Have Americans become too fragile for their own good?
JONATHAN HAIDT: So, the second great untruth is
“always trust your feelings ”;
the wisdom traditions of
the entire world say
”Don’t do that.”
For example,some of the quotes we have the book from Shakespeare,
“There’s nothing good or bad,but thinking makes it so”
from Marcus Aurelius, “ The whole world is change,
and life itself is but what you deem it,”
From Buddha, “Our thoughts are the creations of our minds;
with our minds we make of the world. ”
CBT is just a way of teaching people skills to do exactly that,
to question their feelings, to look for evidence.
So in CBT you learn the names of these distortions,
about 15 or so distortions.
You can guess what they mean:catastrophizing
非黑即白的思想 贴标签 读心术
black-and-white thinking; labeling; mind reading.
These are the things that depressed and anxious people do a lot.
One way to, all of us have had experience with these.
One thing I like to think about is Homer Simpson saying,
“Shut up brain, or I’ll stab you with a Q-tip!”
Our brains do this.
Our brains go on and on but like to stop it stop it
Well, CBT is a way of stopping it.
Eh, It’s so easy to learn.
Many people, including me,learned it from a wonderful book
by David Burns called Feeling Good.
In our book we, and on our webpage,
if you go to The coddling.org,
we have suggestions for books and apps where you can learn it.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is not more effective than several other treatments,
most treatments are about equally effective,
but it’s so easy to learn.
If you teach, and I’ve done this in my classes,
if you assign everyone in the class to learn CBT,
most people get it and get something out of it.
Other techniques like meditation work, but they’re harder.
Most people drop off.
So CBT is easy, really well tested,
has a huge impact on a variety of mental illnesses,
especially those related to depression and anxiety.
We think every college student—and heck every high school student—
should be taught these basic skills,
given how high the rates of anxiety and depression are today.
So for the last few years we’ve been hearing reports
that counseling centers on campus are overwhelmed,
we’re hearing stories about rising depression and anxiety.
一些人说 哦 这没什么需要警惕的
Some people say, oh it’s nothing to be alarmed about.
It’s not real it’s just that young people today
they’re so comfortable talking about mental illness,
they’re more open about it,
and that’s why the rates seem to be rising.
It sounds plausible. Not true!
It’s not just that young people are more comfortable.
We know this because
studies have been done looking at hospital admission data,
who is being admitted to hospitals because they cut themselves,
they took poison, they harmedthemself in some other way,
we see exactly the same curves.
On that data in particular,
the boys are not changing but girls are going way way up,
only teenage girls, not millennials,
not kids born before 1995
but kids born in 1995 and after, the girls in particular,
are cutting themselves and being admitted to hospitals in much higher rates.
Most alarmingly the suicide rate,
if you look at the last couple years compared to the first ten years of the century,
the suicide rate for American boys, teenage boys,
is up 25 percent, which is a gigantic increase;
the suicide rate for American girls is up 70 percent.
So something is going wrong.
Something is affecting Americanteenagers, especially girls.
So, in the United States right now,
as many people have noticed,
we are seeing a huge escalation of our long running culture war;
unfortunately universities areall right in the heart of that.
The right loves to come in and say
that universities are bastions of political correctness,
they’ve lost their minds.
左翼分子则会表示 不 这不是问题
The left is motivated to sayno there’s not a problem,
there’s nothing going on, it’sjust the right hates ideas,
they hate universities.
So the way that this whole book started
is that Greg Lukianoff, my co-authorand friend,
is prone to depression
and he had a suicidal depressionin 2007; he was hospitalized
and he learned cognitive behavioraltherapy as part of his treatment,
and he credits it with saving his life.
So he goes back to his job as the President for the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education,
he’s been fighting for free speech rights for students,
pushing back against administrators who are always imposing speech limits.
Students were alwayshis best supporters.
一般而言 学生想要发表言论 思考和独立的权利
Students generally wanted the rights to speak and think and be independent,
Beginning in the fall of 2013 he started seeing the first cases of students saying,
“我们想要从言论 书籍 想法 发言者获得保护
“we want protections from words, books, ideas, speakers.
We want speakers disinvited, don’tlet this person onto our campus,
not because it would be offensive, but because it will be dangerous.
It will be harmful.
It will be traumatizing.
We want trigger warnings,
if you’re going to assign a book that has violence in it,
especially sexual violence like A Greek Myth, which has rape,
if you’re gonna assign that you need to warn students against it,
so that they can choose whether they want to absent themselves on that day.
so this was something new
and at first it was just a strange thing at a few schools
And then over the following year it built to the point, where in 2014,
we started reading articles in the New Republic and the New York Times
about trigger warnings, safe spaces,
micro aggression training, bias response teams,
a whole set of constructs and procedures emerged on certain universities,
not everywhere, but especially at elite schools in the Northeast and on the West Coast
这种方式使学生免受语言 书籍 想法和发言者伤害
a way of protecting students from words, books, ideas and speakers.
Speakers were shouted down increasingly,
not because they were offensive and hatefulbut because they were dangerous.
For students to think about ideas in terms of right or wrong is great.
Exciting versus boring is great.
But safe versus dangerous?
this is a terrible way to approach the intellectual world
so Greg came to talk to me
because what he saw was students doing the exact cognitive distortions
that he had learned to stop doing
when he was treated for cognitive behavioral therapy, when he was treated for depression.
Greg was concerned that if students are beginning to think this way
about safety and danger and harmfulness,
that this is going to make them depressed and anxious.
And that’s what led us to write our original article in The Atlantic in 2015
titled The Coddling of the American Mind.
We publish the article in 2015
before a big wave of student protests around Halloween of 2015,
so these trends that we saw, that Greg and I both saw hints of in 2014,
they exploded in the fall of 2015,
they’ve spread much more widely in the couple years since then.
And at the same time we’re seeing rates of depression and anxiety increasing rapidly too.
We’re not saying these arecausing that, we don’t know,
but there is a national wave of depression.
Students are thinking in terms of safety and danger.
Students say, by their own admission, they are more fragile;
他们用 脆弱 无力 创伤 触发这些词语
they use a language of fragility, weakness, trauma, triggering.
They see triggers all over the world.
What are triggers?
Triggers are cases where you take a part of your nervous system
and you say, if someone says that word
they can control my nervous system and make me afraid and anxious
that’s a terrible idea
We should not be teaching our kids to see the world as being full of triggers
we should teach them to live in a world that is physically quite safe
but full of offensive statements and ideas especially on the Internet
A sad commentary on the state of the business world now is that Google is being sued from both sides,
from women who say that they’re victims of a hostile climate,
and from conservatives and white men, who say that conservatives and white men are discriminated against.
所以 现在 每个人都感觉自己是受害者
So in our current era, everybody feels they’re a victim.
The truth is that diversity of perspectives is essential for healthy organizations,
especially those who care about innovation.
We have to address all of the diversity issues at the same time.
We can’t pit them against each other.
We have to work on our speech climate,
in the business world it’s called speak up culture,
in the academic world it’s called just basic openness to ideas.
We’re having problems all across American society,
we’ve got to work on them.