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美国人因为自我保护而变得过于脆弱了吗? – 译学馆
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美国人因为自我保护而变得过于脆弱了吗?

Have Americans become too fragile for their own good? | Jonathan Haidt

美国人因为自我保护而变得过于脆弱了吗?
Have Americans become too fragile for their own good?
乔纳森·海特:所以 第二大谬误是
JONATHAN HAIDT: So, the second great untruth is
“永远相信自己的感觉”
“always trust your feelings ”;
全世界的传统智慧
the wisdom traditions of
会告诉你
the entire world say
“别那样做”
”Don’t do that.”
例如 我们引用过的莎士比亚书中的一些警句
For example,some of the quotes we have the book from Shakespeare,
人们的思想使事物有了好坏之分
“There’s nothing good or bad,but thinking makes it so”
马可·奥里利乌斯认为 “世界是变化的
from Marcus Aurelius, “ The whole world is change,
而且生活只是你认为的那个样子”
and life itself is but what you deem it,”
佛说 “我们的心灵创造了思想
From Buddha, “Our thoughts are the creations of our minds;
我们的思想创造世界”
with our minds we make of the world. ”
CBT只是一套可以教给大家的技巧
CBT is just a way of teaching people skills to do exactly that,
帮助大家质疑感觉 寻找证据
to question their feelings, to look for evidence.
所以 你会在CBT中学到这些扭曲的名字
So in CBT you learn the names of these distortions,
它大约有15种
about 15 or so distortions.
你可以猜出它们的含义:小题大做
You can guess what they mean:catastrophizing
非黑即白的思想 贴标签 读心术
black-and-white thinking; labeling; mind reading.
抑郁和焦虑的人常常会做这些事情
These are the things that depressed and anxious people do a lot.
我们所有人都经历过这些
One way to, all of us have had experience with these.
我喜欢去想荷马·辛普森所说的一句话
One thing I like to think about is Homer Simpson saying,
“大脑你闭嘴 不然我要用棉棒戳你了”
“Shut up brain, or I’ll stab you with a Q-tip!”
我们的大脑常常这样
Our brains do this.
它一直运转着 我们想要它停止运转
Our brains go on and on but like to stop it stop it
CBT就是一种让大脑停下来的方法
Well, CBT is a way of stopping it.
这很容易学
Eh, It’s so easy to learn.
包括我在内的许多人是从一本很精彩的书中学到它的
Many people, including me,learned it from a wonderful book
这本书就是大卫·博恩斯写的《心情愉悦》
by David Burns called Feeling Good.
我们从这本书中 网页上
In our book we, and on our webpage,
在Thecoddling.org网站
if you go to The coddling.org,
我们推荐了一些学习CBT的书籍和app
we have suggestions for books and apps where you can learn it.
认知行为治疗并不比其他几种治疗方法更有效
Cognitive behavioral therapy is not more effective than several other treatments,
其实大多数疗法同样有效
most treatments are about equally effective,
但是认知行为疗法学起来很容易
but it’s so easy to learn.
如果你有教……我在课堂上也曾经教过
If you teach, and I’ve done this in my classes,
如果让班上的每个人都学习CBT
if you assign everyone in the class to learn CBT,
大多数人都会掌握 而且能从中学到东西
most people get it and get something out of it.
像冥想等其他方法也有效 但是更难学
Other techniques like meditation work, but they’re harder.
大多数人会放弃学习
Most people drop off.
所以CBT简单易学 真实测试过的
So CBT is easy, really well tested,
而且在一些精神疾病中有强大效果
has a huge impact on a variety of mental illnesses,
特别是和抑郁 焦虑有关的精神疾病
especially those related to depression and anxiety.
我们认为每个大学生以及每个中学生
We think every college student—and heck every high school student—
都应该学习这些基本技巧
should be taught these basic skills,
因为如今焦虑症和抑郁症 发病率很高
given how high the rates of anxiety and depression are today.
所以近几年 我们经常听到一些报道
So for the last few years we’ve been hearing reports
说校园辅导中心不堪重负
that counseling centers on campus are overwhelmed,
我们也听到越来越多的抑郁症和焦虑症的病例
we’re hearing stories about rising depression and anxiety.
一些人说 哦 这没什么需要警惕的
Some people say, oh it’s nothing to be alarmed about.
这不是真的 只是现在的年轻人
It’s not real it’s just that young people today
不避讳谈论精神疾病
they’re so comfortable talking about mental illness,
他们对此更加开明
they’re more open about it,
这就是发病率看起来升高的原因
and that’s why the rates seem to be rising.
这听起来似乎有道理 不!
It sounds plausible. Not true!
这不仅仅是年轻人太不避讳
It’s not just that young people are more comfortable.
我们知道这点 是因为
We know this because
有研究分析了医院的入院数据
studies have been done looking at hospital admission data,
有的人因为自残被送入医院
who is being admitted to hospitals because they cut themselves,
有的服毒 有的通过其他方式伤害自己
they took poison, they harmedthemself in some other way,
我们真切地看到相同的趋势
we see exactly the same curves.
要强调的是 数据表明
On that data in particular,
男孩患病率没变 女孩患病率却直线上升
the boys are not changing but girls are going way way up,
特别是青春期女孩 不是千禧一代
only teenage girls, not millennials,
不是1995年之前出生的孩子
not kids born before 1995
是指1995年及之后出生的孩子 特别是女孩
but kids born in 1995 and after, the girls in particular,
越来越多孩子自残 然后被送入医院治疗
are cutting themselves and being admitted to hospitals in much higher rates.
更令人担忧的是 自杀率
Most alarmingly the suicide rate,
过去几年的自杀率与本世纪前十年相比
if you look at the last couple years compared to the first ten years of the century,
美国青少年男孩的自杀率
the suicide rate for American boys, teenage boys,
上升了高达25% 幅度非常大
is up 25 percent, which is a gigantic increase;
美国女孩的自杀率则急剧上升了70%
the suicide rate for American girls is up 70 percent.
所以有些事出问题了
So something is going wrong.
有些东西在影响着美国的青少年 特别是女孩
Something is affecting Americanteenagers, especially girls.
所以 现在的美国
So, in the United States right now,
正如许多人注意到的那样
as many people have noticed,
我们正见证着长久以来的文化战争的急剧升温
we are seeing a huge escalation of our long running culture war;
不幸的是 大学正处在这核心之中
unfortunately universities areall right in the heart of that.
右翼分子总是爱说
The right loves to come in and say
大学是政治正确性的堡垒
that universities are bastions of political correctness,
他们已经疯掉了
they’ve lost their minds.
左翼分子则会表示 不 这不是问题
The left is motivated to sayno there’s not a problem,
并不会发生什么 只是右翼分子讨厌想法
there’s nothing going on, it’sjust the right hates ideas,
他们讨厌大学
they hate universities.
所以写这本书的原因是
So the way that this whole book started
格雷格·卢加诺夫 我的合著者兼朋友
is that Greg Lukianoff, my co-authorand friend,
有抑郁症的倾向
is prone to depression
在2007年他患有自杀性抑郁症 他入院就医
and he had a suicidal depressionin 2007; he was hospitalized
作为他治疗的一部分 他学习了认知行为治疗
and he learned cognitive behavioraltherapy as part of his treatment,
他把拯救他的生命归功于认知行为治疗
and he credits it with saving his life.
后来他重返了个人教育权利基金会主席的岗位
So he goes back to his job as the President for the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education,
他一直为学生的言论自由权而奋斗
he’s been fighting for free speech rights for students,
驳回那些总是主张限制发言的管理员
pushing back against administrators who are always imposing speech limits.
学生总是他最有力的支持者
Students were alwayshis best supporters.
一般而言 学生想要发表言论 思考和独立的权利
Students generally wanted the rights to speak and think and be independent,
直到2013年
Until 2013,
2013年的秋天 他开始注意到有学生表示
Beginning in the fall of 2013 he started seeing the first cases of students saying,
“我们想要从言论 书籍 想法 发言者获得保护
“we want protections from words, books, ideas, speakers.
我们要取消对发言者的邀请 拒绝此人进入我们校园
We want speakers disinvited, don’tlet this person onto our campus,
不是因为这是无礼的 而是因为这是危险的
not because it would be offensive, but because it will be dangerous.
这是有害的
It will be harmful.
这会使精神受到损伤
It will be traumatizing.
我们想要触发警告
We want trigger warnings,
如果你要分配一本含有暴力内容的书
if you’re going to assign a book that has violence in it,
特别是有性暴力的书籍 例如含有强奸情节的《希腊神话》
especially sexual violence like A Greek Myth, which has rape,
如果你要分配那样的书 你就要警告学生
if you’re gonna assign that you need to warn students against it,
这样他们就能选择那一天要不要缺席
so that they can choose whether they want to absent themselves on that day.
所以这是一种新的趋势
so this was something new
起初这是发生在几所学校中的怪事
and at first it was just a strange thing at a few schools
但它却在接下来的一年越演越烈
And then over the following year it built to the point, where in 2014,
2014年 我们在《新共和国周刊》和《纽约时报》
we started reading articles in the New Republic and the New York Times
开始读到一些关于触发警告 安全空间
about trigger warnings, safe spaces,
微侵略训练 偏见反应小组的文章
micro aggression training, bias response teams,
一系列的概念及规程开始出现在某些大学里
a whole set of constructs and procedures emerged on certain universities,
不是所有大学 但是出现在了东北部的精英学校和西海岸
not everywhere, but especially at elite schools in the Northeast and on the West Coast
这种方式使学生免受语言 书籍 想法和发言者伤害
a way of protecting students from words, books, ideas and speakers.
发言者渐增地被压低声音
Speakers were shouted down increasingly,
原因不是他们无礼且讨厌 而是他们很危险
not because they were offensive and hatefulbut because they were dangerous.
对于学生来说 在对和错上去思考问题就挺好的
For students to think about ideas in terms of right or wrong is great.
你可以思考一件事有趣还是无聊
Exciting versus boring is great.
至于安不安全的问题
But safe versus dangerous?
用这个方法探知这个理智的世界太糟糕了
this is a terrible way to approach the intellectual world
所以格雷格跟我讨论
so Greg came to talk to me
因为他看到学生们的认知扭曲
because what he saw was students doing the exact cognitive distortions
与他的认知扭曲一模一样
that he had learned to stop doing
但他接受抑郁症治疗时学会了不要有这些扭曲
when he was treated for cognitive behavioral therapy, when he was treated for depression.
他担忧 如果学生开始以这种方式去看待
Greg was concerned that if students are beginning to think this way
安全 危险和伤害
about safety and danger and harmfulness,
这将会使他们抑郁 焦虑
that this is going to make them depressed and anxious.
于是 我们2015年在《大西洋月刊》
And that’s what led us to write our original article in The Atlantic in 2015
发表了题目为《娇生惯养的美国人》的文a章
titled The Coddling of the American Mind.
这篇文章发表于
We publish the article in 2015
学生们在当年万圣节发起的一场抗议浪潮之前
before a big wave of student protests around Halloween of 2015,
所以 我和格雷格在2014年看到的趋势
so these trends that we saw, that Greg and I both saw hints of in 2014,
在2015年秋天爆发了
they exploded in the fall of 2015,
并且在此后的几年间更广泛的传播开来了
they’ve spread much more widely in the couple years since then.
同时 我们看到抑郁症和焦虑症的发病率也在飞速上升
And at the same time we’re seeing rates of depression and anxiety increasing rapidly too.
不能说那些趋势就是原因 我们还无从得知
We’re not saying these arecausing that, we don’t know,
但是抑郁症浪潮开始呈现普遍性
but there is a national wave of depression.
学生从安全与危险的角度思考
Students are thinking in terms of safety and danger.
学生自己也说 他们变得更脆弱
Students say, by their own admission, they are more fragile;
他们用 脆弱 无力 创伤 触发这些词语
they use a language of fragility, weakness, trauma, triggering.
他们去到哪里都会受到触发
They see triggers all over the world.
什么是触发?
What are triggers?
触发就是你神经系统的一部分
Triggers are cases where you take a part of your nervous system
如果有人提及到某个词
and you say, if someone says that word
这个词就能控制我的神经系统 让我害怕焦虑
they can control my nervous system and make me afraid and anxious
这很糟糕
that’s a terrible idea
我们不该教孩子把世界视为充满触发的地方
We should not be teaching our kids to see the world as being full of triggers
而是教他们把世界视为安全的
we should teach them to live in a world that is physically quite safe
只不过是充满了攻击性的言论和想法 尤其是网上
but full of offensive statements and ideas especially on the Internet
商业界发生了个可悲的事 谷歌正被双方起诉
A sad commentary on the state of the business world now is that Google is being sued from both sides,
起诉一方是女性 她们声称是敌对氛围的受害者
from women who say that they’re victims of a hostile climate,
而保守派和白人男性则认为他们受到歧视
and from conservatives and white men, who say that conservatives and white men are discriminated against.
所以 现在 每个人都感觉自己是受害者
So in our current era, everybody feels they’re a victim.
事实是 观点的多样性对于健康组织是很重要的
The truth is that diversity of perspectives is essential for healthy organizations,
特别是那些关心变革的人
especially those who care about innovation.
我们必须同时应对所有的多样性议题
We have to address all of the diversity issues at the same time.
我们不能让他们互相对立
We can’t pit them against each other.
我们必须改善发言风气
We have to work on our speech climate,
在商业界这叫做“畅所欲言文化”
in the business world it’s called speak up culture,
在学术界这叫做 “想法的基本开放”
in the academic world it’s called just basic openness to ideas.
整个美国社会都有这个问题
We’re having problems all across American society,
我们得解决他们
we’ve got to work on them.

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