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花式改造元素周期表

Hacking the Periodic Table

Periodically, I look at the periodic table
我觉得从周期性的角度看
and think that’s not very well designed.
元素周期表设计得不是很好
Like, look at this big tall column on the left, and then a big gap,
比如 左边这列很高 接着是个大缺口
and then more tall columns on the right.
然后右边又出现了更多列高柱子
It just doesn’t feel very natural
看着不自然
so let’s rearrange the table!
所以让我们重排一下这个表
Obviously we don’t ignore physical reality,
当然了 不能忽略客观现实
but the idea of the periodic table, roughly speaking, is
原表的排列思路 大致是
that atoms are listed horizontally according to increasing atomic number
按原子序数的递增 横向排列
and grouped vertically according to shared properties,
按相似的化学性质 纵向排列
so these breaks here on the left and right,
所以中间有空格
where it goes from element 10 on the right to 11 way on the left
右边的10号元素到左边的11号元素
those are artificial.
是人为断开的
We should really be cutting the periodic table out
我们先将它剪一下
and then taping the edges together, into a nice loop.
然后粘成一个漂亮的环
Kind of like how there isn’t actually a giant disconnect
就好像俄罗斯和阿拉斯加之间
between Russia and Alaska,
并不存在巨大的断裂
even if maps make it seem like that.
只是在地图上看起来如此
Anyway, once you join the Russia and Alaska of the periodic table,
当你把俄罗斯和阿拉斯加放到周期表上
it makes a different location seem like the obvious place to cut
也会出现明显的切割点
if we really want a flat table
如果想要表整齐
cut right here.
从这里剪
Then we get the left-step periodic table,
就会得到左阶周期表
where the columns are all nicely stair-stepping down
它的纵高规则地阶梯性递减
though really it’s even nicer if helium moves up above beryllium
如果还想更完美 将氦移到铍的上面
and next to hydrogen where it so obviously belongs.
氢的旁边 它本来也该在这里
This way of organizing the table looks really nice
这种排表方式 看起来很整齐
and makes a fair bit of sense from a physics perspective
从物理学的角度看 也比较合理
even if it doesn’t have the nice properties of normal periodic tables
只是看不出周期表的原子属性
where electronegativity and first ionization energy
看不出原表 从左到右 从下到上
increase from left to right and bottom to top
电负性和第一电离能逐渐增加的特点
But really the periodic table should be a loop.
但事实上这个表应该是个环
The problem is, we still have a gap between elements 20 and 21
问题是 20和21号元素间有空格
maybe we can loop them too?
或许也能将它们连成环
And what about 4 & 5?
那4和5号元素呢?
If we join them, we have a nice spiral periodic table,
如果连成环 就是一个完整的螺旋周期表
with no gaps between any of the numbers!
任何元素之间都没有空隙
Though it’s even nicer if helium moves over above neon
不过如果氦在氖上面就更好了
where it so obviously belongs.
很明显它该在那里
This version kind of looks like a tiered cake,
这个样子有点像分层蛋糕
and goes really well on top of pointy trees!
与尖尖的树顶也很搭
Except in this spiral table,
但是 这个螺旋表
elements with similar properties aren’t grouped together vertically anymore
纵向上 不再是化学性质相似的元素
So we could attach the ones that are supposed to be grouped vertically
要将纵向的同族元素放在一起
which forces us to make some folds,
我们就要做些折叠
and now we get this spiral rosettey periodic table,
现在我们得到了这个螺旋玫瑰周期表
sometimes called “Mendeleev’s flower.”
也可以叫做“门捷列夫的花”
This really shows the structure of the table nicely,
这确实很好地展示了表的结构
though it’s not really a table any more,
不过 它不再是一个表格
and it’s way too three dimensional for a lot of uses.
这种三维的螺旋型在很多时候并不适用
So let’s unspiral the spiral,
所以解开螺旋
and go back to basics, the one dimensional periodic table.
让我们回到基础的一维周期表
It’s actually pretty long.
它真的很长
And it’s a lot harder to see the structure,
更难看出原表的结构了
though you can still see that certain properties repeat periodically
不过你仍可以看出特定性质的周期性重复
hence, periodic table.
因此 还是一个周期表
And if you match up those repeated patterns,
如果按照颜色配对
and cut in all the right places, and do some surgery ,
在所有不同颜色的地方剪一下
you arrive back at the familiar
它又回到你熟悉的样子
if not super elegant – traditional periodic table.
不是很好看的 传统的周期表
This video was supported by Brilliant,
本视频由Brilliant赞助
which is also a brilliant holiday gift for anyone
这是一份精心设计的节日礼物
who’s interested in math, science, puzzles, or cutting up periodic tables.
送给所有对数学 科学 难题或者切分元素周期表感兴趣的人
Brilliant premium gets you or whoever you’re giving it to
成为Brilliant的会员可以解锁
full access to all of brilliant’s courses, quizzes, puzzles, and daily challenges,
所有课程 测验 难题和每日挑战赛
including this one which is about cutting up hexagons into pieces
包括这个 将六边形切割成小块
and rearranging into other shapes with the same area.
并用它们重组成其他形状
Or Brilliant’s course on chemical reactions,
还有化学反应的课程
which’ll help you understand
它有助于你理解
what you can and can’t make out of all the elements on the periodic table,
这个表上的元素是否可以生成什么
and why some reactions are so explosive.
以及为什么有些反应会发生爆炸
To get good at science or math or just keep your mind sharp,
要学好科学或者数学 或只是想头脑敏捷
there’s nothing better than regular and fun problem solving,
最好的办法是定期思考有趣的问题
and brilliant has you & your loved ones covered.
Brilliant能帮到你和你的Ta
Go to brilliant.org/minutephysics
前往brilliant.org/minutephysics
to give somebody a gift of lifelong learning.
送给Ta一份终生学习的礼物
Again, that’s brilliant.org/minutephysics,
再重复一次 是brilliant.org/minutephysics
and thanks to Brilliant for their support.
感谢Brilliant的支持

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视频概述

化学元素周期表的花式改造,治愈你的强迫症。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Raven

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WLYukAH-eY

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