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《哈利·波特》——译者的噩梦

Harry Potter and the translator's nightmare

In 1997, JK Rowling published
1997年J·K·罗琳出版了
Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s stone.
《哈利·波特与魔法石》
But most of her audience didn’t actually read that book.
然而大多数读者实际上并未读过这本书
They read Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s stone.
他们读的是《哈利·波特与魔术石》
or Harry Potter A L’Ecole des Sorciers
或《哈利·波特在巫师学校》
Harry Potter va Sang-e Jadu
《哈利·波特·瓦桑加杜》
Harry Potter y la Piedra Filosofal
《哈利·波特与拉皮德拉·菲罗索法尔》
[cool humming of “Hedwig’s Theme” ]
[“海德薇主题曲”的清唱]
Vox
《沃克斯观点》
The bewitching Harry Potter books have reached readers
令广大读者着迷的哈利波特系列
in over 200 territories in over 60 languages.
已在200多个地区被译为60多种语言
The authorized translations came from separate publishing houses
这些来自各出版社的译本
with little oversight from the author.
很少经过作者的监管
So translators were not only tasked with adapting the text from
因此译者不仅要将英文原文
English into their target languages and cultures,
改编成目标语言和文化概念
but also making assumptions about Rowling’s intentions
同时也要猜测罗琳的意图
and translating the spirit of her approach.
翻译出她手法中的精髓
Their task was particularly challenging because the Harry Potter series is filled with
这个任务极具挑战性 因为《哈利波特》系列作品充满了
invented words, alliteration, wordplay, and British cultural references.
大量的新造词 头韵 双关语 英国文化典故引用
The main characters first names: Harry, Hermione,
书中主角的名字 哈利 赫敏
and Ron mostly stayed the same across languages,
罗恩 在不同语言中一般都保持不变
with small changes to accommodate different alphabets and phonetics.
仅为适应不同字母系统和发音作微小调整
That’s easy enough for conventional names like Harry Potter.
翻译像哈利·波特这种常见的名字很容易
But many of the other proper names in the book carry loaded meanings
但书中其他很多特有的名字都有附加含义
meanings that would be lost if it’s not translated.
这意味着如果翻译不出 这含义就会丢失
Take Severus Snape.
比如西弗勒斯·斯内普
The name invokes severity and sounds like “snake.”
这个名字有严厉的感觉 听起来像“蛇”
So the Italian translator made the jump and named him
因此意大利译者跳跃性地将其译为
Severus Piton —which is basically python.
Severus Piton——基本就是巨蟒的意思
In French, he’s Severus Rogue
在法语中 他是Severus Rogue
which means Severus “Arrogance”.
意思是西弗勒斯·“傲慢”
As you can tell, both solutions sacrificed Rowling’s alliteration.
如你所见 这两种方案都牺牲了罗琳的头韵
The name “Hogwarts” combines two English words,
“霍格沃茨”结合了两个英语单词
but because the name stayed the same in most languages,
但由于很多语言中这个单词保持了原状
those connotations were lost for those readers.
读者无法领会到其内涵
In an attempt to preserve Rowling’s approach to the school’s name,
为保持罗琳给学校起名的意图
the French translator used “Poudlard.”
法国译者使用了“Poudlard”
“Pou du lard” means lice of bacon or fat.
意思是腌肉或肥肉上的虱子
The Hungarian version went with “Roxfort” a mix of the British university
匈牙利版则用了“Roxfort” 这是英国牛津大学
Oxford and Roquefort—a well known blue cheese.
和洛克福奶酪——一种有名的蓝纹奶酪的混合
The house names and founders, also experienced unique
学院名称和创建者姓名
adaptations in some of the target languages.
在有的目标语言中也经过了特别的调整
In Catalan the names became: Nícanor Griffindor,
在卡特罗尼亚版中 它们变成了Nícanor Griffindor
Sírpentin Slytherin, Mari Pau Ravenclaw, and Horténsia Hufflepuff.
Sírpentin Slytherin Mari Pau Ravenclaw和Horténsia Hufflepuff
There’s a ton of word play that happens in the Harry Potter books as well.
像这样的文字游戏在哈利波特系列中有很多
The famous Diagon Alley, a play on the word “diagonally”
著名的对角巷是“对角地”一词的变体
and the infamous Knockturn Alley from “nocturnally”.
重名昭著的翻倒巷与“夜间地”同音
This type of pun is a real puzzle for translators,
这种双关语对译者来说很难翻译
and most dropped it in favor of literal translations.
因此他们大多选择了直译 放弃译出双关
The Spanish translator was able to rhyme at least with “callejón diagon.”
而西班牙文版至少能在“callejón diagon”中体现韵律
And translators had several approaches to Quidditch,
此外 对于魁地奇——一种融合了
an invented game made from the invented words Quaffle, Bludger, and Snitch—
鬼飞球 游走球和金色飞贼的自创游戏
the 3 types of balls used in the game.
译者们也有不同的翻译方式
In Spanish, the words were not changed.
这些单词在西班牙文中没有变化
The French translator kept the word Quidditch but changed the names of the balls.
法国译者保留了“魁地奇”但改变了其中三种球的名称
And others changed the game’s name altogether.
有些翻译甚至完全改变了这个游戏的名字
In Dutch, quidditch is “Zwerkbal.”
在荷兰文译本中 它是“黑球”
In Norwegian, it’s “Rumpeldunk.”
在挪威译本中 它是“朗普斯金”
OWLS and NEWTS, standardized tests in the wizarding world,
魔法世界的标准考试 普通巫师和高级巫师等级考试
weren’t always able to retain their animal acronyms.
不总能在翻译时保留其有动物名称意义的首字母缩写
But in Swedish their implied meanings remained while the wording was changed.
不过在瑞典译本中 这个意义以改变用词为代价保留了
OWLs became Grund Examen i Trollkonst
高级巫师考试被译为Grund Examen i Trollkonst
or G.E.T meaning goat in Swedish.
缩写GET在瑞典语中意为山羊
And NEWTs were changed to Fruktansvrt Utmattande Trollkarls Test
普通巫师等级考试被译为“Fruktansvrt Utmattande Trollkarls Test”
or F.U.T.T. derived from “futtig” meaning measly or mean.
缩写FUTT来自“futtig” 意思是微不足道的
The infamous anagram of Tom Marvolo Riddle’s name was altered
邪恶的汤姆·马沃罗·里德尔的名字
by many translators to achieve the same revelation
是“我是伏地魔”的变位词
of “I Am Lord Voldemort.”
很多译者都为保留这个语意对译文做了改动
In Danish, Tom is named “Romeo G. Detlev Jr.”
在丹麦译本中 它被译为“Romeo G·Detlev Jr”
and in French he is “Tom Elvis Jedusor”
在法语中他是“Tom Elvis Jedusor”
which was extra clever because “Jeu du sort” means “fate riddle.”
这个翻译尤其巧妙 因为“Jeu du sort”意思是“命运之谜”
Culturally, the Harry Potter series is unmistakably British
从文化角度看 哈利波特系列无疑是英国的
but translating that for a global group of readers wasn’t easy.
但将其翻译给全球范围的读者并不容易
Some food items were changed to make them less foreign for the target country.
为了减少外来感 许多食物名称都被替换
Sherbet lemons, a popular candy item in Britain,
柠檬雪宝 一种很受欢迎的英国甜品
became Krembo, a chocolate covered sweet from Israel.
在以色列译本中变成了Krembo 一种裹着巧克力的以色列甜品
Crisps became chips in the US
在美国版中 薯条由Crisps改译为Chips
and in the Arabic version, bacon became eggs.
而在阿拉伯文译本中 培根变成了鸡蛋
Sometimes a foreign setting undergoes translation too.
有时外国的陌生故事背景也相应地进行了转换
For the Ukrainian translation, the atmosphere of an English boarding school was swapped out for an orphanage.
在乌克兰的译本中 英国寄宿学校被替换成了孤儿院
In the books and films, Hagrid has a provincial west country accent.
无论在书中还是电影里 海格都有英国西部的乡下口音
Hagrid: “No? Blimey Harry, didn’t you ever wonder
海格:“莫得?哎呦哈利 你就莫有想过
where your mum and dad learned it all?”
这些你老子跟你娘是搁那达学的么?”
“You’re a wizard, Harry.”
“你是一巫师 哈利”
For the Japanese translations, it was replicated by using Tōhoku dialect, which is a pastoral accent from northeastern Japan.
日语译本使用了日本东北地区的方言作为替代
Other translators chose to have Hagrid simply speak more informally,
其他译者只是简单地将他的语言翻译得不那么正式
while others dropped his accent entirely.
有的甚至完全放弃了翻译他的口音
Despite translators’ best efforts to remain true to the text
尽管译者们在保留文本原意上做出了很大努力
some things still were lost in translation.
很多东西还是在翻译中流失了
In the mainland Chinese editions of Harry Potter
中国大陆的《哈利·波特》译本
there were footnotes to explain puns and cultural references.
附有解释双关语和文化内涵的脚注
The Spanish translator sometimes used italics to signal an invented word with no translation.
西班牙译者有时直接用斜体标出原文的新造词
But in the end, it doesn’t matter if you’re reading Harry Potter and
但是归根结底 你读的到底是原版《哈利·波特与魔法石》
Philosopher’s Stone or the many translations of it.
还是它的译本并不重要
One thing that always seems to translate
因为有一样东西总能翻译出来
is the love fans around the world share for tales of
那就是全世界的粉丝对“大难不死的男孩”
“The Boy Who Lived.”
这一故事的热爱

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视频概述

风靡全球的《哈利·波特》系列故事中隐含了数不胜数的双关隐喻,简直就是译者的噩梦!罗琳都在那些地方使用了双关语?它们到底有多难翻译?各国译者是如何处理这些问题的?一起来看视频、涨知识吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

冰箱里的夏虫

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UdbOhvjIJxI

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