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人类是拥有自由意志的物种吗? – 译学馆
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人类是拥有自由意志的物种吗?

'Hey Bill Nye, Do Humans Have Free Will?'

你好比尔,我叫汤姆斯,来自洛杉矶。我很高兴能听
Hi Bill. My name is Thomas and I’m from Los Angeles. I would really like to hear your
你的看法,即人类是否拥有普遍意义上的自由意志。
opinion on whether or not we have free will in the conventional meaning. Is there really
是否真的存在完一个独立的自我,控制我们所有的思维和行动呢?
an independent ego right here that is control of my every thought and action? I think Einstein
我认为爱因斯坦是一个决定论者,因为他不相信自由意志的存在。但还有海森堡
is a determinist so he does not believe in free will, but then there’s the Heisenberg
的测不准原理呢!虽然在我看来非确定性只存在于科学仪器
Uncertainty Principle, although to my understanding the uncertainty is in our scientific instruments
和测量误差中。嗯,谢谢你
and the inaccuracies of the measurements. Thank you.
好了,涉及的领域虽然广,但没有人知道意识的本质呢
Well, you covered a lot of ground in there but nobody knows about the nature of consciousness.
我想认为,人在一定程度上有自由意志,但受潜意识驱动。
I think we have free will up to a point, but we are driven by deep, deep things like wanting
比方说,想吃东西,想交朋友,也即交配。然后我无奈地发现
to get food, making more people, that is to say mating. And then I cannot help but notice
许多出生在同一个家庭的人有很多相同的行为。
how much people from the same family tend to do the same things. Same families tend
有些家庭的行事简直是一个模子刻出来的。但我清楚,
to do the same things just anecdotally. But clearly I know I have made decisions based
我已经从现实出发做决定了,如果不是受到历史消息和我认知的影响,我不会这样做。
on things that happened around me that I wouldn’t have made without being informed by history
我知道我受了影响。如果自由意志真的不存在,我真会非常惊讶
or what I’d noticed. I know I have. Now if that turns out not to be true I would be very
随着不确定原理的深入,
surprised. Now as far as the uncertainty principle goes,
不确定原理简单地说是,存在某个量子,它的位置和能量不可同时测量
uncertainty principle is roughly there’s a quantum, there’s an amount of energy below
古老的说法是,你要么知道电子的位置
which you can’t measure. The old saying is you can know where the electron is or you
要么知道电子的移动速度,两者不能确切地兼得。
can know how fast it’s going but you can’t know both, not exactly because anything you
因为你用来测量的方法,必然会改变电子的速度或位置。
would use to measure it would inherently move the electron or change its speed. That’s the
这是经目前关于不确定性的经典解释。作为一个工程师和科学家,我对这个解释很满意。
classic uncertainty principle at work. With that said, I am satisfied now, as an engineer
我们的大脑充满了化学物质和化学反应,在某种程度上
and scientist, that our brains are chemical reactions and chemical reactions, at some
依赖于量子力学,依赖于建筑在原子内的微粒之上的
level, depend on quantum mechanics, on the interaction of subatomic particles based on
神奇的量子电动力学,你是这个意思吧?
this extraordinary thing called quantum electrodynamics, you alluded to it.
故某种程度上,我们的思考就是不确定性的,因为我们就是
And so at some level there’s randomness in what we think because we’re made of chemicals
由不确定的化学物质组成的。然而大体上,人类行为还是可以估测的。
that have randomness. But largely human behavior is generally predictable. There’s whole schools
很多学校有心理学家和研究人类的精神病学家,他们总结出了模式
full of psychologists and psychiatrists who study humans and they come across patterns,
这些模式是我们人脑的一部分,而自由意志隶属其中。
and those patterns have got to be part of our brains and our free will has got to be
我不是想扩展你的话题哈,但意识的本质是——
part of that. I mean I don’t mean to skirt your question, but the nature of consciousness
我们生活在一个还没未搞清楚意识的本质是什么的时期
– you are living at a time when the nature of consciousness is not understood but it
大但这个时期不会持续很久了,因为我们将会建立计算机模型,
may be very soon because we’ll build computer models or computers that are as sophisticated
它如同人脑一样精致、复杂、混乱,
or as complicated or as messed up as human brains and they will behave the same way as
一旦接通电源就和人脑一样工作。马上回来
human brains, as long as they’re plugged, the computers. Carry on.

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