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你该在何时相信直觉 – 译学馆
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你该在何时相信直觉

Here's When You Should Trust Your Gut

[前奏]
[ ♪INTRO ]
有时候你不需要仔细思考
sometimes you know exactly what you need to do
就清楚地知道自己该做什么
and you don’t need to think about it
比如你可能听过一个都市传闻
Like maybe you’ve heard the urban legend of
一名消防员和他的队员在厨房灭火
a firefighter putting out a fire in a kitchen with his crew.
突然 消防员感到他们需要撤离
Suddenly, he got the sense that they all needed to evacuate.
刚一出来 厨房地板就塌了
Right after getting out, the kitchen floor collapsed,
因为火其实正从厨房下面的地下室里蔓延过来
because the fire was actually coming from the basement underneath the kitchen.
如果不是消防员的直觉 他的队员早就死了
Without the firefighter’s instinct, hiscrew could have easily died.
这种故事推崇凭直觉决策
Stories like this celebrate gut decisions:
有人能在不明原因时迅速而自信地决策
someone deciding quickly and confidently without knowing exactly why.
这些决策通常基于心理学家所说的直觉
They’re often based on what psychologists call your intuition
这样做出的决策并不总是可靠
and they’re not always reliable.
但经过几十年的研究
But after decades of research,
科学家指出有时你可能想凭直觉行事
scientists can point to times where you might want to listen to them.
许多研究直觉的研究员认为
Many researchers who study gut intuition
决策的产生是两种思维方式的结果
think of your decisions as the result of two ways of thinking,
他们称之为系统1和系统2
which they call System 1 andSystem 2.
很明显 他们命名那天感觉不是很有创意
Apparently, they weren’t feeling too creative that day.
这些系统不是大脑里的生物成分
These systems aren’t biological things you might find in the brain,
而是帮助人们抉择的有用模型
but they are a useful model for how people make choices.
系统1是你的直觉
System 1 is what you might think of as your gut intuition.
它是你脑中自动运行的一部分
It’s the part of your mind that runs automatically
并在面对选择时给出默认反应
and gives you default responses to choices,
这种反应通常基于联想或识别记忆
usually based on association or recognition memory.
例如 如果你看到有人遛的狗和你的狗很像
For example, if you see someone walking a dog that looks like yours,
你的第一反应可能是去抚摸它
your first reaction might be to go pet it.
因为这就是你对耷拉着耳朵的可爱狗狗们做的事情
Because that’s just what you do with cute, floppy-eared pups.
系统2核查你的直觉
System 2 checks your gut intuition,
这通常需要一些有意识的努力
and it usually takes some conscious effort.
系统2会说
It’s the system that says,
“等一下 你之前从未见过这只狗
“Hold up. You’ve never met this dog before,
所以我们先想一想 这样做会有什么后果”
so let’s take a moment to think about how this could go wrong.”
比如 “它也许会咬你”
Like, “Maybe it might bite you.”
系统2在很多情况下能帮你得到最好的答案
In a lot of cases — like voting, or picking a college-
比如投票 或者选择大学
System 2 can help you get your best answer,
但是这并不意味着你要忽视直觉
but that doesn’t mean you should always ignore your gut.
例如 如果你是某方面的专家 比如国际象棋
For example, if you’re an expert in something — say, chess —
那么你对象棋的直觉可能更准确 也更值得一听
your intuition for that activity is probably more accurate and worth listening to.
你已经花了长时间练习
You’ve spent a long time practicing,
所以基本上已经建立了
so you’ve basically built up
一个供直觉使用的庞大记忆库
a huge library of memories for your intuition to draw on.
这意味着你不用彻底想清楚所有逻辑上的可能性
That means you could make faster, still-accurate decisions
就能做出更快且依然准确的决定
without thinking through all the logical possibilities.
然而 不是所有的经验都会产生这种专家直觉
Then again, not all experience leads to this kind of expert intuition.
心理学家认为 你需要在一个有规律的环境
Psychologists think you need an environment with some kind of regularity
通过练习和反馈来习得
that you can learn through practice and feedback.
它不必完全可预测
It doesn’t have to be completely predictable,
但其不确定性需要遵循模式
but the uncertainty needs to follow patterns,
就像下棋或扑克
like in chess or poker.
这就是为什么消防员和临床护士
This is why firefighters and clinical nurses
往往有更准确的直觉 而股市狂热者却没有
often have more accurate gut feelings, while stock market enthusiasts don’t.
即使股市狂热者经验丰富
Even if these people have a lot of experience,
过于复杂 反馈过于模糊的股市 也难以真正训练他们的直觉
the stock market is just too complex, and the feedback is too vague to really train their intuition.
另一种你想凭直觉行事的情况
Another situation where you might want to go with your gut
可能更让你意外
is maybe more surprising.
一些研究表明
According to some research,
如果一个决定仅对你很重要
if a decision only matters to you,
那么凭直觉行事可能会让你对结果更满意
going with your gut might also make you more satisfied with your result.
发表在《情感》杂志上的一项2018年的研究中
In a 2018 study in the journal Emotion,
90人被要求在两台DVD播放器中做出选择
90 people were asked to decide between two DVD players.
他们被告知要么进行理性分析
They were told to either make a rational analysis,
要么凭直觉行事
or go with a gut feeling.
那些凭直觉行事的人表示
And those who did the latter said
自己的选择更多地反映了真实 内在的自我
they thought the choice reflected their true, inner self more.
后续的研究也显示了同样的效果
Follow-up studies showed the same effect,
且还发现听从直觉会让人更为笃定
and also found that going with their guts made people more certain,
更可能与朋友分享他们的选择
and more likely to share their choice with their friends.
其他论文也指出了这种效应
This effect has been shown in other papers,too.
所以 如果你想更满意自己的决定
So if you want to be happier about a decision,
或者做出一些更真实的选择
or pick something that feels more genuine,
也许相信直觉是个不错的主意
Maybe trusting your intuition is a decentidea.
现在 你可能会想
Now, you might be thinking,
“但是 英国人!我做所有决定用的都是纯逻辑
“But Brit! I make all of my decisions with pure logic,
所以我不需要相信直觉”
so I don’t need to trust my gut. ”
好吧 事实上
Well, the truth is,
你可能会错过一些总体有用的资源
you might be missing out on a helpful resource in general,
而不仅仅是用于特定情况的资源
not just in these specific kinds of situations.
在一项2004年大脑认知的研究中
In a 2004 Brain & Cognition study,
研究人员通过让43个人
researchers demonstrated this
在一个简单的纸牌游戏中训练直觉反应
by having 43 people train their gut responses
证明了这一点
in a simple card game.
玩家需要从四沓牌中抽牌
Players had to keep drawing from four decks.
有些牌是烂牌 但看上去不错
Some were bad decks that looked good.
换句话说 如果你一直抽那沓牌
In other words, if you kept drawing from them,
它们会给你稳定的回报
they would give consistent payouts,
但偶尔也会有巨大的损失
have an occasional huge loss
这些损失比盈利还要大
that more than wiped out the wins.
其他的牌是好牌 但看起来很烂
Other decks were good, but looked bad.
定期支付的金额较小
The regular payouts were smaller,
但损失没有那么大
but the losses weren’t as devastating.
大多数人会抽40到50次牌
Most people would take 40 to 50 draws
才能弄清楚到底是什么情况
to figure out what was going on
然后转抽好牌
and switch to drawing from the good decks.
但在这之前 他们抽到烂牌会产生压力反应
But before then, their stress response would kick in for the bad decks.
他们手上的电极显示
An electrode on their hand measured
在抽到烂牌 甚至在意识到抽到烂牌前
that they were sweating more on average before drawing from bad decks,
他们往往出的汗更多
even before they could figure out that they were bad.
所以 即使他们的逻辑思维没有跟上
So even though their logical mind hadn’t caught up yet,
他们的大脑的某些部分已经在形成这种联系
some part of their brain was making the association.
事实证明这也是一项非常有用的技能
It turns out this is a really useful skill, too.
同样的纸牌游戏也让那些眼窝前额皮质受损的人做过
The same card game was given to people who had damage in a part of their brain called the Orbitofrontal Cortex.
眼窝前额皮质位于眼睛上方的脑部最前端
It’s at the very front of your brain right above your eyes
它关乎着计划和选择过程中情绪的融入
and is associated with integrating emotions into your plans and choices.
这组人在看到牌之前从未表现出压力反应
This group never showed a stress response before seeing the card,
他们会继续从烂牌中挑选
and would keep picking from the bad decks.
有时 他们甚至可以说出哪一沓牌是哪一沓牌
Sometimes, they could even report which decks were which,
但还是会选择烂牌
but still went with the bad ones.
甚至跳脱出纸牌游戏
Even beyond card games,
失去这种直觉会产生非常不利的影响
this loss of gut feeling can be pretty impairing.
这类患者通常在智力测试等方面做得很好
These kind of patients usually do well on things like intelligence tests,
但若没有直觉
but without gut feeling,
他们常会在日常生活中做出不太理想的选择
they often make less-than-ideal choices in their daily lives.
可以肯定的是 在某些情况下逻辑是有意义的
There are definitely situations where it makes sense to get logic involved,
但是总的来说
but overall, it’s often not a bad idea to
完全听从直觉常常不是件坏事
listen to your gut feelings throughout the day.
如果你是一个专家或想要一点额外的满足感 这尤其重要
That’s especially true if you’re an expert or looking for a little extra satisfaction.
如果一个消防员突然通知你离开大楼
And if a firefighter suddenly tells you to leave a building,
相信他们的直觉可能也是个好主意
it’s probably a good idea to trust their intuition, too.
感谢收看本期《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych!
如果你想成为第一批看到这类视频的人
If you’d like to be among the first to see videos like this,
或者你想继续学习那些让人兴奋的事情
or you want to keep learning about the things that make people tick,
请前往YouTube.com/scihowpsych订阅本栏目
you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsych and subscribe.
[尾声]
[ ♪ INTRO ]

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视频概述

有时相信直觉也是个好主意。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Zeitgeist

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审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jtTJVKEjWw

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