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从塑料袋里孵育出小羊

Growing Lambs in High-Tech Plastic Bags

如果你关注科学新闻 可能会看到一些有些科幻的图片
If you pay attention to science news, you may have seen some sci-fi-looking pictures
在塑料袋里有一只皱皱的发育不全通体粉红的小羊羔
of a wrinkly, underdeveloped pink lamb in a plastic sack.
上月这些图片在自然通讯杂志上与一项研究一起发表
These pictures, published with a study in Nature Communications last month, are of something
图片展示的就是生物袋
called the BioBag.
这一技术未来有望帮助孕育早产人类胎儿
This technology could someday have the potential to incubate a premature human fetus until
造福世界
it’s a little more ready for the world.
换句话说 它就是人造子宫
In other words, it’s an artificial womb.
费城儿童医院的研究人员研发生物袋试图
Researchers at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia developed the BioBag to try and
挽救不足28周婴儿的生命 有的甚至早于22或23周
save the lives of infants born anytime before 28 weeks, even as early as 22 or 23 weeks.
早产婴儿面临一系列的并发症 他们发育不全的小肺更是尤其处于危险之中
Premature infants face a host of complications, but their tiny, underdeveloped lungs are especially at risk.
在子宫里 胎儿漂浮在充满复合分子的羊水中
In the womb, a fetus floats in watery amniotic fluid filled with a bunch of complex molecules
羊水助于发育
that help its development.
通过脐带获取氧气
It gets all the oxygen it needs through its umbilical cord
脐带与母体循环系统相连
that connects its ciuculatory system to its mother’s.
大约进入24周 交换氧气和二氧化碳的肺部结构
Around 24 weeks in, the lung structures that swap out oxygen and carbon dioxide
也就是肺泡开始发育
called alveoli, start developing.
但是还没有足够的肺泡用于正常呼吸
But there aren’t enough of them for normal breathing yet.
所以如果早产婴儿吸入污浊干燥的空气 发育不全的肺泡可能会
So if a premature infant takes a breath of harsh, dry air, the immature alveoli can be
劳累过度出现伤痕 导致慢性肺病
badly overworked and start to scar, which could lead to chronic lung disease.
这时就可以使用生物袋
That’s where the BioBag comes in
这种一次性的塑料袋系统被设计为了把刚出生的胎儿
this single-use plastic bag system is designed to dunk the fetus in
在几秒内浸入人造羊水之中 将肺部与空气隔离
lab-made amniotic fluid within seconds of delivery to keep their lungs away from air.
并且能够在氧气和人造的
It’s also designed to provide a connection to oxygen and a lab-made
脂肪 糖 氨基酸和矿物质所组成的混合物建立连接
cocktail of fats,sugars, amino acids, and minerals that get pumped in
因为心跳和运动 这些物质能够通过脐带输入婴儿身体
through the fetus’s umbilical cord by its own heartbeat and movement.
模拟自然子宫环境满足所有的生长需求
This mimics the natural womb environment to keep up with all of their growing needs.
研究人员在发展阶段用这一技术测试了8只早产羊羔
The researchers tested their technology on 8 premature lambs at a stage of development
其发育程度相当于23周大的人类胎儿
similar to a 23-week-old human fetus.
小羊羔们在生物袋中待了4周 这是研究人员根据动物机构协议
The lambs stayed in the bags for 4 weeks, because that was how long the researchers
能进行实验的最长时间
had permission to run the experiment, according to institutional animal protocols.
他们认为羊羔还有可能继续发育
But they think the lambs probably could’ve grown up more.
利用生物袋早产羊羔继续发育长大 长出羊毛
Using the bag system, the premature lambs matured, getting bigger and growing wool.
实验结束时 研究人员进行仔细分析发现
At the end of the experiment, the researchers dissected them and found
它们大脑 肺部和其他器官都能正常工作
their brains,lungs, and other organs looked to be in working order.
生物袋的动物实验仍在进行 存在许多问题需要解决
Animal trials of the BioBag are still ongoing, and there are plenty of things they still want to iron out.
例如 实验中所用的人造羊水解决所需电解质 也就是
For example the synthetic amniotic fluid they use for the study with a simple solution
溶解带电物质比如盐和磷酸盐
of electrolytes, meaning dissolved charged substances like salts and phosphate,
但是真正的羊水中维持发育的分子更加复杂
while the real thing has much more complex molecules that support development.
也就是说从受精到分娩生物袋不能完全替代真正的子宫
That said, the BioBag is not, and won’t be, a replacement for a living womb from beginning to end.
它只能保护胎儿度过最后几周
It only keeps a fetus going through the last few weeks.
生物袋看上去不得不承认确实有点恐怖 研究人员试图
And while the bag system admittedly looks a little creepy, the researchers intend to
更加逼真并且测试它怎么照顾早产婴儿
make it even more womb-like, and eventually want to test how it can care for premature human babies.
可能挽救婴儿生命更加激动 但是我们也正在学习运用到成人身上
And this is maybe a little less exciting than saving infant lives, but we’re learning a lot about adult bodies too
比如锻炼时不小心撞到墙了会怎样
like what’s going on when you “hit a wall” during exercise.
耐力型运动员尤其是长跑运动员和自行车骑手更懂这种感觉
Endurance athletes like long-distance runners and cyclists know the feel.
就像你正在享受着惬意的游轮 突然撞上了一堵砖墙
You’re cruising along just fine, until suddenly, it’s like you’ve smashed into a brick
和Wile E. Coyote 一样
wall, Wile E. Coyote style.
你的大脑指挥肌肉运动 但是肌肉不听指挥
Your brain is telling your muscles to move, but your muscles just don’t wanna.
杂志细胞代谢的新研究发现肌肉的分子能解释原因
And a new study in the journal Cell Metabolism has uncovered molecules involved in
并且有可能用于治疗
why this happens, and maybe a way to stop it.
撞墙与从人体中获取的能量多少有关
Hitting the wall has to do with the amount of energy available to your body.
人体通过两种方式利用能量
Your body makes use of energy in two main forms
碳水化合物上的化学键如糖类和淀粉以及脂肪
the chemical bonds in carbohydrates which are sugars and starches, and fats.
身体通过这些化学键提取能量 也就是我们所说的消耗能量
Your body breaks those bonds to extract the energy, which we colloquially call “burning”.
脂肪储存能量而糖类消耗能量 两相抵消
Fat has more energy stored in it, but sugar is easier to burn, so it’s a trade-off.
不同的人体组织消耗的能量不同
And different body tissues fall on different sides.
肌肉消耗脂肪获取能量 通过糖类尤其是葡萄糖获取的能量更多
While your muscles can burn fat for energy, they use sugar, specifically glucose, a lot.
身体其他部位特别是大脑需要一定量的葡萄糖维持运转
And the rest of your body, especially your brain, needs a steady level of glucose to keep working too.
当你撞到墙上消耗过多的葡萄糖时
Hitting the wall happens when you use too much of the readily-available glucose.
大脑会下达指令“等等 我已负荷
Your brain goes, “Wait, hold on; I’m outta gas here, and I’m gonna need you to stop,
命令立即停下”
like moving, right now.”
为了弄清原理 一组研究人员就一种名为PPAR-δ的蛋白质进行实验
And to figure out how this happens, a team of researchers has been experimenting with
这种蛋白质协助体内的能量管理
a protein called PPAR-delta, which helps our bodies manage energy.
许多组织内都有发现 在肌肉组织帮助我们提高耐力
It’s found in many tissues, but in muscle it seems to help us build endurance.
通过基因工程改造 去掉老鼠肌肉组织里的PPAR-δ
When mice were genetically engineered to not have any PPAR-delta- in their muscles, they
无论如何训练 老鼠都没有耐力
couldn’t build endurance no matter how much they trained.
然后给老鼠注入一种药品GW 转换肌肉里的PPAR-δ基因
Then, the mice were given a drug called GW, which causes the PPAR-δ- gene in their muscles to switch on.
这些未经训练的老鼠比起它们没有服药的沙发土豆朋友们
These mice were capable of running on a tiny little mouse treadmill with no training for
竟能在小型老鼠跑步机上多跑两个多小时
nearly two hours longer than their couch potato friends who didn’t get the drug.
研究人员说这是因为PPAR-δ对与新陈代谢有关的一系列基因产生了作用
The reason, the researchers say, is that PPAR-delta affects a bunch of genes involved in your metabolism.
储存葡萄糖时它主要能加快肌肉里脂肪的消耗
Basically, it ramps up fat burning in the muscles, while conserving glucose.
大脑不会觉得负荷过重而产生意外“撞墙”
That way, your brain doesn’t feel like it’s going to run out and “hit a wall”.
所以研究人员承认有些运动员受诱使用药品激活PPAR-δ
So the researchers admit that some athletes might be tempted to activate PPAR-delta with drugs
而不是长时间的训练
instead of spending a whole lot of training
但是药品如GW对年老或有慢性疾病无法运动的人有疗效
But, they say, a drug like GW could also have therapeutic possibilities for people who struggle
我们仍然需要进一步的研究进行确定
with exercise because of age or chronic disease, but we still need more research for sure.
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谢谢众筹网赞助本期视频制作
patrons on Patreon who make this show possible.
如果你想帮助制作此类科学秀,进入patreon.com/scishow
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视频概述

塑料袋能孵育出小羊,你相信吗?你想了解人造子宫如何帮助早产胎儿吗?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

风吹桃

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lO0mEU8YgW8

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