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哈代悖论:量子扭曲双缝实验 – 译学馆
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哈代悖论:量子扭曲双缝实验

Hardy's Paradox | Quantum Double Double Slit Experiment

《分钟物理》
如果你使用激光向有两个孔的墙上照射
If you take a laser and shine it at a wall
你就进行了著名的
with two holes in it, you have the famous
双缝实验
double slit experiment –
即光波通过两个狭缝时会相互干涉
where waves coming through two slits interfere with each other
使得墙上某些区域变亮 其他区域变暗
to be bright in some places on the wall, and dark in others.
量子粒子也有这种效应
And this works with quantum particles, too,
因为它们表现以波的形式——
since they behave in wave-like ways:
向狭缝发射一只猫
send a cat towards the slits,
它会在墙上的一个点出现
and it’ll show up at a point on the wall.
发射一群猫
Send a bunch of cats,
它们会积累出同光波一样的
and their accumulation reveals the same interference pattern
干涉图案
as a light wave.
现在 想象你像进行双缝实验一样
Now imagine you add another, competing double slit experiment,
加入另外一只猫
with another cat, that shares
与第一只猫共用其中一个狭缝
one of the slits with the first setup.
当然 如果你向这两个狭缝
Of course, if you send the second cat
反复发射第二只猫
over and over towards these two slits, the points
它在墙上撞击出的点会出现相似的干涉图案
where it hits the wall will give a similarinterference pattern.
这是其中一只猫的点
And at this point here for one cat,
这是另一只猫的点
and this point here for the other,
而这两点的猫从未出现
those cats never show up,
无论你通过狭缝发射它们多少次
no matter how many times you send them through the slits.
它们的这种类波形现象称为
Their wavelike behavior causes what’s called
“相消干涉”
“destructive interference”;
如果猫是光
if cats were light,
这些点就会出现在“无猫处”
these points would be in cat-darkness.
但如果将两只猫同时射向对应细缝
But weird things happen if you send both cats
就会出现奇怪的事情
at their double slits at the same time.
上面的猫通过上面和中间的狭缝到达墙上
The top cat goes through the top and middle slits and then towards the wall,
而下面的猫
and the bottom cats
通过下面和中间的狭缝到达墙上
goes through the bottom and middle slits and then towards the wall;
事情会如预期一样再次发生
and things would again go as expected,
当然 除非两只猫在通过中间狭缝时
of course, except that the cats get in each others’way
会互相挡道
going through the middle slit.
也许狭缝对于两只猫同时通过太过狭窄
Maybe the slit’s too small for two cats to fit through simultaneously,
或者可能 对
or maybe, yeah!
也许一只猫其实是由反物质组成
maybe one cat is actually made of antimatter
则若二者同时通过中间狭缝
so if both go through the middle slit,
就会湮灭 而不会到达墙上
they annihilate each other and never make it to the wall.
无论是哪个原因 现在的情况是:
Either way, the situation is now this:
猫通过狭缝处于一种量子叠加态
the cats traverse the slits in a quantum superposition
即上面的猫通过上面 下面的猫通过中间
of top cat top/bottom cat middle,
上面的猫通过上面 下面的猫通过下面
top cat top/bottom cat bottom,
以及上面的猫通过中间 下面的猫通过下面
and top cat middle/bottom cat bottom.
在叠加态中不会出现两只猫都通过中缝的情况
There’s no “both cats in the middle” in the superposition,
因为两只猫不能
since the cats can’t
同时通过中间狭缝
traverse the middle slit together.
既然叠加态没有
And since the superposition is missing
“两只猫一同通过中缝”的选项
“both cats in the middle” option,
干涉图案就会发生变化
the interference patterns change
可能猫会出现在
and it’s possible for the cats to end up in the places on the
之前的“无猫处”
wall where before there was cat darkness.
这对波来说一点都不奇怪
This isn’t at all surprising for waves –
我是说 不同数量的波通过狭缝
I mean, different amounts of wave coming through
意味着不同的干涉图案
the slits means a different interference pattern.
但涉及粒子时就会出现奇怪的事
But there’s something weird about this whenparticles are involved.
想知道原因 要特别注意
To see why, remember that individually,
出现“无猫处”是因为
the cat darkness arose because the cat’s wave-particle
波-粒叠加态通过两狭缝
superposition went through both slits and interfered
并发生自干涉 使得猫显现在那一点
with itself to result in zero probability
概率为零
of the cat ending up there.
如果下面的猫真的停止在那里
So if the bottom cat DOES end up there,
它一定没有发生自干涉
it must not have been able to interfere with itself,
所以它一定没有通过两个狭缝
so it must not have gone through both slits,
所以一定是另一只猫在中间狭缝
so there must have been something blocking
阻碍了它
one – the other cat, in the middle.
如果上面的猫停止在之前没有猫的位置
And if the top cat ends up in its previously cat-free spot,
那么它也一定没有
then it must not have gone
通过两个狭缝
through both slits either –
下面的猫一定在中间狭缝阻碍了它
the bottom cat must have been blocking the middle slit.
除非你真正做这个实验
This wouldn’t be a problem,
这些都不是问题
except that when you actually do this experiment,
有时两只猫都停止在之前没有猫的位置
some of the time BOTH cats end up in the previously cat-free spots.
我们知道它们不可能都通过了
And we know they can’t both have gone
中间狭缝
through the middle slit,
因为它们会相互湮灭
because they would have annihilated each other,
所以每只猫都在通过中间狭缝时
so each cat must have been blocked
被同时通过中间狭缝的
from going through the middle slit by the
另一只猫阻碍了
other cat having gone through the middle slit,simultaneously.
这个过程看起来不可能
Which of course seems impossible,
这就是为什么这种情形被叫做悖论
and is why this situation has been called a paradox.
如果你想要去考虑现实或情境
it’s certainly thought-provoking
或测量值的不足
if you like to think about local realism or contextuality
亦或传统逻辑和量子力学的相互关系
or weak measurement values or the interaction
这确实发人深思
between classical logic and quantum mechanics.
但这并不十分惊奇
But it’s not really that surprising,
只要你相信量子粒子
as long as you believe that quantum particles
可以叠加 这随时都在发生
can be in superpositions, which happens all
且已被实验良好地证实
the time and has been incredibly well experimentally confirmed.
正如我们之前说的
As we said earlier,
两只猫通过狭缝时处于叠加态 “上中态”
the two cats pass through the slits in the superposition “ top middle ”
加上“中下态” 加上“上下态”
plus “ middle bottom ” plus “ top bottom ”,
其中包括必须在中缝出现的
which include both apparently necessary “ blockages ”
被其中一只猫“阻碍”的情况
of the middle slit by one cat or the other,
正是这种叠加
and it’s this superposition that results
造成干涉图案发生变化
in the changed interference pattern that allows
使两只猫同时
for the possibility that both cats simultaneously
停在之前没有猫的位置成为可能
end up in the previously cat-dark locations.
如果这些看起来都有些奇怪
If all of this seems a bit weird.
是的 就是奇怪
Yeah, it is!
但是应该记住
But it’s worth remembering
这些怪事和悖论不是一回事
that weirdness and paradox are not one and the same.
量子的猫 反物质猫和双缝实验
the quantum cat/antimatter-cat double double-slit experiment
充满着量子力学的
is fully consistent with the predictions
预测和实验结果
and experimental results of quantum mechanics.
有时世界就是很奇怪
Sometimes the universe is just weird!
如果你(或者你认识的其他人
If you ( or somebody you know,
亦或者你想要找一个人)
who maybe you’re looking for a present for? )
是一个喜欢深入研究量子悖论
are the kind of person who likes to dive deep into quantum paradoxes,
或者波相干涉时发生的有趣的事的人
or the cool things waves do when they interfere,
那你绝对应该看一看Brilliant.org网站
then you should definitely check out Brilliant.org,
这个视频的赞助商
this video’s sponsor,
这里有许多波动力学
which has courses and quizzes about all sorts
量子力学和数学谜题等
of fascinating wave mechanics, and quantum mechanics,
课程和小测验
and math puzzles, and more.
不像油管视频
Unlike a youtube video,
Brilliant给你机会去实际练习
Brilliant gives you the opportunity to actually practice and hone
分享学校里和工作上解决问题方法和科学思考技能
your problem solving and scientific thinking skills, for school, work,
或者是因为能理解世界是很棒的
or because understanding the universe is awesome!
如果你参与Brilliant网站的分钟物理
And if you go to brilliant.org/minutephysics
你将得到20%的订阅折扣
you can get 20 % off a premium subscription
把Brilliant当作礼物给你自己或其他人
to brilliant for yourself or for somebody else as a gift –
而非金钱至上 马上行动吧
it’s non-materialistic AND arrives instantly!
再一次 Brilliant网站的分钟物理
Again, that’s brilliant.org/minutephysics
为了深度思考怪事
for a deeper understanding of the weird
但其实是位于我们宇宙中的物理 的那个你
but true physics that underlies our universe, for you,
或者你的朋友 或你所爱的人
or your friends and loved ones.

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视频概述

双缝实验及波粒二象性

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收集自网络

翻译译者

绛蓝

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ph3d-ByEA7Q

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