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关岛:美国最偏远的领土 – 译学馆
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关岛:美国最偏远的领土

Guam: Why America's Most Isolated Territory Exists

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use the code wendover for 10% off.
如果你在不知情的情况下来到这么一个地方
If you were just dropped in this place withno prior knowledge,
你会以为自己身处何地呢
where would you guess you were,
是Florida还是California 又或者是Hawaii这样的热带地区
maybe Florida or California or Hawaii
但你一定不会怀疑这里是美国
somewhere tropical but this is definitely the US.
它看上去就很美国
It just looks like the US.
不管是从标志的样式 道路的外观
From the style of signs to the way the roads look to
还是公路旁排列的商店
the stores that line the streets,
你都能看出来这里是美国 但却不是Florida
you can tell it’s the US but it’s not Florida,
不是California 也不是Hawaii
it’s not California, it’s not Hawaii,
它甚至不在地球的这一侧
it’s not even on this side of the world.
这里是美国最偏远的一片国土
It’s America’s most isolated territory.
关岛
It’s Guam.
美国有五大海外属地
The United States has five inhabited territories.
分别是美属维尔京群岛 波多黎各 美属萨摩亚
The US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, American Samoa,
北马里亚纳群岛 以及关岛
The Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam itself.
关岛是其中距离美国本土最远的属地
Guam is the furthest of these five from the continental US.
距离华盛顿特区将近八千英里
nearly 8,000 miles away from Washington DC,
成为美国最偏远的国土
making it the most isolated.
北京 德里 开普敦 布宜诺斯艾利斯
Beijing, Delhi, Cape Town and Buenos Aires
和华盛顿的距离都比关岛距华盛顿要近
are all closer to DC than Guam is and yet
但这并不影响关岛作为美国成熟稳定的属地
the island is a fully fledged territory of the US.
它完全属于美国
It is the US.
千百年来
Guam has been inhabited
当地的查莫罗人一直居住在关岛
for thousands of years by the native Chamorro people
直到16世纪西班牙殖民者
until the 1500s when it was first claimed
首次宣告其成为西班牙殖民地
as a territory by Spain.
几个世纪后 随着美国在美西战争中大败西班牙
Centuries later, after the US’s victory in the Spanish American war,
关岛与波多黎各和菲律宾一道
the territory was ceded to the United States
被西班牙割让给美国
along with Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
除了在二战期间短暂地被日本野蛮占领
Aside from a brief and brutal Japanese occupation during World War Two,
关岛一直作为美国的领土 延续至今
the island has remained part of the US ever since.
许多美国人直到2017年夏天才第一次听说关岛
Many Americans had never even heard of Guam until summer 2017.
当时朝鲜领导人金正恩
That was when North Korean leader Kim Jong-un
扬言要发射弹道导弹打击关岛
threatened to launch a ballistic missile at Guam.
虽然如今威胁已经渐渐平息下来
The threats may have since subsided,
但那个夏天带来的影响并未消退
but the effects of that summer have not.
关岛的东西长和南北宽均不足30英里
The island stretches less than 30 miles from top to bottom
是美国所有州和属地中面积最小的
which makes it smaller than every other US state and territory
地方虽小 却容纳着超过十六万人
and yet it packs more than 160,000 people into that small size.
事实上 关岛是美国州和属地中第六人口密集地
In fact, it’s more densely populated than all but five US states or territories.
同时 关岛还是目前西太平洋岛群最发达的地区
Meanwhile, it is by far the most developed place in Micronesia.
更直观一点来说
To put it in perspective,
与关岛毗邻的北马里亚纳群岛
Guam’s neighboring islands, the Northern Mariana Islands,
同属美国领土
which are also part of the US,
人均国内生产总值是16800美元
have a GDP per capita of $ 16,800
而关岛超过35000美元
while Guam’s is more than $ 35,000.
基里巴斯 西太平洋岛群人口最密集的国家
Kiribati, meanwhile the most populous county in Micronesia,
人均国内生产总值是1500美元
has a GDP per capita of $ 1,500.
关岛是一个设在世界最贫困地区的
Guam is an outpost of the modern, developed world in one
世界上最现代化的 发达国家的边远居民点
of the poorest regions of the world.
不过它的地理位置
Its location though,
其实是它最宝贵的财富
is its greatest asset.
关岛的地理位置决定了它的经济价值
It’s economy exists because of where it is.
关岛到东京只需三个小时
The island is three hours from Tokyo,
到首尔和香港分别只需四 五个小时
four hours from Seoul, and five hours from Hong Kong.
隔亚洲虽近 但的确是美国领土
It’s close to Asia but it is still the US unequivocally.
在关岛 你看到的是美国牌照
You see American license plates,
美国式的救护车
American-style ambulances,
美国邮局
they have US post offices,
使用的是美元 当地有美国式的商店
they use the US dollar, they have American stores,
旅馆 美国国家公园 美国的航线
American hotels, US National Parks, US airlines.
关岛在这些方面和美国本土没有任何区别
There is no compromise on the Americanness of Guam,
这里就是美国
because it is the US.
星条旗在这里飞扬 这也是个吸引游客的卖点
They fly the US flag and for tourists, this is a draw.
不用花七个小时飞去夏威夷 也不用飞十个小时去加利福尼亚
Instead of flying seven hours to Hawaii or ten hours to California,
日本游客只需飞三个小时到关岛 就能满足到美国旅游的愿望
Japanese tourists can and do just fly three hours to Guam in order to visit the US.
这里的商场看上去
The malls which look identical to any
和弗吉尼亚 堪萨斯或美国其他地方的商场无异
in Virginia or Kansas or anywhere else in the US
深受亚洲游客的欢迎 因只需平时花费的一部分
are hugely popular with Asian tourists as they can buy American goods
就能拥有来自美国的商品
for a fraction of what they would costin Asia.
每年约150万游客造访这个16万人口的旅游胜地
About 1.5 million people visit the island of 160 thousand each year,
但是当地旅游业尝尽了导弹威胁的苦果
but what’s not good for tourism is missile threats.
“17年夏天 当美朝两国忙着搞军备竞赛时
” Last summer when they were playing who is missile’s bigger
我们却是那个受害者
we were the ones who suffered, you know,
那年八月份 关岛旅游业遭受了重大打击
Umm our tourism took a huge nosedive that month of August.
我们从来没有见过那样多的新闻机构
We never saw so many news agencies coming to Guam
那些从前甚至都不知道关岛存在的人们
from countries that didn’t even realize we existed,
因为金正恩对关岛的军事威胁蜂拥而至”
because all of a sudden Kim Jung Un was threatening the American territory in the Pacific. “
这位是本杰明•克鲁兹 关岛立法机关的发言人
This is Benjamin Cruz, speaker of the Guam Legislature.
据他所说 关岛的经济状况
As he said, the island’s economy
因为朝鲜的导弹威胁一落千丈
suffered immensely from the North Korean missilethreat.
关岛的游客里有许多是学校团队或者公司团体
Many visitors of Guam come as parts of school groups or corporate retreats
然而危机发生后 他们几乎都取消了旅游计划
and these groups in particular almost universally cancelled their trips.
“我们几乎失去一切 所有的日本游客都不来了
“We lost, I mean, almost our entire I mean all of Japan stopped coming.
除了那些新闻媒体
I mean,there everybody was afraid to come the only ones
其他的游客都不敢来这里了“
that were coming were the news media. ”
幸运的是 来自韩国的游客人数的增长
Fortunately, the effects were partially mitigated
能够稍稍缓解这个危机
by an increase in visitors from South Korea
韩国游客对于导弹威胁并不十分担忧
who were less worried about missile threats
因为这是他们生活的常态
since its a reality they live every day back home,
但是对于以旅游业为主的小岛来说
but for an island so centered around tourism,
被卷入政治斗争终归不是件好事
being dragged into politics is never good.
尽管是美国属地
Despite being part of the US though,
关岛在政治上的运作方式和美国其他各地并不同
Guam functions politically differently from every other part of the US.
本杰明•克鲁兹 还有另外14位参议员 是关岛法律的制定者
Benjamin Cruz, along with the 14 other senators are the lawmakers of Guam.
他们拥有和其他州立法者一样的立法权
They can legislate just like any state legislator,
关岛和美国本土之间主要的政治上的差异 在联邦政府层面上
but the main political difference for Guam is at the federal level.
美国法律在华盛顿州制定
All the US federal laws,
面向全国
the ones made in Washington for the whole country,
在关岛同样具有法律效力
all those laws apply in Guam.
但是关岛居民不具有投票权
What Guam doesn’t get though, is a vote.
关岛的议会代表
Their congressional representatives
没有投票的权利 因而
don’t get a vote, so by extension,
关岛居民也就无法参与对联邦法律的投票
the people of Guam can’t vote on the laws that apply to them.
另外 不同于同样在国会无投票权的华盛顿特区
In addition, unlike Washington DC, which also does’t receive a vote in Congress.
关岛和其他美国海外属地
Guam, along with the other US territories,
不能在美国总统的选举中投票
is not able to vote for their president,the US president.
这个问题不仅仅是美国民主方面的小缺憾
This presents an issue not only because of the lapse in democracy,
也是因为许多美国法律仅在美国本土行之有效
but also because many US laws that may make sense for the continental United States
而不适用于地球另一侧的遥远的关岛
just don’t for a territory on the other side of the world.
“我们希望吸引更多的游客来到关岛
“We’d like to be able to invite people to the island
并且企业不用担心
and industries that and not have to worry about whether or not
美国证券交易委员会 联邦通信委员会对此的限制
SEC would approve it or the FCC would approve it.
我们希望能够拥有领空自主权
We’d like to be able to have control over our skies,
能够邀请航班飞经关岛 而不用经过联邦航空局
so we can invite airlines to fly in without having to clear with FAA
对航班往来许可的正式批准”
on whether or not this airline or that airline can or cannot fly.”
外国航空公司获得美国领空飞行权的过程
The process for a foreign airline of gaining approval to
往往漫长且繁琐
fly to the US is often long and laborious and there are
还有大量针对性的安保及入境原则
a number of special security and immigration rules for flights to the US.
对于大型洲际航空公司
This isn’t a problem for large intercontinental airlines
比如墨西哥航空公司 加拿大航空公司来说 这不是麻烦事
or Mexican or Canadian ones for whom flights
因为飞往美国的航班占据了他们市场的一大部分
to the US represent a large part of their market,
但对于亚洲地区的小型航空公司来说
but for small regional Asian carriers,
他们可能只是为免于获得美国联邦航空局的批准
they might pass on flights to Guam just
而放弃飞往关岛的航班业务
to avoid having to gain FAA approval.
《琼斯法案》是阻碍关岛的另一因素
Another issue for Guam is the Jones Act.
这项法律禁止外国建造 拥有或经营的船只
This law prevents foreign built, owned, or operated
在美国港口之间载运货物或乘客
ships from carrying cargo or passengers betweenUS ports.
这在美国大陆可能说得过去
This may make sense within the continental United States.
因为国家不会希望外国航空公司运营国内货运航
Just as you wouldn’t want a foreign airline flying domestic cargo routes
不会允许外国航运公司
you wouldn’t want a foreign shipping company
接管休斯顿到查尔斯顿 西雅图到奥克兰的货运航线
taking over cargo routes like Houston to Charleston
但关岛的情况不同
or Seattle to Oakland, but Guam is a different story.
货船通常会在航线上停留多站
Cargo ships generally make many stops along their routes,
所以一艘台湾船只的航线
so it would be perfectly normal for a Taiwanese ship,
从奥克兰行驶到夏威夷 驶经关岛 大阪再到台北 是完全合理的 但却不合法
for example, to go from Oakland to Hawaii to Guam to Osaka to Taipei,but it’s can’t.
因为这属于在美国港口之间运送货物
because then it’d be transporting goods between US ports.
而只有美国船只才能从美国本土运输货物到关岛
instead,only US ships can bring goods from the US
这也是关岛大部分物资的来源
where most of Guam’s goods come from to Guam.
美属萨摩亚 北马里亚纳群岛等其他美国领土
Other US territories like American Samoa
得以免除这项规则
and the Northern Mariana Islands are exempt from this rule,
但是关岛仍然受到它的控制 这使得途径关岛的航运成本大大增加
but Guam is still subject to it which makes shipping to the island more expensive.
尽管美国政府的要求带来不少麻烦
Despite the issues the US federal government may cause
关岛人民却并不急于与之划清界限
the people of Guam are in no hurry to distance themselves from it.
“我认为如果你去问岛上的大多数人
” I think if you were to ask a majority of the people of the on other island
他们会希望与美国更加紧密地团结在一起
they would like to have a closer union with in the United States
有些人甚至想要国家地位
and some may even want statehood, I mean,
我是说 事实上 他们中的大多数人都希望能被法律承认”
I mean,In fact, a majority of them would like to see statehood. “
从许多方面来看
In many ways,
关岛是美国最爱国的地区之一
Guam is one of the most patriotic areas of the US.
美国军方在二战期间
The US military free Guam
将关岛从日本的野蛮和致命的占领下解放出来
from a brutal and deadly Japanese occupationduring World War Two,
许多年长的居民仍然记得这一点
which many of the older residents still remember.
并且 年轻些的居民 往往也都在为美国工作
The younger residents meanwhile, quite often in work for the US.”
“这个岛上的几乎每个家庭
Just about every family on this island,
我可以打包票
I’m sure almost every family on this island
至少有一个家庭成员在军队服役”
had at least one member of their family serve in the military. “
关岛每8名居民中
One out of eight residents of Guam
就有1名有在美国军队服役的经历
serve or have served in the US armed forces.
它的征兵率比美国任何一个州都高
It has a higher enlistment rate than any US state,
但这得益于该岛的四分之一是美国军事基地
But this is help by the fact that a quarter of the island is US military bases.
关岛是美军最具战略价值的军事资产之一
The island is one of the US military’s most strategic assets.
不可否认 美国在日本和韩国有很多基地
Of course the US has plenty of basesin Japan and South Korea,
但关岛毕竟是美国的领土 距离所有可能的冲突爆发点
but Guam is US soil less than four hours away from North Korea,
朝鲜 中国东海和中国南海
Korea the East China Sea and the South China Sea
只有不到四个小时的飞行时间
all possible flash points for US conflict.
美国军方是关岛最大的财主
The US military is the single largest employer on Guam
关岛的经济依赖于军方
and its economy depends on the military.
虽然近期关岛旅游业可能受到了影响
While tourism may have suffered recently,
但军事行业还是状态良好的
the military business is good.
预计在今后十年 驻扎在关岛的军事人员的数目
The number of military personnel stationed on Guam
将增加一倍不止
is slated to more than double in the coming decade
这无疑将刺激经济的发展
which will no doubt stimulate the economy.
值得引人深思的是
This doesn’t come without concern,
关岛地方虽小 但是综合考虑多方因素
Guam only has so much land, but all factors considered,
关岛在蓬勃生长
Guam is on the rise.
关岛确是一个独特的地方
Guam is truly a unique place.
许多国家都有远离本土的领土
Plenty of countries have territories far away from their mainland
但很少有地区能像关岛这样发达并与本土保持如此高的相似度
but few are as developed and as similar to the rest of the country as Guam.
如果关岛就在美国大陆的海岸附近
If Guam was just off the coast
那就不值一提了
of the US mainland it would be totally unremarkable.
那就只是美国寻常的一处罢了 但是关岛远离美国本土
just another piece of the US that looks and acts like the rest of the US, but it’s not.
它在世界的另一边
It’s on the other side of the world.
关岛曾是殖民主义的遗址 但如今它已是一个繁荣发达的地区
Guam is a relic of colonialism but today it’s a thriving developed place.
虽然法律 政策方面政府对待关岛与本土有不同
It may not get treated like the US even by its own government,
但除此之外 关岛就是美国
but in all other ways, Guam is the United States.
关于关岛 还有一个方面本视频没有涉及
One aspect of Guam’s story that this video didn’t cover
那就是他们正在努力发展当地的小型企业
is how they’re trying to grow their local small businessess
以使经济能够更好地自我维持
in order to make the economy more self-sustaining.
这也是Squarespace在做的
Squarespace also helps with this.
他们帮助小企业打造
They help small businesses make what was previously
从前只有大公司才能实现的
only available for huge companies a great beautifully
设计精美的专业网站
designed professional looking website.
小型企业不一定要是实体企业
Small businesses aren’t necessarily physical stores.
不管你做的是什么 摄影、播客还是youtube
Whatever you do whether it be photography, podcasting,
只要你希望能赚到钱 你就是在做一门生意
youtubing, anything you hope to make money from
所以你得要人们能发现你
is a business and so you need to make sure people can find you.
如果你和我一样
If you’re anything like me,
要找什么东西的首要途径是互联网
the first place you go to find something is the internet.
你就会知道拥有一个好看的网站是相当的重要
so it’s absolutely crucial to have a
因为这是它给你的第一印象
great looking website since that’s your first impression.
拥有漂亮的的设计模板 可为网站创建者个性化定制
With their beautiful designer templates, customizable website builder
全天候为客户提供帮助 价格合理
fantastic 24/7 customer support and reasonable prices,
Squarespace绝对是您创建网站的
Squarespace is absolutely the best
最佳选择
place to build your web presence.
最棒的是 你可以在Squarespace .com/ Wendover
Best of all, you can try out Squarespace for free
免费试用Squarespace创建网站
by going to squarespace.com/ Wendover
然后当你准备好运营它的时候
and then when you’re ready to launch,
你只需要在付款时使用密码wendover
you can get 10% off
就可以得到10%的折扣
only by using the code wendover at checkout.
Squarespace给与了本视频大力支持
Squarespace is a great supporter
使得这样在关岛拍摄
of the show and makes ambitious videos like this,
制作宏大的视频成为可能
which was filmed on location in Guam possible.
所以 请起码在squarespace.com/Wendover上观看这些视频
So please do at least check them out at squarespace.com/Wendover.
还有 看到最后的朋友们
Also, for those of you still here,
我还想提一嘴 在我的个人频道里有一个幕后视频
I want to mention that there’s a behind the scenes video
关于来自《Real Engineering》频道的布莱恩
on my personal channel of Brian from Real Engineering,
和来自《Real Life Lore》的约瑟夫
Joseph from Real Life Lore and myself filming
还有我自己在关岛拍摄的视频
this video on location in Guam.
感谢您的收看
Thanks for watching and we’ll see you again in three
我们三周后 下一个Wendover平台制作的视频见
weeks for another Wendover Productions video.

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视频概述

关岛—美国最“孤独”的国土,太平洋里面的沧海一粟,究竟缘何能成为美国一大旅游胜地、军事重地,又有哪些独特之处呢?让我们点击视频,一探究竟!

听录译者

慕橙

翻译译者

世界末日女朋友

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5r90DYjZ76g

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