thing.
健身房和学校其实是同一个东西
A great number of Socrates’s dialogues about ideas around justice and truth
苏格拉底关于公正和真理的大量对话
unfold tellingly at the gym.
据说都是在健身房进行的
We owe to the Greeks the remarkable now often forgotten idea that
这一重要而现今常被忽视的思想应归功于希腊人:
our bodies should be looked after just as our minds are
我们应当像照料思想那样照料身体
and that for someone to be merely an intellectual or merely a body builder
书呆子和四肢发达头脑简单的人一样
is obscene.
面目可憎
True virtue means a balance between the physical and the mental.
真正的美德指的是身体与心灵的平衡
There is a sad morality tale
有个悲哀的道德寓言
about the end of ancient Greek civilization.
是有关古希腊文明的终结的:
They had much nicer ideas than their enemies,
相比敌人们 古希腊人要有智慧的多
but they weren’t as well organized .
但他们却没那么团结一致
So they got defeated
因此 他们被打败了
and the ideas got lost for centuries.
他们的思想也湮没了几个世纪
The Greek city-states fought among themselves endlessly
公元前5世纪至4世纪 古希腊城邦间
over the course of the fifth and fourth centuries BC,
进行着无休无止的互相争战
and were eventually stripped of their independence under Alexander the Great.
并最终被亚历山大大帝剥夺了独立地位
The Greeks failed to add political stability to their virtues.
古希腊人的美德中没能算上政治稳定
The ideas of Greece no longer survive in the country in which they first originated
古希腊的思想虽不再存留在它们的起源地
but it should be a tribute to ancient Greece that
但以下事实将成为献给古希腊的贡品:
the best of these ideas remain of complete relevance to our own times.
这些思想的精华于我们当今时代有重大意义
With the help of the Greaks
在希腊人的帮助下
we need to remember the role of tragedy,
我们应当 记住悲剧的角色
emphasize the practice of philosophy,
强调哲学实践
honor the spirit of democracy,
赞颂民主精神
build with harmony and dignity,
将和谐与高贵融入建筑
and exercise both mind and body in equal measure.
给予我们的大脑与身体同等的锻炼
For all this
为了这些精神遗产
we can be grateful to the now absent Greeks
在帕特农神庙的残垣中漫步时
as we wander among the rubble of the Parthenon.
我们应当对那些已逝的希腊人心怀感激
If you like our films, take a look at our shop:
假如你喜欢我们的视频 就请看看我们的店铺吧
the school of life.com/shop
网址是the school of life.com/shop
You’ll find lots of thoughtful books, games, stationery and more.
你会发现许多有深度的书籍 游戏 文具 等等

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视频概述

西方文明的源头古希腊,遗留给人类宝贵的精神遗产。本视频从悲剧艺术、哲学、民主政治、建筑及体育五个侧面出发,带领你深入了解古希腊的思想文化。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Clio

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kix2L1j2cDc

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