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每天聪明一点点:直升机的控制原理

Helicopter Physics Series - #2 Chopper Control - Smarter Every Day 46

一旦你懂了物理学 这真的很简单
Alright. This is totally easy once you understand the physics.
看这个 左 好的 右 回到右边 超简单!
Watch this. Left, yep right, go back to the right. It’s easy!
[莫名其妙的]翻个跟头 1 2 3 耶!
[unintelligible] flip. 1..2..3.. Yeah!
太棒了!
Awesome!
还是个孩子时
So, as a kid
我用了很多时间在莱昂纳多•达•芬奇的图集上
I spent many an hour in a book about the drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci.
特别是他的飞行器
In particular his flying machines.
看看这个中世纪的直升机
Check out this medieval helicopter.
看来它可以运行
It looks like it would work,
但你不能根据封面来判断一本书
but you can’t really judge a book by it’s cover
因为它没办法为飞机的机身提供反扭矩
because there’s no way to provide counter torque to the body of the aircraft.
现代直升机通过尾梁上的反扭矩旋翼来提供反扭力矩 就是尾翼
Modern day helicopters do this by providing a counter torque rotor on a boom, a tail rotor.
它用来停止直升机的旋转
This works by stopping the rotation of the helicopter.
但这是你从未想过的
But here’s what you haven’t thought about.
你在 毕竟 对自由悬浮的物体施加一个力
You are, after all, applying a force to a free floating body,
这意味着该物体有移动趋势
which means that body wants to drift.
那么直升机是如何克服这种趋势的呢
So how does a helicopter keep from drifting?
我们要出趟远门
We’re gonna take a journey.
我们要去了解直升机原理的
We’re gonna go from a top level knowledge of
最高深的知识 来进行深入了解
how helicopters work to a really deep understanding.
—你好—我是理查德•莱德贝特
-How you doing Mr Ledbetter?-I’m Richard Ledbetter
我是国家航空航天博物馆的讲解员
I’m a docent at the National Air and Space Museum.
好的 那关于直升机的工作原理 您要给我们演示什么呢
Alright! So what do you have to show us today about how helicopters work?
我们要讨论的是
Well, I guess what we’re gonna talk about is
常见直升机上的主要旋转系统
kinda the main rotor system on a conventional helicopter,
并且主要旋转系统基本上
and the main rotor system basically provides
既为直升机提供升力也同时控制方向
both the lift and the control for the helicopter.
我们通过改变每片旋翼的倾斜角
And how we control the helicopter is
来控制直升机
by varying the pitch at each of the rotor blades.
那么我们如何在它旋转时 在旋翼旋转时
So how do you vary the pitch on a helicopter when it’s rotating,
改变其倾斜角呢?
when the blades are rotating?
在大多数直升机上 我们用
We use, on most helicopters,
我们用一种叫自动倾斜盘的东西
we use something called a swashplate,
本质上 自动倾斜盘的作用
OK, and essentially what a swashplate does,
是用来把不旋转变成旋转动作
is it converts non-rotating to rotating control motion.
我们在直升机上安装了两种装置
We have two kinds of control for the helicopter,
而对于周期改变来说
and for cyclic inputs,
所发生的只是 简单的旋转向前或向后倾斜
what happens is that that swashplate will just simply rotate forward or rotate aft,
这个会改变对每片旋翼的输入
and that changes the input to each of the rotor blades,
但对变总距来说
but for collective pitch what will happen is that
自动倾斜盘会同时上或下
swashplate will actually move up or down.
这实际上会在同时改变
That will actually change
每片旋翼的倾斜角
the pitch in both of those rotor blades at exactly the same time.
哦!好吧 我懂了点
Ohh! OK I just learned something.
所以这里总共有三种控制
So in summary there’s three types of control.
有总距
There’s collective pitch,
有周期桨距
there is cyclic pitch,
和反扭矩
and there’s antitorque.
当然了 反扭矩是处于机身后面的旋转系统
Of course antitorque is the rotor system on the back.
那么让我们与收集家卡尔一起开始吧
So let’s start with collective Carl.
这个“魔法装置”是什么?
So what is this magical device right here?
这是自动倾斜盘
This is the swashplate,
而且 它对任何直升机来说都是控制的根本
and this is the source of all control for any helicopter.
不论自动倾斜盘如何移动
Any direction the swashplate moves,
对多数配件 直升机都会改变
for the most part, the helicopter follows.
所以总距就是你可以改变每片桨叶的装置
So the collective is where you change the pitch of both blades,
不论上升下降
either up or down,
并且这会使直升机上下移动
and that pulls the helicopter up or down.
你不会通过桨叶的转动速度来
You do not control the altitude of the helicopter
控制直升机的高度
by the speed of the blades.
它保持不变
That stays the same.
它会改变升降
It’s translated up or down,
并且它控制桨叶在旋转时对空气施加了多少力
and that controls how much of a bite of air the rotors take.
这对吗?
Is that correct?
是的 完全正确
That is. Yep. Absolutely.
并且它会真正让直升机
And that’ll actually make the helicopter
进行升降
either go up or down.
或者如果它颠倒了 飞机会向后退
Or if it’s upside down, it’s backwards.
哦 是的 因为它倒置了
Oh yeah, cause it’s upside down.
因为我是直升机天才[笑]
Cause I’m a helicopter genius. [laugh]
尾桨
The tail rotor,
就像主旋翼一样 不会改变转速
just like the main blades never changes speed,
所以为了改变推力
so in order to control the thrust,
我们改变桨叶角
we change the pitch on the blades,
所以它可以在两个方向进行推拉
so it can push or pull in both directions.
并且这么做的原因
And the reason it does that,
就是基于这里出现的反扭力矩
it’s basically a reaction torque to what’s going on up here.
主旋翼会对机身产生扭矩 对吗?
The blades are putting a torque into the body is that correct?
是的 旋转的旋翼使直升机有反向运动的趋势
Yep the act of spinning the blades makes the helicopter want to go the opposite direction.
懂了 你现在可以为我展示下周期桨距是什么样吗?
Makes sense. Can you show me what cyclic pitch looks like now.
周期桨距是自动倾斜盘
Cyclic pitch is where the swashplate tilts,
通过连杆
and through the linkage
来控制旋翼桨叶角
controls the pitch of the blades
并且在每圈都会改变
and changes it every revolution
来控制直升机的倾斜度和旋转的地方
to control the pitch and roll of the helicopter.
让周期桨距向这个方向走
Give me cyclic pitch in this direction.
好的 但是如果我旋转了它
OK but then if I rotate it
它还会变回原来对的方式吗
it’ll change as it goes around correct?
它会的
It does change.
所以……那……
So.. so.. that
连杆连在自动倾斜盘上
linkage rides on the swashplate
并且推旋翼的一侧
and then pushes up on the side of the blade,
这会在旋转过程中
and then that in turn changes the blade depending on where
改变它的桨叶角 对么?
it is in the rotation of the rotor shaft right?
—正确—好吧 那么 这对你有什么用?
-Correct. -Alright. And so, what does that do for ya?
它可以让我随心所欲的控制飞行
That lets me flip it any way I want to.
[笑]这会让我变成魔术师
[laughs] (Destin) That lets me do wizardry.
好的 现在你说直升机
OK now you speak helicopter.
而且在后面的几个视频中
And for the next few videos,
为刷新三观做准备吧
prepare for your mind to be blown,
但是我们会用这些基本原理
but we’re going to be using these fundamental terms
所以 准备好
so get ready.
继续观看并订阅 这样你就能看到视频系列了 这很值得
Go ahead and subscribe so you can see this video series. It’s worth it.
[由安德鲁·杰克逊提名]
[ Captions by Andrew Jackson ]
欢迎用不同语言为其添加字幕如果你能提供帮助 请联系德斯坦
Captioning in different languages welcome. Please contact Destin if you can help.

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译制信息
视频概述

直升机是如何工作的?工作原理是什么?快来看看吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Kristen

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaB4k1SgfUg

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