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社交网络的力量

Hacking into the power of social networks

你可能之前听过六度分离理论这个词
You may have heard of the terms 6 derees of separation before.
这个理论解释了每个人通过
This theory explains how everyone
六个人或者更少就可以认识一个陌生人
is connected to everyone else in 6 steps or fewer.
可是你知道还有个类似的理论
But did you know there’s similar theory
叫三度影响力吗
called the 3 degrees of influence?
这个理论是从持续20年的
It started off when a study followed
涉及5000名参与者的研究开始的
around 5,000 participants for 20 years.
此研究发现如果一个人开心
The researchers found that if one person is happy,
那么他们的朋友比常人开心的可能高出了15%
their friend was 15% more likely to be happy, too.
不止如此
But it didn’t stop there.
朋友的朋友开心的可能高出10%
A friend of friend was 10% more likely to be happy,
甚至到了第三个人那里
and even at 3 degrees of separation,
仍然高出了6%的可能
there was still a statistically significant increase of 6%.
从那之后 其它的实验也在
Since then, other experiments have found the same rule
不同的方面发现了同样的规则
applies for a variety of different things,
包括肥胖 抽烟 协同行为和孤单
including obesity, smoking, cooperative behavior and loneliness.
拿合作举例
Take the example of cooperating.
如果你对某人偶尔友好
If you do a random act of kindness for someone else,
那个人将会记住这个行为
that person will remember the gesture,
下次更可能去帮助其他人
and next time they will more likely to help others.
被帮助的那个人也可能帮助其他人
Then the next person will also become more likely to help someone.
这个过程很快就连起来了
This process quickly becomes a cascade.
所以 基本上 你的行为不止会影响你的朋友
So basically, your behaviors not only influence your friend,
还有朋友的朋友的朋友
but your friends, friends, friend.
一方面
On the other hand,
这意味着一个陌生人
this means that’s someone you don’t even know
也会微妙地影响你的行为
could be subtly influencing your behavior, too.
这些都说明
All this means, you should be
你应该对身边的朋友上点心了
very aware of who you hang around.
这并不是一个严格的规律
Now this isn’t a strict rule,
并不是所有的事都遵循三度影响力
not everything has 3 degrees of influence.
但是一般来说 一切都会在社交圈激起涟漪
But the general idea is that things ripple through a social network,
看到涟漪能荡多远是很有意思的
and it’s interesting to see just how far that ripple travels.
另一方面
On the other hand, what can you do
怎么样才能扩大你的社交影响力呢
to maximize the power of your social network?
这要求我们
Well, this requires us
审视另一个不同领域的研究
to look at a different field of research.
比如你要找一个新工作
So let’s say you are trying to find a new job.
利用社交圈的最好的方式是什么?
What’s the best way to use your social network?
大多数人会和合适的人建立稳定的关系
Most people will try to build stronger relationships with the right person.
我的意思是 你和那个人的关系越近
I mean the closer you are to that person,
你就越有可能得到帮助 对吧
the more likely they’ll be to help you out, right?
或者可能他们会询问他们的好朋友
Or maybe they’ll ask their good friends
是否知道有可行的工作
if they know of any job availabilities.
一般来说 他们会依赖强连接
Basically, they will rely on the strong ties.
但是实际上 是那些关系不怎么稳固的朋友
But in reality, it’s those who are least connected
更可能帮助我们
to us that are most likely to help us out.
这都是社交网络的形态决定的
This is all because of how social networks are shaped.
你肯定知道谚语“物以类聚人以群分”
You know the saying that birds of a feather flock together.
有人总结了100个不同的研究
Well, a review of over 100 different studies
得出结论这句话完全正确
conclude that this is most definitely true.
注意黑人与其他黑人交往的倾向
Notice how black people tend to hang around other black people,
或者你的朋友们都来自类似的背景
or how your group of your friends come from a similar background.
实际上 创造最强烈分歧的因素是种族
In fact, the factors which create the strongest divide is race,
接着是年龄 宗教 教育和职业
followed by age, religion, education and occupation.
另外 这个评论也发现
Furthermore, the review also found that
你与另一个人越不同
the more different you are from another person,
你们的关系破裂得越快
the faster your relationship will dissovle.
因此 社交圈通常是由
As a result, networks are often made up of
志趣相投的人组成的
clusters of like-minded people,
由熟人连接在一起
linked together by acquaintances.
社交圈之间的关系就叫作弱连接
These are called weak ties.
如果你
Now, if you go out there,
向强关系朋友求助找份新工作
and ask your strong ties for new jobs,
而他们和你类似
they’re going to be pretty similar to you,
类似的年龄 类似的背景 类似的视角
similar age, similar background and similar perspective.
因此 他们更可能
Therefore, they are more likely
和你掌握同样的信息
to have the same information as you do.
就此相比
Compare this to a weak ties,
你和弱连接的朋友没什么联系
sure you are not as connected to them,
你也跟他们合不来
and you don’t get along as well.
但是这意味着他们可能是另一个社交圈里的
But this means that they’re probably part of a different network,
他们可能来自不同的背景
they probably come from a different background,
因此他们更可能有新信息
and hence they are more likely to have new information,
比如在哪里找工作
such as where to get a job.
作为证据 一个研究发现只有16%的人
As evidence, one study found that only 16% of people
是通过他们的熟人找到工作的
found their job through a person they were regularly seen.
剩下的是通过他们不经常见到或几乎没见过的人找到的
The rest came from people who they only saw occasionally or rarely.
实际上 比起你经常联系的朋友
In fact, you are almost twice as likely
通过你几乎不交谈的人
to get a job from someone you rarely spoke to,
找到工作的机会高出了两倍
compared to someone you are regularly conntecting.
这个悖论叫作弱连接的力量
This paradox was called the strength of weak ties.
而且这个理论不仅可以用于找工作
Now this doesn’t just apply to jobs,
你也可以用这个理论找男朋友或女朋友
you can apply this to finding a new boyfriend or girlfriend.
很显然 如果你让你的好朋友
Obviously, if you ask your best friend
介绍新朋友
to suggest you someone new,
他们认识的人可能和你认识的人一样
they are probably going to know the same people as you do.
但是如果你向弱关系寻求帮助
But when you talk to a weak tie,
你就接触到了另一个完全不同的社交圈
you’re exposed to a whole nother network.
实际上 如果不花任何代价
In fact, with pretty much anything
就想散播消息的话
that involves the spread of information.
最好去找弱关系的帮助
It’s better to go to the weak tie.
所以虽然有亲密的朋友很好
So while it’s good to have close friends,
但不要忽视弱关系的力量
don’t neglect the power of weak ties.
因为他们会为你改变人生提供最大的可能
Because they offer the most potential for change in your life.

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视频概述

三度影响力 如何利用社交网络的力量找工作或女朋友?

听录译者

简单快乐

翻译译者

波妞妞

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_TxLVqAP1Q

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